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3 1833 01178 9531 





j OF 


' I-FJilGIf. :\tONR01s CARBON. 





ICL.S OF Ll'ADlNCi i.Vl.N'lS, IM'IUiNTS, /..Nj) •'N.l> f- I.M LMi 
I'At; l".S IN THE KAKi Y HIS I XdlV i;l' TillilSK CUUN I It/. 


j Compiled from varioua aulhuntic sources 

BY I. DANUOL Ul"!'!'. 
I Author of " Der Macrtyrer Uouchiclitu," " Ho I'aa.i Ekklesia," ice tiC. .Vc. tn: 

I rublish 1 auii iold 

j BY G. iin.i,.s, I'KOi'rn. rui{, j.anca.sti:k, pa. 

i llAIJPfolilJUCi: 



1822004 if.d ill ilu; <id",<c ol tlie Cleik of the Di^ilrict (./uvi u! 
Eii.-hT.i l>;M,i I ul' iVniisylsaiiiu, ill IH'll, 

JJY U. 'KLl.S, I'lJOl'lUE'l'UK, 

111 C()iih)iniit> ,i;l \.i A 't Ol" (:oiiL;icohi, ciilillcil " Au A.; K, .u 
'l.c si;v ,-:i'l All,- ii s[)L-cliug Copy liijjlit.',." 

1' REV ACE. .. ,.-,,.„., 


' I (^ VVhkn local cveius aiul mciaeiits arc iiiorged in \\... 
JJ^J yeuci-al history ol' ;. coiiniry or nation, it would l.o .. 
1 ' - fruitless attempt to ^ive caiibcs, and notice ellects, ai.-i 
( I at the same time preserve^ a consecutive chronological 
arrangement ol' lac I... Tins may he; done in re-uLj' 
j ■;: history; hut it ca.inot, in a local history, svitlioiil 
\ V iuuchampliru';ilion,:ind llic introduction ol' that whi.'ii 
1 ' is apparently irrelevant. All that the writer h;;. 
j '.aimed at in this compilation, \vas to emhody in a 
|\X convenient form, the prominent events, leading in( i 
I "\ dents in the early and continued liistory of thcMi 
la \counties, without regard to strict chronological order . 
topographical descrii)tion of townships, towns, vil- 
lages, &c. How fiu- this has heen accomplished, is 
left to the candid r.adef to say. Nothing has hee.i 
h.'ft undone on the ^ art i^i the compiler, to collect ma- 
terials of a hi'.-iorf ai and topograi)liical character, an.i 
arrange theui ir;ewrding to the best of his judgmei,:. 
Touching da- ni.ui..r Usell contained in this booi., 
i1m- >/riter Itei^Luaos );oi to confess, that liis clain:;. le 

origiiiainy^ rac none of the strongest. CircinL:-ia!n .i 
as he was wiioii preparing this work for pioss, lu' 
had toa.'ail hinibvlf of the labors of other.. 11;, > 
time Was too reslrieted, and his means very uiinl 
hmited lo niiike extensive personal observations, iuia 
colled nr,itt:i ds while makinga li)ur of the^.cii- 
Tliose \,lui eonld iiave done more within tlii^ t.iii;;, 
and \» id> d.i' same means, shonld make the ui.ii, \'. 
satisfy iliem^i Ives Avhat can be done in thi\ UAiy, k. 
lire brief sj lee '•' c>/" Icn (/(/t/.^ in a cou/tlh.^' \\ 
honesty o{ \> ,i-[n)sc and indnstry conld ahmc f u ine 
want of tinit-, dn'ii the writer wcniid offer thes_, ni i . 

Only a few months ago, he commenced his > wii.jM 
lalion ; and aS he was, in the short spate -if i a w 
months, to luve copy ready for press for a I miIc .;; 
43'J pages, (lulefore, anxious not to fail m hi;, o.i) 
tract witli the jjubHs/ier, to have it ready by die 1. 1 
of Novembei , 18 1 I, he prosecuted his task 'iiii ;di 
possible assitiiiity and despatch; nevertheless, h< aM-d 
to trace facts .u their sources; and these, it i- ei/i. 
lidently believed, are authentic. 

Passing over some delects, the reader will u .idii;; 
grant thai ihv. writer may, at least, lay claim lo ihe 
merit o{ bt li;- a iu'ihi'ul and laborious cou/piie/ 

Tie v;ouhl hen; frankly make an avowal .d' ih-' 
source,, i.- wbii ii L'e chieUy repaired for cun:i ikait'i'., 
viz: Tiie lM>JS. I'.ovincial Records, Report;^, L. m;i ■ 

ill the Oilice ol llio v'-^jcrotary of State at Ilarrisbuig, 
! the votes of A.-r-.: inl'l/, Loskiel's Jlistoiy of the Mo- 
ravians, lloclct'uela: .'s Narrative, Crautz's Brueder 
' Gi'scliichle, Si):'i!g;niherg''s J.ebeii, Hazard's Register, 
j (Gordon's Gaz. Ce ,»< Pt'nn.sylvaiiia, Day's Historical 
j Colhctioii, J)uul;(p';> Liiid Clayiiool's Daily Advertiser, 
; Hall and Simu,i'''. Peiiubviv'aiiia Oaxelte — besides 
I many ulliers t.-)iiec i ii the liody of tlie \v.)rk. 

iNumorous aic Itiu woiks di'awii from, and the au- 
thorities referred to. Ami now to those who may h el 
dis])osed to sUL'g(;SL that the c()tn])ilcr lias ma<h; ;. 
l;oolc from the labors ol" olhcrs — "for we fnid all this 
in a inimhcrol' vohmics" — he would Ijeg leave to rt 
mark, if they ^ll;ill \.v jil. asod to think that they 
have lound the \ii!'^!a ncc cj Uiniiij InHil.-s'm (his com 
lulalion, lie shall eon..iilei it iIk,' highesl encomiinn 
thai ean h(' {-as^ed uimn it. 

Tiiose who may think it an easy tasi; to compile 
a work hke this, are referred to experience of ihi.. 
kind, as e^xpresscd by another. Major Wiirunii, 
Stahlc, who has wniten a pamphlet of nearly two 
hundred pages, entitled " T/it Dcscrijitioii of the 
Jionjui^h of Jicadi,!^-,'' says : '■ That the execution 
(ji' his design was n. i free iiom di/henlly, may be in 
ferrcil fiou'i the { ,.:\, (hat it was muierlaken niany 
months ago, airi la- i;uen lu-oseeuted with umemitteh 
diliyenct: to iN e,' .< !'t iiioment. It was the gathia 
inu d" the uu.f.j'i'il iluu gave me the most trouble ' 


Well inigliL .he v/iiter be allowed to complrai., I . 
colled liUi'. )'ials,aiid })i-epare a book, ofboiv, ecu li. >: 
and ^ix liiiiidied luiges, for, in a tew aiohilr-' 
gavelum luiicli tiou])le. In view of these dni^uiilli': 
attending Jii.; comi-ilation, ho would clann tl.u ijidi I 
genco of il,.: readci- — and with thuso facts, hci ., ; lui.i 
the g(jwd h .Hired (lilic, it is believed, will ha'-i ■'.ii,: 
comiJLi.s-siOii ii]ion the conipilci', and r(;meni:ii' th ■, 
^'1)1 hii.utcfLL..'i siiid l//ii'o/l/iO?/t//icn/iei/cn.^' 
]jAKCASTi:i\, Jtinuar}/, 1815. 


The tbllowiiig should have been noticed in speak ■ 
ing ofEaston. Th^re was also an Indian treaty h.l.l 
at Kaston, Janiiai'y ,!(>, J\ — JM-hruary 1, b, 1777, be- 
tween Coniniissiom ,s in In^haifot" the United State., 
and a number of li.lian ('hi(;lis, in Ijchalj' oT tlie Si\ 
Nations, and iheii <.anred(,'i ales, held in the (lerniat; 

Present, liie \loa. (b'oi-e ^Valton, and (ieor-. 
TayK)!-, I\s(|., AbMiiliis of Con-iess ; C.'l. Lowryaml 
Col. Cumnnyhain, liom tln^ Assendtly of tiie Slate of 
Pennsylvrania ; ("ol. Jkdl and Col. i)ean, Members ( i 
tlie Council of Safiiy of tin; Slate of l\!nnsylvania 
Secretary otthe (,'ouunission, Thomas Paink. 

'I'he foUowiiJtJ^ were the Indian Chiel's; 

Kayugas — Taa.^imili^ or Iving ('harles. 

S].:ni;cas — I'modutih, or tin; bii^^ tree. 

MuNsiKs — MytdliUtahu^wvAkiw^ on foot. 
/\(t/i/U(h, Jilanding by a tree. 

Nantikoki;s— . ? .?(//i//(/. </, raising any tiling U|i 

Kanois — f(ul(!k/'n(>, or king lasl night. 

Iutei]a.:ie(\ Tiiomys (rKKEN',a IVToliawk 


iUM'l'l'Ai I. 

Introduction; Sv^des seille; William Penn borr. , 
l*enn obtained u clii.ler; (irat settlers .sail for AnitriCa; 
Penn follows; accesi-Kjn of .settlers from London, llollam'. 
(•erinany, <^c. ; I'eiui holds confereiu^LS willi the Indians ; 
purchases tlitir land. ; IN nn returns to L'ln^dand ; Pen;; 
agaiu in Penn:iylvanKi ; reluins airain to l-ng!and; Penn ■ 
death ; number of Indians in Pennsylvania on Penn's an. 
\al; Iicnapi, and oihcr In ! .;iib ; (•erinan.-' 
WcUhand liK-li arriv .—[k 1 — f). 


'I'uE Germans ; r,ernrian Quakers settle at (ierman 
town; Frankfoil land company ; Clerman inunigrants. froi' 
I70l» to 1720; Dickn son's remarks on the Ciermans ; iit\- 
nians from the Palatinate, and from 1720 to 1725 ; ittn' 
1725 to 1710 ; their iharaeter aceording to Dickinson ; fro'.n 
1740 to llCi^; INeul;;; ndar ; liedemptioners ; from 17f»:i iJ 
i75ti; Germans used as Make- Weights ; Wharton's Mfc:>3 
concerning the (Sernians; (Germans luunerous m NoiU 
ainpton, Schuylkill, ■< c. — p. G — 12. 


The WfiLst* , d.; ii -.;hatacler; influential al an early (hy , 
l'homa.s Llo; d ; the vVehh had early purchased of Wd- 
Ham Penn ; 'i,,M. nun, ber increased ; their cusioms ; Wiiih 
111' er;i ; li.jiiiv Weldh i.-i\\c in 1099; few Welsh »t(d. d 


in Northrin.ptoi. ; many Welsh iii tlie coal regions ; i trJ . 
prayer in Wcl-h. — p. 13 — 15. 


The Lvisii . unit; ol' their immigration to Penusyl, .Uiin , 
principall) i'n-!.: the nurtli of [relauil ; i*arliameiit a.<, (tija' 
to pre vent ihi.f einigiaiiua from Ireland; tax impu; -vcl on 
iheni by i'../ A ;;-i;uibly ; character of the Scotch Irish , Irisl;. 
settle in N(:i-lh,''^pton county ; Craig's settlement; ii.un '■ 
of first ■•au;.- , lalcly many immigrated into Si'li:iyll,iil 
county ; i t.rd ; : lay^ r m Irish. — p. l(i — 18. 


Erkction oi [Nuui II '.Mi-roN County; Ponn ois;:;.iji. . <, 
several counties in ]*)«;>; Northampton erected; ( ttncr; 
l>om records of <()ial ; petitions for tavern license, n uncs 
of the first Crand Inciiieat; Su[)ervisois ; Constables, town- 
ships organized prior to 17*);^, mills before the ui.iii\. 
erected. — p. 17— 2IJ. 


Present Limits, Sic. ov the CotiNTV ; linuf-! \ i:. , 
number of acres; physical appearance of the county , i.inis 
Gap; Wind Uap, l)elav/are Water (iap; Delaware Ti'.'r. 

p. 21— ;{o 


Easton, EarLi HisTOiiY OF, &.c. ; Raston ; council lulu 
at Easton; one m July, 1756; another in July, i'57; 
another ni 175H ; another lu October, 175i); another in 
17(51 ; Easton inc;irporated ; taverns, stores, mamiiaciorir;'; ; 
churches; newspapers; liigh water and loss of pin|vTty; 
fresshet of lb 10. — p. ^0 — 58. 




,:V 0. 'i'ouNsjiips ; Upper Mount li. i, 
Willi .11. '■'lui^ ; Dills Ferry; Lowa "!'■' 


Bethel; IviL'liiiiOii 1 ; I'MaifiL-ld ; AlK;ii township; KreidL,.-> 
ville ; ll;uit rituvi! , Wl-.u cisljuig ; Nelighsville ; Pbiri- 
iu'hl towns!, ij.; I:' llville ; \Vanlsl)urir ; Jacksonville; 
Lehig-li townshii) , B^rliiiville ; Cherryville ; Moore tow!:- 
ship ; Keriit \ Hi^ ; l\ U'ckiiersville ; Saiicon township; lli.l- 
levstown ; llnn^vi ■ luwn.ship ; Williams township ; «oi.i!' 
l''.abtoii ; tli'i I cli. li works; South ll.i.sion i'urnaci; ; 
Gliindoii ir(jii woil.i; Williamsport ; Ikishkillo townhlii;; ; 
Jacob^l)urg ; i'Vik-: Mwnbliij; ; .SlockersvilU; ; Lower l\a/;,- 
rcth lownsli;|- , 1 !■. .:kloxvii ; Newburg-; lJ|)|)tjr i\azar>;L 
tov^nslup; j\ :,' .r. li. , 'I'hi.' lJo-(;; liiihlcluni lov, )irrl,.^> ; 
Fre.eniansburg ; liru li'hrin ; l-'riuden-llufil'-'n ; nuuibur ci 
jnteresting lutlrrs, A'( . — ji. o.s — lo<). 

<:il aTTER IX. 

|ji;iiKiii Cou.NTV ; I. cliiL'h county ci-(;ctc(l in 1812; i.c 
high, or Leckhaw ; (,(:hi;di Water (iap; nuiidier of low r,- 
ships ; exlraci iioni eoiat lurorils; iirst (iraiid .luiniv, 
I'ries' opposition to ti.\ collectors ; Fries' tiial. — p. J(.l>— - 

i.'llAI'Ti;iv' A. 

Toi'UGRAPHv OF 'J'o WNsuii'.s ; llanovcr township ; Bier} ' 
Port; liittersville ; Tleideli)ero- township; Segersvillr ; 
(icrmansville ; North Whilehali township; Siegersvillc ; 
Snydersviile ; Kenisville; Slate Dam; South Whitehall 
township; 1/iuii townsliip ; liinnville; New Tripoli ; Jack- 
sonville; liOW lldl to.vnship; (Mausville, ; Upper Macuiijv ; 
Foglesville ; Trexier. town ; JiOwer Macunjy ; Millerstown ; 
Hrcinigsvillo ; Upper .Mill'ord ; Sidieimersville; Dillingers ; 
Weiseiiburg townslM,; ; iMount [feasant; Upj)er Saucuii 
township; Freystowii ; Salisb\iry township; Emaus ; 
Northamptou tviv/nsbip ; Allentown ; freshets at Alleiitown ; 
UehighPort,— p. IM -UL 

oil AFTER XI. 

IMoNKoi-; FuijNiv >)ko.vmzi:i), Alc. ; Monroe coun' 
en led; Suojd iov/.^ hip, Sirondsburg; Fort Ilamillc '. 
\. :. iirous lloiul i S.'eiihheld, or Lower Smitliekl lownahip 


Dulotsbui-,^' • (:i.:^'b ^Jea(lo\v; Branchville ; li'ppiu. c- 
Miildle Smiil.ii.-lu lounaliij) ; Indian massacres; CooririUfTh 
township; iNnoic\'ille ; Spruce Cirove ; JSaxville ; 'i'oby- 
luuHia tuwiisiiip ; (heat ^:;waM)p ; Pokono township ; Bar- 
lonsville; 'J'an i. rsviHc ; Oheslnuiliill township; iloss 
township; \Viiiil (iaj); Ivnnkiesvilie ; Hamilton icvn 
.ship; Snyili/iVili',- ; ]\.lKrsvill ; Founersvillc ; Saylor^vilic, 
p. M5 — iSU 

(-llAP'J'KIi XII, 

</AKnoN <>ij jv Mrlltki), »tc. ; Act for croclu.:; of 
county; extracts from records of court; first (iiand Jltoi.; , 
Attorneys at the ursl court; pliysical appearance > ,' ih'! 
I uunty ; i)Oun(h\rj y ; principal streams; Ijcliij^li n\ ;, i'-. 
.scenery, etc. ; n.u'.derof lownships.— p. IHl — 1H(>. 

ciiAi'ri:j{ xiii. 

Tok'aoKAi'iiY Oi 'J'owNsiiii's ; iMauch ('hunk lownhliip ; 
Mauch Chunk; I.lauch CMiunk Hold; Puhhc l)uihh:,o,- ; 
Maiicli (Ihunk immnliin; discovery of coal; Lehir^K co:,l 
and navi'ialum conijiaiiN ; raih'Oads ; J-ausanne; lNi'iH,i- 
hoi'.in<^ ; Laubanne Iviuiisliij) ; Lawrylown ; iiOcl;poil; 
(diflon ; I'enn Haven ; Deaver Meadow; Hazelton ; l;;,:-I;s 
lovvnship ; I'enn I'orcsl townsliip; Upper Ton amt;ri.sip.^ 
township; Tarrysville; \Veissport; i'"orl Alien, OiiNew i 
(tnaden Hoellen ; 'I'ippciy's Hood, or Hood of '8(5 , runi ] 

l)er of interesting' letters relating to Fort Allen ; l.ovf:. i 

'I'owamensing townshij) ; the (lap ; l'>ast l*enn townil,!,!; | 

Mafioning township; Hurlinglon ; Lehii;hton ; Soutl) l,t • t 

liighton ; (Jilbert ;.nd family ahducted. — p. IHG — 238. 

CHAP'J'FJi 1. 

.Siriiuvi.K'iL CovNi).- Mukctbd ; 'J'nlpehocken 1 ...K , 
jtetilion til crec, lu ilvs ; iveadingtown ; Act of March ilih, 
175'.;; Scini3'li.dl couiily erected cut of IJerks and r<'(uih- 
amplun, M.-ich it, Hill ; extracts of court record . .'. t 
t>rnoy.-! ali.i'.lci ,il ilic hrsi eonrl ; townships; coiia\ 1 l^.-. ; 
' 'cMvA Jcrois — p. ■.Ml— 'MH. 

CHAl'TEli II. 

TopociRAPiiv, <<. ., 01 . TowNsiiii's; East Itrunswi. k 
townsliij); I'dit CinUon ; Maiilieiin township; 8cliiiylk;l! 
llaveti; Bi-aial .o',m;-,Iiii) ; Miiiersvillc ; Llewellyn ; Lowiv 
Maliaiitaiigo louii r.p : H.aiy iown.slu|); Vu\c (Jiove town- 
ship ; Pine Giir/e; Swalaraville ; Rush township; lluiiifi, 
I'atlerson ; 'J'.iscarura , Tamaqna; Schuylkill township: 
Lonishiirir ; LVhuylUll valley; Union township; Ifppc; 
Mahantan^o l■■•vvll^ hi,) ; '/iaiuiermanstown ; Wayne town- 
ship; iM-ieikr. i'iiin • West IJrunswiek township ; Orwij.v 
huifT; Melveaii:-iu,'i',' -: l/,iiiJisville ; West IV-nn lownshif. , 
Norwe<rian lowLbliiO ; i*.)Usville ami vic-inity ; John l\tiv s 
father, Wiihelni Poll ; names of first settlers about Pou'-' ; 
early history of Putt-ville; Pottsville in 18 42 ; in 18'29 : i.i 
1830; in 1831; prr .eiii .-^lale of Poltsville, public; bnihlin^'. 
L^c; freshets ai poll- ville ui 1831 and 1811 ; PortCarb>in, 
Irishtown, Phoatlsi iwn, Lawlonlown, Acretown avil 
Young's AcKliiinn ; ( "()a(iucun-ic ; St. Clair ; Coal Ua^ i.b- ; 
Mackeysville.— p. 'J iH— -^1)7. 


History oi- (\)\), if.; Early history of coaU u.y. 
engaged in the coal enlerprizc ; William Morris; Colonel 
Shoemaker; small openings made in 1813; improvemenis 
in mode of mining, 1823; iMill creek railroad commented 
in 1820 ; Schuylkill railroad ; Norwegian and Mount Car 
bon railroad; Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven railroa.l : 
Eittle Schuylkill railroad; total of railroads prior to 1833 ; 
amount of anthracile v-oal ; amount sent from the several d;.- 
tricls, from 1820 to 1841; number of steam engines em- 
ployed ; Patliii's coal breaker ; improvements in machinery ; 
freight on coals, i^c— p. 21)7—330. 


Coal Ruci im ind Mis'ing Operation in Schuyi.k i.i 
IN 1844; 0-lgiii '.nd fuvmation of coal; Schuylkill (.od 
lieid; coal joiuiiig ; Schuylkill valley district ; the'i'L.'Ca- 
rora collieries; Behnont collieries; Kinsley's coUieri u ; 
I'ii'eman's coiheries; IJreu's collieries; Thompson 4': 


Peiinmau"; coliiL.ies ; Patrick's collieries; the Mim. IliU 
C()lliel•ie:^ ; l.ick i;iu collieries; Kinsley's colliery; Wil- 
liams' aiid Di.v; j' colliery ; Silver creek collieries ; ihu 
Union coUieric .s ; lielmont collieries ; David Richard'.s col- 
liery ; rii/iiuuicii's colliery ; Hendersons colliery; .la.Ti.-_- 
Berry's colliery ; the Belfast colliery ; Heebner's coiliurv ; 
the Juncti.)': cJlieries ; Bolton &L Co's collieries ; I'oit 
Carbon district ; die Salem collieries ; Mill creek di.>uicl ; 
Itonaldson's coii'cry ; Kainbow collieries ; Sillynuin it 
Kvan's e;"i'ii. ry ; Pinkeilou's colliery; Mammoth ci.iiioy. 

p. '6o() — ;;hi). 

i^aiAPTER V. 

Education; Cjiiiniou schools; Prediger und Schiila t i.v 
ter in one person ; hclicmi dl' instructiiiff (iermans, .Vc. lU 
1751 ; iirst incini. ts (jI' ihis society ; school eslabli-lu il iiii- 
der this seluuie ;ii New Hanover, New Providence, Jxtuding. 
Lancaster, YorK, ilasion, ttc. ; Easlon free school in 1755 ; 
contributors towaiua ihu free school; Layfayette College; 
conrseof iiihtnu i.oii ; K ciurLS ; terms of admission lO the- 
collei^fc cb.-Hi-s ; i ^amiiiaiiun ; expenses ; the model ti[.>!oi : 
scniiiKuirs of r\; Mill ill and 15cihlchcm ; common . ■i.ii 1 
system. — p. ;{8() -10;i. 


A JounNAL or Jamis Yolng, C'Ommmissary (ion'!, jVoiii 
June 19, to June 'Mi, 1850; A Journal of Capt. John Van 
Etten, at I'orl Hyndshaw and Fort Hamilton, tic. from 
December 1, 175i), to July 21, 1757; Col. James P.r.vd'r 
Journal, who vibii. d a number of h'orts in 1758. — p. 105 — 


FiiAGMEXT o;- A Jolirnal, detalingthc "doings" iii .I'ni 
about Foit Nui!' Kill; Teedyuscung ; Religious i.-.i;' 
p. 461. 




Scarcely two centuries have passed by since the 

lute man held any pn-sessions among the red men oi 

!ie woods, withni tlie iJmits of Peimsylvania. A little 

nore than two hinidiv;! yi-;irs agu, the Indians held a 

overeign right it; the >o]\ ol" Peimsylvania; and tlarrc 

i^as none beside his uwni I'orcst brethren, in all the. 

irilds, glens, vales antl muimtains, to molest or distnrl) 

liai in his ixMCi'lul alMjdes of the extended ''Si/lva/iic..''' 

u the priiirress ot'tiine, liowever, the Swedes came ami 

tiled within llu; liniiis (if Pennsylvania, ahoul the year 

(j;?8 — they pmcha.>ed lands at ti eheaj) rale, from llie 

lulians in ami aliout Tinicum Isle, wiiich afterwards 

iccame the seat of government of the New Sweden colo- 

iy;foras early as 1642, John Printz erected there a 

pacions mansion, well known in history as Printz' Hall. 

lere the Swedes lield possessions tiU 1()55, when tlie 

[)utch subdued them, and brought them under the jmis- 

lietion of Peter Stuyvesant, (Jovernor of New Nether- 

aiids, who, however, in his turn, was soon afterwardt; 

;oiiqu<;red by Charles II. of England; and New Nether- 

aiids, named New York. Thus, the settlements made 

jy the Swedes, and held a short time by the Dutch, fell 

jito the possession of ihe l'.;ia:lish in \0G4. 

In J']m-o|)(!,a -jaiii ef lehgioiis ])erseeiition caused ma 

y an aehiiii; heait to yearu alter a place of peace and 

■pose ;, m .;'i)e(li{,u,c h> the dictates of conscience, 

le Aliui;rhly mlghl he v. li/shiitped wilhoul an im]»i.u;s 

lie, idn by "1 iU ijei'.'.ejii tin; homage of man and 


his Crnaior. At this time the founder of Pennsylvaa. 
on account ol' his reUgious seiithnents, siitfered niLici.> i 
this way ; aiid m order to escape j^ersecution, a. id t-i ) 
tablish a col. my for the oppressed of all denoiiiiiiati.,!, ; 
turned his eye tiiion the western world. 1 

William r«.-i.n, was born in London, Octoher lu, io ] 
grandsou of Giles Penn, and son of Sir ^Villi;ull PiJi. i 
Admiral of the English Navy, availed him.-. Hol i' 
claims la. iia'J upon the liritish Government, uii .ccou e 
of the emine.a services his father had rendered d,u eou < 
try, petitioned King CharKis II., thai, in lieu di a ijr I 
sum of money, sixteen thousand ]»ounds, dur il'' .^di. \ 
ral, at his dcalli, to g-rant him letters patent lor a Uarl, i 
land in America, " lying north of Maryland ; ci ,iic ; . ' 
bounded by iJelawtire river; on the wosl,limil( ii as M 
ryland •, and n>Kthward, to extend as far as pl;i';r:d)!e.' ^ 

Pcnn obtain* d a charter from Charles II., dated ^ ! 
Westminster, IMareh 4, 1(381. Having now !■■ lm. s •'. 1 
proprietary of Pennsylvania, he made sales oi' i;>h(i . i ' 
adventurers, called first settlers, who embark<'d. ^.av.i ; ■ 
London, otluM-; at Pristol, in ItiSl, lor Amcri/.i. ard ;:. ) 
arrived ai Upland, now Cliester,on Deccmher 1 I i\;ii 
with many of his friends, chielly from Sussex, J'iighiiit li 
sailed for America, and landed at New Castle on (he 2~. 'I 
October, 1(J82, where he was received Avith dc'uonsiu .' 
tionsof joy, ]\:nn went to Upland, where lir ci.cwir . 
an assembly, l}.:c. 4lli ; and in a brief session of three day 1; 
enacted yeverai important laws, one of which wis an a^ 
to naturalize tin; Dutch, Swedes, and other lon.igiiors. 

Tlie same ye ir th.U I'cun arrived, there was quite .. 1 
accession. Thi; two next succeeding years, scLilersiru: i] 
London, lirisiol, Wales, Holland, Cerniany, ice . arriv.' 
to the number c/f 50 sail; among these were Cei niaji Qr.. ; 
kers from Cre.-.lnjim, near Worms, in the Palatin.i le. T': . : 
banks of the Delaware were one Inistling scia,!' — .-.tii;. 
lodged in tlie v/oods in hollow trees, some in ca . "s. whi( ^i 
were easily dug on ihe high l^aiiks of ihe Wissab'.:l:on a', d 
the Deh'.wa rC; ,.iid others in liaste erected hut ' '\ 

' Proud II, ii-JO 

l:<fli01)UCTI0N. ,•; 

To do justice, oecuie the smiles of the Indians, and lo 
meet the approbatioii of Heaven, Penn held treaties ol 
jieace and friendship vilh tlie tawny sons of tlie fore/;t. 
and contracted x^^ttli them for their lands — this done, ha 
proceeded to lay out ;"! city, by the assistance of his sui- 
veyor. Gen. ThuKu.':- Itohne. Eighty houses were elect- 
ed, the first year, ni Philadelphia. Next was a survey 
of lands for tlie frsl set tiers. This having heen coni]>lei- 
I ed, th(3 proprietary, 'n 1G82, divided the cuuntry into ti\r, 
\ counties — thresh in the territory of Delaware ;, 
I New Castle, Jvi'nf, ;,i;d Siiss'(!x; three in the province of 
Pennsylvania; namely, Philadelptiia, Bucks, and Chest( i : 
tlie first and last, embracing all, and nmch more, of ih,- 
land witlnii the jneseiit limits of Berks and Lebanon. 

Penn remained but ,i .,hurt time on his first arri^^al ; i.e 

sailed for Europe, Au_nist 16, lti84,leaving the province 

under the governmeni of Hvc. commissioners, chosen fnrm 

llie Provincial council ; however, previous to his de|)ar- 

ture, he made a leagn.; ui" amity with nineteen Indian 

hiations, between theai and ah the Enghsh America. 

hi Ui!)9, Penn again \ isited the colony, and remamc i 

only till November Isi, 1701, when he returned to En^'- 

land, where he died, July 30th, 1718, at Rushcomb, near 

\ Twytbrd, in Jiuckinghamshire, aged about seventy-four 

I years, in 1712, he hud been seized with some fits of thf. 

K apoplectic kind, whici; for the last six yenrs of his Inc. 

[had i-endered him incapable of doing public business. 

'* When the Swedes first arrived, and settled on th; 

\ shores of the Delaware, and when the landed w 

^ 1G81, they foinid a numerous race of Indians, who me; 

[ the w/iite strangers in a IVicndly manner ; and when tbu 

\ following year, IVilliain Penn, witli his train of j)aciii" 

\ friends arrived, he was also hailed with afiection, an. I 

treated as their Miquci or elder brother. 

At the time of Pemi's arrival, there were not less t}i;i!.. 
ten native tribes in l^cjinsyivunia, com])rising about six 
thousand in numli 'r : rhtj^e, however, formed only a por- 
tion of the Indi -i.s iiili;ibiliiig the country hetween \\\ - 

I IN'l'llODUCTION. ,^' 

ginia and Canada; tliosewho were principally .seaUici > 

die Delaware, were the Lenni Leuape, and were co\i4; 

dered th.j graiidfathers of near forty tribes. Tlic oilu ;^' 

were the Mi>r.;:we, or usually called Iroquois, wlio ii 

habited (ho more northern portion of the United States | 

The Iroquois were also divided into numerous tribes. ; 

Accordiiig 10 po})ular tradition, the numerous vn\:u:t /. 

the Delaware and Iroquois, trace their origin to ;■..■.' 

sources. The traduious, as handed down by di.::r •■.[ 

cestors, run tiiiis: The Lenni Lenape, or, for brevity ''i 

sake, " Ia tirpr'' nx-aniiig The original pci'pL. weii- :.:'' 

unmixed and unchanged race, residing, many ceauur^w 

ago, towards the setting of the sun — somewhere in ll| 

ivat of ibis (ciilincnt. For fc,ome reasons, not exj'la'; - i; 

llKiy deturmiia'd to migrate towards the rising .M'tby >\\m 

After their journeying tlavy arrived at the Fish i:i>J) 

the Namasi Sijxt, (Mississippi ;) liere they i'Ai u\ vui. i 

nation, also in ([uesl of a new home castwanl-— iho-| 

W(ne I he Mengwe, or Iroipiois, as they have sna.-e I- >f 

called. They here united their forces, antici]-:.L!;i..' i'i| 

j»(».sitioii fioiii I |)et)])le uf gigantic form, and >. i.o|..;i(;.i^ 

lace, the Alligewi, on the east of the iMi^MsNi|;^c, "n' ': 

many days alter dieir union, before they advai.:'. !. m;^ 

ny and nnglily battles were Ibught — the Alligewi U) '■<: 

(•ai)e tolal extermination, abandoned the country w> r!,:j 

\n:'A.,\Ac u^-'Tlfj: Ncia Union'' lied tar south \v:i id. ■b-l 

never returned. The victors now divided die ■, .^ 

die country was shared oiU among diemselves — tli<' Ir . 

ipiois made choice of the north — lands m the vicini;/ •; 

the i^reat lakes-, and on their tributary streams; ih ■ /.!, 

nape took possession of more southern parts, wia i- ili^'j 

hved in peace for in. my years, till tlie Fairo|»e\'i;;s ■ av. 

"Idle LenajU! ; or, as they were called by die F.iiro; . 

ans, iJfhncarcs, wen; divided into three tribe s -die / O.., ; 

/ni'i, or Tmde ; th ; IVunalachl ikus, or Turku/ : ai. i u 

.4///^s^ .1- \'.'.u!'. "The i1//;rS'/, or i\[onceyN, d.e /e..;. 

'A.irlike )i'il.';- ihr 'c tribes, inbabiied a com.iiy iha^ ■■■ 

lenils iVooi the .Miiiisink on the Didawarejo ih.illi' i j 

oi, ilie'.'Al, le liie SllS(plidianiiah on du m. • d' >/i- 1, '• ■ 

die. head \vi|:.|-; !' the |)(d;t\vare and Siisqin Il,!,ij..'. ■; •: 


vers on the iiorlh. nud . . tliat range of lulls now known 
^ 111 New Jersey by .lie .;unie of Muskenecum, and by 
[those ot Lclngh and Coghnewago, in Pennsylvania- 
1 he Monceys einbvaced a number of subordinate inbcs 
I who were known by na.nes deri\^ed from their residence' 
iorsome aceidentul eucuuistance. Sneh were the Sns-' 
i quehannas, Neshauiines, Coni.-,loffas, and other tribes m 
I the province of PcMisvlvania. 

^ Shortly afiiBr t L . .ni..d oi William Pemi, a number of 
Germans, Welsh, Iridi and otliers, immigrated to thu 
provinces ; many ,, descendants are to be found 
withm the counties ut vliieh iL is intended to give a his- 
tory. 01 these, something will be said, before entering 
u))on the historical pan id' this work. 



The Germans, who first emigrated into the I'lui:. ■ ' 
of Pejnisylv;:j:ia,canio chielly for conscience' hal.j"; ; tbr.'-ei 
who aji'i\ t)(l raalatrr period, came to improve Ihcii i ■ i 
poral, a:-: \V( II as tlieir spiritual condition. T^^T ).j- i - 
names of the liisl (German emigrants, except a few oT iii':: 
German Quakers who came in witli Penn, are pres'-^r^. ■ i' 

Among the very first, wliose name has hei )i hand' :il 
down, is that of ifenry Fry, who arrived two y.u'j s 1 j 
fore WiUiam renn. His widow was sti)l livin- in 1 7 i i 
One Platenbach came a few years later, t In ]G8.?, ..j 
considtn-ahle number came from Cresheim — the.-:e ■"." 
principally Quakers. They settled at Geri-iaM,. m 
About the year 1G84 or '85, a company was f .iii.M-.l i 
Germany, calKul the ''Frankfort Land Coinpaiiy/ 
sisting at first of ten gentlemen, living in FraiiK-ftn, o 
the Mayne; their articles were executed in thai cily > 
the 2 1tli of November, 1G8(3. They seem to liave h. < 
men of note by the use of each of his separate se;-.!. Tlie: | 
names were G. Van JNIastrick, Thomas V. WylicL .1 Li! 
Le Bran, F. Dan. Pastorious, John J. Schuetz,' 
Behagel, Jacobus Van JJewaller, John W. Peiersoii. J;;j 
hamies Kimb( i, Balihasur Jowest. They bought 25. ■■■•I 
acres of land fiom Penn. Tlie Germantown pai.-^nt lorj 
5350, and the Manatauney patent for 22,377 acres. T.I 
D. Pastorious was ai)pointed the attorney lor tbe coh.(.i I 
ny, and after his resignation, Dan. Faulkner was, in 17061 
made attorney. | 

In 1708, 1709, 1710, to 1720, thousands of fii.;m en.i^ 
grated \Ai(t were known as Palatines, becaus.; ihi^y liad^ 
come froiii die Palatinate, whither some hadl)'0u fox i.f^ 
to flee from their homes in other parisofEuivpe. Iviaii;,jt 

' ii-A. N>ich. j Ibul. 


ofthesehadgoiL-fijst to Enc^land on the invitation oi 
Queen Anne, at v/hose bounty, not a few were trans- 
ported to America. Hundreds of them wer& gratuitously 
lurnished witli religious and useful books, before then- 
departure, by the Kead Anton Wilhelm Eoelim, Court- 
chaplam, of St. James. Tlie principal book was Arudt'^i 
Uahres Christeiubuni. Among these German emigrauf'; 
were Mennonites. Jjimkards, German llefornied, and 
Lutherans. T'k u niiriber was so great, as to draw tl- 
remarks Irom Jin.-., hoyan,. secretary of the province ^I 
Peim.sylrania, in 1717— • W'c have,'"' said he, ^' of Uur, 
X great unmlicr (,/ l\i,,,tin, :, pomcd in u].(jn ns witlu-nr 
r any recommendation or notice, which gives the country 
some uneasiness, for fn-eiLmens do not so well amon^-- ir. 
as our own Engli.bli jt.-oplc." 

In 1719, Jonathan J) remarks, <•' We are daily 
expcctmg ships from i.muhm which bring over P.alatines 
jn nmnber abt)ut six or ,s(;ven thousand. We had a ' 
eel who came out about five years ago, who purchased 
land about sixty miles west of Philadelphia, and prove 
qinet and industrious. Some I'cw came from Ireland 
lately, and inoiv am CAiuMird lli.ncc.- 'I'jns is besid.-.s 
'Jur c(nnna)n supply irom \Vales and England. Our 
iriends do increase mightily, and a great peojde there i.s 
lu the wdderness, which is fast becoming a Iruitful field " 
From 1720 to 1725, the number of Germans irom the 
1 alatmate, Wurlenberg, Darmstadt, &c., increased ; thes.- 
settled prineipally m wliat is iMontgomery, IJerks, and 
^ Lancaster county. Those who came in between 17!J(i 
and 1725, were accompanied by ministers of the gospel 
and some schoolmasters— among the German Reformed 
was iiev. liochm, who had come in prior to 1720, and 
Kev. George Micliael Weiss, who came subsequent to 
1720. Among the Lutheran ministers were the Kev. 
Inilckner, llmckel, and Stoever. Their schoolmasters, 
lor the want oi a suj)p]y of ministers, read sermons aiut 
jH-ayers. Among the Duokards were the Rev. Pete. 
Uecker, and Alexander Mack, as ministers. 

I • The 

!<; Uic .\J. iiiiouiies in Peijuea valley. 


nc ifivi; 


In the pen.xl between 1720 and 1725, a i,i;i:il 
Germans eniigTated from tlie State of New Vurli 
settled at Tnl} eliocken. Of these, a detailed accom 
be given when sj>eakiiig of Tul])ehocken town hi| 

From 1725 to 1740, there was anotlier gruai 
German.s of various religious opinions, German 
ed, Lutheraii., CaUiolics, Moravians, and Swru 
arrived; of 'lie latter, a particular account wi'l 
Avlien sp'jaking of Hereford township. It a]j]i .rs. ." ' 
a letter written hy James Logan, in 1725, tli ^t iiMU'y , 
the Gecnuins" were not over scrnpnious in th:ii ';';:i]!i 
ance witli tlu: r^'gnlatiijus of tlie hand Ollicii. lit- 1 1_ 
and perhaps with mach truth, '"they hi, i: 
crowds, and ns bold, indigent strangers from (rcrni; i.;; 
where many of tliem have been Sijkliers. Ai; [hesr u' 
in the best Vacant tracts, and seize upon then: us pk'>0(. 
of common spoil. He says they rarely approach liii/i ■. 
tlieir arrival to ])roposo to purciiase ; and when tliey an 
sought out antl challenged for their riglit of .i^cvrpu.^^y 
they allege it was ])ablished in Europe that \\ '■ v.'a.,:i,, 
and solicited for colonists, and had a sui)cral«i ndai.. (, i\ 
land, and, therefore, tliey had come without lln; :i. i 
to ])ay. The (iermans in after time endiroilt' 1 v.'iili .i i 
Indians at Tulpehocken, tlu'eatening a serious ;uTair. Ij 
general, those Mdio sat down without titles acijM 
enough in a lew )^ears, to buy them, and sc^ a-^'mi 
they wore leii mniKjlcsted. 

The character then known to him, lie states, are ui 
of them a suriy people — divers of them Pa})ist > — die nii', 
well armed; and, as a body, a warlike, morose ract 
1727, he states that 6000 Gernrans more are cxpec.v.J 
(and also many from Ireland,) ami these emigraiion 
hopes, may be prevented in future hy act of ]'ai-]iai! 
else he fears Those colonies will, in time, be 1 jst to 
crown ! — a faluro act. 

"In 172'.;, he speaks of being glad to observ ; li o iii 
of strangers, as liktiiy to attract tne interferem . of j\'u 
ment ; tor truly, says he, they have danger h) u\'\)rd'V':^ 
for a country where not even a militia exist', lor govL'-ri 
ment .sripport. To arrest, in some degree, iii' i;'.'; 


the Asseinlily jiassc J a fax of twenty shillings a head ou 
new arrived ycrvaiil.". 

"In anotlier letter, he says, the numbers from Gernx:i- 
ny at this rate w'A\ soon produce a German colony here 
and })erliaps sucii an. :ine as IJritain received from Saxo- 
ny in the 51h century. Ho even states,as among the ai^prc- 
hended schenur, .)l Sir William Keith, the former gover- 
nor, that lie, Ihuia;id and Gould, Iiave liad sinister pro 
jects of formiiii'^ :iu in iependent province in the west, m 
the westward of ih.: Germans, towards tlie Ohio — prol-a- 
bly Avest of the riiuim'ain-;, and to be supplied Ijy his 
friends among d; ■ ]'\!aiii:i-^ and Irish, among whom -./as 
his cliief popularity ;a that time. 

''From 1740 to 1 7 ')i3, emigrants came in byhuii(h'( Is 
During this period a iaimher of Moravians and Swenclc-- 
felders arrived, and ,;. Itled, ])rincipally, within the [Ui;- 
sent limits of Norlhai,i|)ton county and Lehigh. Of these 
a detailed accomil will be given when speaking of those 

"In tlie autumn of 1719, not less than twenty vess-.l;., 
with German ]iassen;.^ers to the number of twelve thou- 
scmd, arrived at Phihididjihia. In 1750, 1751, and 17v?, 
the number was not much less. Among those who eini- 
grated in the years fr )m 1740 to 1752, there were maiiy 
who bitterly laineuted that they iiad forsaken their honus 
for the Province of Pennsylvania. At that time there 
was a class of Germans who had residetl some time in 
Pennsylvania, well k'nowii by the name of Neulacnde.i .^ 
who made it their Imsiness to go to Germany and ]> re- 
vail on their countrymen to sacrifice their property, aiid 
embark for America. In many instances, persons m eayy 
circumstances at home, with a view to better their con 
dition, came to America, but to their sorrow found th;u 
their condition was rendered none the better, but in nu- 
merous instances worse, if not wn'etched. Others again, 
who liad not the nieiins of paying their passage across 
the Atlantic, were, on thr^ir arrival at Philadelphia, tx- 
posed at public auelioii to .serve for a series of yeais t'> 
pa}^ their passage-. '1 hose, (bus disposed of, wiav; i> r.n- 
ed ^! de/zLjAioHcra. '1 lie Palatine Uedemptioners \\oi<' 



usually suid aui.ii ijouiids, for from tliree to five year 
s-ervjludc. Many or iheiii, after serviug out thvii- titf. 
latthtuUy, brcahji;, liy iVui^^ality and industry, soim; ofllu 
most wealthy and inlluentiaJ citizens of the State, Tl 
years that wore ]M>culiarly remarkable for tlie iinpovc:,iU.i 
of Palatiu.: U.'(i<'iiij)iiuiier.s were, 1728, '2.9, '37, ' Jl, -\5o 
and ^51. Of t;.,^ class many had become men of wcahi, 
and mlitience m th.-ir day, and whose desce]idri;i{s a,,. 
among the nrst m society, as to mtelligence, weahli and 

, " '" ^■"' '■ '^i'-'" '' «^iy 'il"uit the year 1753 to 1 TiC;. ij,.:, 
ijermanshavn.;; !juc<aiiiujinnerons,and therefore [.o^' ■] 
tul as ?)ia/>v>w(/\/t/s m the jxditical balance, wrr;- .upn^ 
noticed Jii the iMd.licaiions of the day. They -yrrr. .t 
liiat ])eri()d of ume, m gcaaa'al, very hearty co-(),i;' 
with the Qual.-cs ,m- Friends, then m c(msi<ler,d Ir fl,- 
m the Assembly. A MSS. pamphlet in the Fr;i,j.-|,f. 
Ubrary at J^hil,Mdel]diia, supposed to have l>een o'n'eM 
l-y Sanmel \VhaM(m, m 17.55, shows his idea. ,,r if- 
passing events, saying, that the party on the side (,( (|,, 
I' nends derived much oi' their inliueiice over |i , (ict 
luans,^b d:e aid of (\ Sauers, who publish. ,, a ( !m 
luan paper m (i.TmanU.wn, iVom the time of IT-!', n | 
which, belli- mu.d, rea.l by that people, inflneiicrei ihem 
10 the side of the Friends, and hostile to the (Jovor.'or 
andcoimcil. 'J'hioiioh this means, says he, they iia'v 
persuaded them ihat there was a desien toeirslav wliem • 
Jo eniorce then young men, by a cmitemplaled i.:iliii,, 
law, to become s,>idiers, and to load tlicm doxvu with 
taxes, &c. From such causes, ]ie adds, have they . oe,e 
down in, shoals lo vote, (of course, many from Noih^ 
;unpton,) and cairyin- all before them. To this 1 m vv 
says Watson, and, that [ have heard fi'om the rl.r iJ 
amily, that their ancestors in the Asscunbly were warm- 
ly patromzed i)ythe Cermans hi miion whh Friends 
Ills alarms at ibis (ii rman inliueiice at the ))oils, ai^d 1 i. 
proposed nM,..|ie,f.r die then dreaded evils, ,-s jp.y 
show the p.- :valeMf n,;lings of Ids associates in ^.olitics 
7''V"'''''^ ''' ■""' - ""^ present generation, tie, says 
'lie best eln;ris (ii these successes of tlie (ierm-ie wiil 


probably be fell thiough many generations! Instead ol 
a }jeaceable, iiiLlustrious people, as before, they arc Viow 
insolent, snilea, and turbnlenl ; in some counties tbieai- 
ening even tlv.: lives of all tliose who opposed their views, 
liecausc they aj-e taught to regard government and sla- 
very as one aiui the same tiling. All wlio are nui oi' 
their party, tl^.cy cdl '• Guvernor\<i ■/nc/i," and tiicjii- 
selves, they deeui siroiig enough to make the cour.iry 
llieir own ! Inikr.d, they come in, in such force, say up 
wards of 50(jO in Un; last year, I see not but they may 
soon be able t'. ;iiv(; iis law and languacre too, ur rise, 
Ijy joining tiio I'riuru, cjj.t all the English, 'JMiai d;is 
may he ilie case, is too much to be feared, for almo.\L lo 
a man tliey refused lo beai- arms in th(i time of tWc fite. 
war, and they say, a is all one to them which Icing :;Ois 
tlie country, as dicu' i.'slates will be equally secure. In- 
deed it is clear that ibti f'riMich have tin-ned their ln'])t'^. 
upon this great i)od/ of Germans. They liope to alliue 
them by grants of (diio lands. To this end, they .^ nd 
their Jesuiti(-al L-mis-aiies among them to persuade tl,( in 
over lo the IViplsli it'leMi-n. In courert with this, li-^ 
Frcucli I'or so many' yi'ai.s have encroarln'd on oor j iu- 
vince, and are now si) near Uieir scheme as to be wiiiui 
two days' march of some of our back settlements'' — al- 
luding, of course, to the state of the western wilds, o'.er- 
run by French and Indians, just before the arrival ot 
Braddock's Ibrces in Virginia, in 1755. 

'• The writer (Wharton) inrputes their wrong bia-. ii 
general to their "stubborn genius and ignorance," wl.itli 
he ))roposes to soften by education — a scheme still sug- 
gested as necessary to give the general mass of the in- 
land country Germans right views of public indiviibial 
interests. To this end, he proposes that faithful l-'rea. s- 
tant ministers and sclioolmasters should be su])|)()fo,cl 
among them. Tb.M (heir children .should be lauuht the 
English tongue : die government in the mean time si. aild 
.suspend thoir riglit of voting for mendjers of Assemhiy ; 
and to incline 'iiem the sooner to become English io <Ju- 
cation and reeling, v/e should compel them to malvC all 
1». J i and oth'ir lei;:d writings ui English, and no i.e \/S' 

12 rnbi'Oivy of X0RTHA]NrPT0N countv. 

paper or almauac be circulated among them iiu); :.., [a: , 
accompanii'd hy the English thereof." 

''Fmally/' the writer concludes, that '• Avithom .M-iia 
such measure, I see nothing to prevent this provm.e iVo,r 
falling mto tiie Innds of the French." 

]3etbre and from the Revolution of '76, German:, , n;, 
grated from Europe, and settled in those parts of rem 
sylvania— niiie-ienths of the early settlers in Norrhnnip- 
ton and Schuylkill counties, which eml.)raced, at their iii-^- 
organizatiou, rdl Uiose counties of which it is inopj-c:! 
to give a hisioiy. 

Since \82:], mony Germans, principally miner- i;:i'; , 
settled in the coid regions of these counties. 



In the very iiicipii /u stage of the first settlements maai^ 
in the PruvincL', iiiocy Welshmen arrived in Pennsylv;,- 
Ilia. Tliey AVCi.\ ot sterling worth and of a most exc ;1- 
lent character. '■ Tliey were," says a certain writer, ..f 
the last century, " X liardy, active, hospitable and kiirh 
hearted people — only a little hasty and qaarrelsonK;." 

Among the most iniluential, at early day, was Tinjii i- 
Lloyi), one of J^enn'-. Depiuy Governors. He died ii; 
K) 94, aged fifty-four years, llis father, siays Proud, wns 
a person of fortune, rank and esteem ; of an ancient ib- 
mily and estate, called Dolohran, in the North of ^Val^'^. 
Thomas Lloyd, the hue Deputy Governor, was educati-d 
in the best schools; from wliicli he was removed to iL . 
ITihversity at Oxford ; whcri;, it is said, he attained coii- 
siderable [)roficicncy ; and being endowed with good iii- 
tural parts, and an amiable disposition of mind, he .a • 
iracted the regard and esteem of persons of rank and 
figure, and was afterguards in the way of considerable, 
preferment hi the world ; but being of a sober and rt;ii' 
gious way of thinking, he joined witli the Quakers, a, id 
renounced all worldly considerations, for that peace of 
mind, and real mortal lelicity, which he believed to o^^ 
the elTect of true religion ; and become a highly esteemed 
preacher in that Society. In consequence ol' which, hav- 
ing sulfered much unmerited reproach, ])ersecution an-l 
loss of property, in his native country, he afterwards le- 
i, anumg the first or early settk-rs, 
;m l\jim's most intimate frieiii Is. 
.if i!j:j [)rincipal ]>ersons in iiu. 
h:^l arrival, and of very gi. :t 
i.iii- ;. 

V ,urrhnsed of William Peiin ;m 
id ;tcrcs of land, and settled Oil .i'v' 


ved to Peim. 



was one oi 



was mosii 

y G!i 


ermneiit, fi- 

m;i i 

service in ih.- ;> 

lb he 


Ml.; Wrl.sli V 

■id e; 


' id, forty 



west sidf. of Uio Scluiylkill river. Only a i'e w yv.;.i:. 
<dapsed wiien their uiunber was considerably increased ; 
it was suificieritiy augmented, that they had sctilod, Ik - 
fore the yea' 1()92, not less than six townshi})s i/i Ch; • 
ter county. 

The custom <:f the Welsh, and that of tlie S\vi.:,s n-l 
Palathies, in sliding parts of Pennsylvania, was ^iniil' i 
They would eidier purchase extensive tracts in Tiighmd 
to settle many of their friends in one body, a.s did d' 
Menonites ni Pequea valley, in 1709 and 1710 : m li!;( 
the Frankford com])any in IGSG, or as they di.;, :is just 
ahuded to above; or they did in some instancy, sf nd - 
persons across t!ie Atlantic, to take up land for tl citi. nnd 
make some prci.aralion for the rt'ception of theiv iViijiul-, 
and iamilies. 

Among the Welsh, who thus acted as ])ion( li>,, uts 
the well known Rowland Ellis, who sent over 'J'hnmn'; 
Owen and family to commence a settlement. ]\ :> sooner 
had Owen made improvement, in whicii he s])i'ni u I'cvn- 
years, when J']llis and one hundred other Welsli pn.bSL',; 
gers left ^Vales, and ejidjarked Ibr America in 

In l(i!)^i many oiher Welsh fannlies arrived, >ini,ir, 
whom wia-e AViUiam Jones, Thomas Evans, n./i'r:;, 
Evans, Owen Evans, Cadwallader Evans, Hugh i Iririit'i. 
Edward FouIIcl', John Humphrey, Robert Jonc^, ai..> 
others, wlio ])urchased ten tlujusand acres of l;ii(d '- 
[tobert Turner, in Ouinedd townshi[», Chester civ.)i ly 

There were oidy few Welsh settled at an early pc-ii i 
in these counties; however, within the last ten or hfoeri 
years, many of Ihem are to be found in the coal i-^gion?, 
where they number several tliousand. 'J'hey l:nve, ai 
])resent, among dieu- ministers of the gosi)el, whi> preach 
to them in the Welsh tongue. The AN'elsh i.s ])roi! / 
generally spoken by the adults and the young. 

Here a specini<in of the Lord's prayer is givoi lu d < !■ 
language, as we find it in a London edition of lii'j AVel;!i j 
IJible, J)illiled 1718 ; ■ 

Ein T.'Ti yr Lv/n yn y nefoedd, Sancteitldiei' ay En .'. 
Deled dy cfynKiS. (J wiicler dy cwyhys, megis yn y iu-.i, i 
Jcl/i/ ill V d l:a:!L hefyd. Dyro i ni heddyw iiil.'.i'-, I 

ni.'iTOl'.Y or M>U'I HAMPTON COUNTV. la 

l;oiinyJdiol. A maudf !ii i ni oin dyledion, fel y maddeuwi/ 
. jiinau I'll dyledwyr. Ac iiacarwaiu ni i Lrofedigaeth, 
. citlir gvvared ni rliagdiwg. Caiiys eiddot ti y\v 'r deyrnas. 

a'r nearlh., a'r HG:ronui];t. yii oes ocsoedd. Amen.' 

ClIAPTEll IV. j 


The I:'sh ejaigrcnits, says Watson, did not Lcuiu t-j 
come to '^•:hii :ylvania till about the year 171!'. '!'li' a 
which (iid (joi'it; wore yenerally Iroui the north ol ifjl;Li..l i 
Such a': r(M(M," !;ul Jirst, generally .settled at, ami ::'y.n- tliJ 
di.sputed Atarylaud liiie. James J^ogan, AvriiiiiL' oi" U:; .J 
to the Pro])rielaries, in 1721, say.s, they liave c ;nt ;-;lIi;J 
taken up iIk^ hiiiitlujrn lands, (ujeaning in LamiaMCi-, I'i-j 
wards tiif iMai; land line,) and as they rarely arijT'i.i'ii | 
ed him to ju-oi-),si.! to I', he calls tlann L^iid ;;iii.j 
indigent itran;: :r.s,baying as their excuse, when cl;:d:;',.; i 
ed idr titles, that we had solicited for colonists, ai.d (li '•■A 
liad come accoidingly. They were, however, und.j -.n.M.d 
to be a tolerated class, exempt from rents Ijy an ludiMiU'.;! 
of 1720, in coh iilciation of their being a Ironii.i jm n; '; 
Idrunng a kind o( cordon ol' deienct', if needlni. Tin \ j 
were soon calhd bad ntdghbors by tlie Indians. Ci ndiii 
them thsdainluily, and iinally were the same r,,i '; \v\i() 
committod llie outrages callecl Faxtang IMassacir. 'fl; ' 
general ideas ave founil in the Logan 1\ISS. ( (ilk;.iio!i, 
Some of ihe daui are as tollows : 

"In 17535, Jarncs Logan states, that there are s:. i;i,ii.' 
as one hundred thousand acres of land, possessed by ]' - 
.sons, (including Germans,) who resolutely .set do v n ; n I 
improved it without any right to it, and he is miiei! ai , 
loss to determine how to dispossess tliem. 

'' Li I7'-Ji^ he expresses himself glad to fmd dmi ,i,.; 
l^arliiuneiii i.s ;d.ont to take measures to ])reven. d'( t »o 
free emi,in'ati(-n lo this eountry. Tn the nieaiui.rn: Ihc ; 
Assembly 1;; i! Lu.i e iv'.h-aining tax of twenty -bill!;.':,: I 
a lujad lor every S'rrv.tnl arriving; but ev( n tbi- ''v.'is- | 
evaded in die ,::a:.e ( f die arrival of a ship iVoi, Dunliu. | 
with on;; Ir.iiiin-ed ,:'.(bolicsand convicls, by lanJi i; d,e-ni | 
i l}in-lii:;^iou. li leoks, savs be, as ii' Ireland ,■: \:> . 'id | 


»11 her iiiliaLitaiii,:, Jiiili :i\ lor Inst wut'k, not loss than i^ix 
iliips airivL'cl, uiul c\ j / (iLiy two or three arrive alsc. 
The coiiimoii I'co is, ih.d, if they continue to come, thciy 
vill nialce ihetu'^:: he:: j ro])! ieioi's of the province. It is 
.tianae, says Ii>'. th;a Mii'y thus crowd wliere they on- 
lOt wanted. Ihil ]j::,-.ides these, convicts are irnporti-d 
hither. d1ie Iii;h.ujS themseU'es arc; alanned at lln; 
bwarras of .stj-ai.;.''is, ;,i.d we are airaid of a breach be- 
tween Ihein — for d.e fi:di are very rough to thern." 

'•In 17J0,lii; uiiic; ;,Md roui[)IaLns of thi; Scotcli Irish.. 
ill an authadoHs ami d: -rdi riy iuanncr, posscssiiiL'- thcjii 
wolves of die wiioii.: of ('(.iir:,ii):ja niaiioi-, of liflci.ii diou 
tviiid acres, heiiiu;; the 1). si bind ni lh(i coiiiilry. Indoiii 
this by hn'cc;, they alb.:. .1 tbiit it aiiainst the biws 
ofCjodand natiOi.', thai so niiKdi land sboubl be idb;, 
U'liiie so many Cln-isUai.s waiil(.:(l it to bihor on, and to 
ruLse their bread, (!:v:c. 'I'be Paxtang boys were; ;ji( at 
sticklers tor religion and Muiptiire quotations against " die 
I lieathen." 'I'hcy wcji', howan'er, dispossessed by iluj 
Sherilf and \\\s jjo.sse, and their cabins, to the numher of 
ihirty, Were burnt. This necessary vioh-nee was, per- 
iups, remembercLl widi indignaUoii; I'oronly twenty-live 
years afterwards, the I\cxtang massacre hegan l)y Idlling 
ihe Christian unotfending Indians found in Conestoga. 
The Irish were generally settled at Donegal." 

But few Scotcli Irish settled whhiu tlie hunts of thes-e 
i'ounties at an early period, except some twenty or more 
taiiiilies, in Nortliam])toii comity, Allen township, a place 
I known as Craig^s Scttknivul. 

f " This settlement was jikuL, says the Rev. Webster, of 

{ Mauch Chunck, from die iiordi of Ireland, about tlie 

p year 1728-30. I'hat was the period at which the tide 

[ of Presbyterian emigration began to take jilace. ' \\ il- 

li;ua Craig, Esq., and Tl annas Craig, appear to have been 

the principal settlers ; dicir residence was not far from 

. where the Presbylerlap chureh in Allen township now 

stands. Others — na-n of iirojierly, inlluenceandreligiouj 

I'hai-acter— 7Wero Jobn Palsl^n, Robert Walker, .John 

I Walker, John 1\1 ?J;dr, iobu Hays, James King, Gabriel 

King. 1.: only sen. enuaon'. i(.r his piety; Arthur Latlt- 


jiiore, Hugh Wilson, William Youiip^, GeorGe ri;!,s,,i< 
Kobert Gib:^on, Amhew Maun, .Tallies Riddle, Jwhn Hoy,;' 
Widow Mary Duhlnii, Nigel Gray, and 'JMunnas Ar,; 

There are .still some oi'the descendants of j eo|4 - 
occupying tlie very farms first settled Ly them. Of .!,'i 
years, m.ti.y Irish have emigrated into ScliuyJKiJl aul, 
Carbon roimlii'.s, and are })rincipally fuund iii Jn i,;/ 
regions 'i'he greaii'r })roportioii of them arc Ca.iiiuli;; 
and liavo |)ric,vt3 officiating in the Irish langua-v, vjii ' 
is spoken })y many of the laboring classes. 

To give the leader a specimen of the printed l.jiuaa:; / 
of these sons of Erin, the Lord's prayer lias bcou copioi 
from Gr. Daniels' editi(in of an Irish Bible, printed iC.i,'. 

Air naihir alaigh air nin. Nabz fat hanimti Ti?ia! 
da riatliiate. Deantur da hoilainhiioil Air ninih a;ns .'; 
thalainbi. Air naran laidthuil tabhair dliuin ri nioi.-i 
Agis math duin dairt", hiacha ammnil Agis mail'in! iii,. 
dar feuthiuuiini. Agis ua trilaic astoch sin anau -^n 
Ac sar sino oh;. Amen. 

English, (Jcrman, AVekh, and Irish, were the cagii,;:? 
settlers uf this region, with an occasional Frenehmair^! ! 
Dutchman. Of the two latter, some families. Van Edii.., 
and l)e})Lii, and others, settled at the Mhiisinf.\, on tii;^ 
borders of Monroe and Pike counties. Here set ilemc nh 
it is ])robable, had been made prior to 1 (>82. l<\ n- an : . 
comrt ol' the Minisink settlement, the reader i ivfra.; 
to the history oi' Monroe comity. ^ 




William I^e ;x, tli( idUiiilcr of j'emisylvaiiia-, slioilly 
after liis arrival in l[ir^2. causfi,! several counties, in il.( 
provinci; t)t Iwaiia, to he eslablishetl, namely. 
Pliila(leii)liia, , Clicsler and Jiiicks. Wlu-., 
thiij cuiuily was eicclcd. and lor t'iulity years afterwaiJs, 
it comprised all, and even morii tiian is Avitiiin die \m;- 
.sent bounds ol" Northanvpton, L(dii£.di,Mo]iroe, ]*ike an i 
(Carbon counties. It was sullirient, as to extent ol" lerri- 
( lory, to l\niu a ''■I/c/v/'/ic licjxtblic.'''' 

After repeated elluits to eicel a now county out of 
' (he north })art of liurk-j, the mhabitants of tliat part oi 
; the county succeeded. i\(»u(3 was more active in etf<'Ct 
iiig this than Mr. William Craiii. It is set forth in tlu 
I rticorcls oi the (\uiul\ Commissiouers, in 17oj, -'llua 
^Villiam CraiLT sent a It ;i(,'r to the (Commissioners, sett iniz; 
I'orth that he had hi'en at i-.oiisiilerable expense in pro- 
curing Nortliam|iton county to he divided trom Bucks 
\ county; and re(;[uested that they Avould he pleased to 
j reimburse him the said cx])enses: whereupon tliey took 
I the same into consideiation, and agreed to allow hirn 
I jL'30, and ordered the Clerk to draw an order on the 
Treasurer for that sum. \\\ order was drawn." 

Uy virtue of the lollowiiig act of Assembly, passeu 
March 11th, 175'.i, th- coiuily of Nortliampton w^as 
erected : 
/ " JVhereas, a great nnmber of the iidiabitants of the 
I upper parts of the eounty of Bucks, by their petition, 
> have hereby represertred to the Governor anil the Assem- 
bly of tins province. d!.G .ir;al luird.ships they lay nnder. 
I by being so remote frum tlii3 i)resent seat of judicature, 
\ and the public oHicii-] ; fliat the necessary means to 1") 
used for obtainii.^g justice is attended with so mucii diiTi- 
cult>. ..u.l cx])cnse, that many forego their right, rather 


iiv or NoarriAMi'TON coi.n;- 

ihaii ;i tii'iiij'i ihe l\'^■^l\'v\^y of it uiuItT sudi (■iiTWui.-Jci.i es; 
while, othrj';, .sfiisihlc of tlu'se (liliiciillii-.s, cwMiai 'jreat 
villair.irs wiili iiiiiMiiiiiy. For irmt'tlyiiii,' \\ii;'iv(,: -.-hci 
lor til.. I'diu' ot' lilt' iiilialdlatils, /,V // viuivicU Nv the 
lion. Ji!ii:r:: 1 1(unill(j/u Liciil. ( nivenior, uiiiicr tin' ili r. 
T/io.hHis rrjtii ami liic/iiircl I'fnn, tria' iiJ s:''''':H't 
propri'Mai:^- nf iht: i)i()\ inc.' di' |*ciiii.syl\ an', i . Mid .n' the'N 111' New (';i^tl(', Kelil ami Siis.scx. iij,.ii! I'l la^ 
wart/.. i'V - a I \'-illi ill'.' advice and colis.iii (.[ !!..■; ;, ve- 
.'■,cntaii\'.j:;i o; llic irci.'uicii ol'lhc said |a.)\im .■, iii jjcic, v^l 
a,s.s.;nilily iml, and li\- the aiiduM-|iy <'l' di.- s m:c, dia ^\\ 
and jmun!.;!' die lands, l_\ nii^- w idnn the ,.,';'...,. op 
Pennsylvania al'iMv^uiid, Ij(.' CI. 'cicd jnti. ii .uiiiay: i-! 
the saiiic- i' liei.'l,\' laccl.'d nit.) a (•(aiiit\\ i;,:n.ei. )\i 
heremaller 1., l.c .•;dled, Nnrlln.nnjn'im :' h, hv di' 
Ironi tile (•.e.nity ol' liuvh-.s, liy llie ii|)|Ka- ..r m., di-wa ' xy, 
lino i)[ l}((ri"iin Inirt, hi (he n|)|t(a' coiiicr Ihe,-, ji ; i, -hce 
l)y a. slraiiili. Iini' in l>e inii siuidi-wesl u'ardK , '..idp'tie 
(hvidini^- tin low nshi|» ot' 1'j)/)l'I and Ijhcc- d///,'- r ^ 
thence aUui.; the said line to die line dividin;' I'l.h k'L- 
p/tict iind r>n(lc\ c.inntics; an.l dience hy a I, .■.■ i \\i 
extremities oi til.' Slid |M.)V ilice. 

The same act pr.ividcl diat d1iean;i.s Cdai-. iiicd, \':\^- 
son, J.)hn Jones, 'Idminas .A rinstroirj", and.hnn.- .d v 
tin, or any lliree ol'ihein, ufic to purchasi- ai.l i.d; .\- 
.surance to diem aiul theif heirs ol a {m^CL' of 1 ;. .(. ■ n j- 
in some convenient }ilaci',at lviston,(jii Lchi ' '.'. , i.. "» 
Forks ot'thc jiver l){dauaie, in tiust, an.l lor dia .a 
the inh;d)itaiils ol'the s;iid county, and thereon lo 
and hliild a :ourl h.mse and |)rison. siniiident lo a:; 
iiiodate the |i\d)lie sei'vic-(/ of the said county, \\\(\ U-: ;! 
catje and convemen.y (d the inhahitants. F<..- diai 
])OSC, a sum ol' money, not exccediiiir tine: j.;u!.dr. I 
])Otmd.s. was lo he jaised ]iy tax. 

A !'. w ye:, IS an.'i- die coiinly had heen ei'ecn d. a. 
lioilse ;iii..l jail veie Itnilt — the latler in 17.' ;, and '.:, 
jdnnor in 17.3 1. 'The courts were held at d.o I- ai 
Mr. ,1a.-. a, 1)11 ■hmaii, as a|)[jcars Iroin the r.aiowdiu 

•• i '"ill u.ii y 1 a. 1 71.'* — (he commissionei > li d -a, j 
draav, !■ ill lavoi .)] Iiicoli IJachinaii Idr X'i, lur ea.e ;;- 

ni.-5T(V,;Y (•■ 

N )li I'll AMP ro\ COUN'l'V, 

If t 

I'tMil of liis lioii-' ill L.istuii, I'oi- lioliliiig- the courts an,i 


I Tlic first coiiil M';i^ tiekl the 1 (Jtli of .Illlie, 1755. Son; . 

I oxtnuis of the |)i' •..•er(liiu;.-> .ire ui\fii; 

! -At II eouri ui our ilie Kin--, held ;it Eastori fo. 

i iJlo eon lily ^^( y<-^n (h .iii|>loii, ihe 1 olh day of .Iiine, in Ih.. 

I 'Mh year of c-.r S.i\-crfi_;u Lonl, fJeorue II, hy Ih., 

' (imeti'of fu)(l, Ivwia Mi Crcal Britain, France, Irclaiiif 
&(•., A. I). IT.V, I, i;,!'. 'fill. lice. Craiii', Timothy ITorM - 
field, lii.oh A\'i!-i'e, J.Mi.'s Martin, ami ^Vlliialn Trai-, 
Jiislic ,^ (;[' our ] ,'Mih',;i' luiiiu, ll'f 1 11 'ace in th(.' said ciMU.- 
iy lo k/jep, as alsii (livi i:.-. Irlonies, Irespassrs ainl e)Ui(. ' 

. ftlfeiiees, in said coiiiiiy i'(/niniiUed, t(j hear and dett.-i- 

■ mine, assiiiaied ijy eiMraiii.^sioii, datt'd the *jlh day oi' J nii" 

'•JuiK^ It;, 175',\ Tae. is Ciordon having \»rosented him- 
«L'If (o iht; eiMirl Ihal he \\'as adinilted an atlornt'y lo 
piaedce law in Phjlaii.'l|>hia and Buelcs, was, iijion hi-. 
jirayer, adinilted an aiMiiiry lo practice in the eoiirls oi 

'• A (h'aiedil, and r.'Kon ol' ITeidflhrr- to\vnshi|), undn 
llio haiul of J)aMd Srhull./, was allowed and orderc-d l'« 
be minuted. 

'•Tlie pelition oi [i in mhcr of the inhaliitants settled 
oil the hack- parts o( Mifco/tj/t', praying that they mii:lil 
1)13 formed into a lownblnp, was adlowed, and Mr. Scull 
fciirveyor of liie cmnily, to run out the same. 

" The several ])i'Ulion . of Adam Tei'ts, ('hristiau Hay 
iuaker, VViiliam t'raig, William Anderson, l^aul Miller, 
l*;iul l'\dlyard, (Jkriliol) ]%lias Painter, George Zewitz, 
Henry llillmaii, Oeorue ('Icam, David Cleery, David 
Owen, Ciiristo[)lier ^Vali)er,.J{dm Lighton, George Good, 
and John Leiever, I'oi iecommeiidalioiis to Ins Ifoiioi, 
the Governor, for lici'i"-,; to la'.j) jaihlic houses, ^\'err al- 
lowed •, and ihos.. :>[ Vad.aiiKd \ornon, and John Alkin 
bon, were rejected. 

"Upon (he pniiKa, of di\ rrs inhahitants of Lowei 
Siuithlield lowed i,., ,his,j,li Sti.lywas appointed ecei 
itahle nf the s.aei i'.\' nsln[* -the former constable beiii!.: 



"Till i.^lJr.v.inp; constables made default in ihju -i 
pearauce, viz ; the constables of Upper Slaiifon, xMrH| 
onjie, Heidelberg, Durham, Bethlehem, Uppoi ^ii;",5, 
field, adjacent to Heidelberg, Upper INlilford, Allenui 
gell, Lynlbrd ai Piketon, Forks of J)ela\vare ; adjacciJ 
of Allcuiov/it ; adjacent to U\)per Smiitdield. !-'"'•• ^ 
SmithliuUi. :'w;/e — the constable of Durham i . ! i 1''.;' « 


"At ,1 CovUt of Record of om- Lord the Kin j, i;. 1m ^ 
Easton, foi- \\\r county of Northampton, the .M A.'y .| 
October, in il'.o Litiih year of our Sovereign Lii.'l t.b\ . | 
II, by tiic Grace of (Jod, King of Great liritai'u 
Ireland, Lc, A. D. 175.2, fjefore Thomas Cr;.'.-; D; 1 :| 
Hroadhr;ad, Hugh Wilson, James Martin, Aai )i: iLi f 
and Joliii V(M.;tta, llsips., of our Loul the iCi.'u. ,iii 
peace hi said connly to keep, &.c., by commis^/'M, tiai Jt 
June 9, 1752. 

"The Court Ijeing opened, the Sherift', on-: b; •: | 
Hart, Esq., relurned the ]irece])t to him directed, aud :I5 
following pervious were qualified to serve on lb.. Cin^ 
Inquest : 

" Samuel De})ui, Foreman, James Rawlstoii, \\ ilii > 
Casselberry, Ivohert Gregg, Robert Lile, LawiciC: I'd.' 
kell, A lexand(M- Miller, Michael Moore, Gan\(l liilr 
Charles Broadhcad, Janu's Horner, John Atkin'MU. Jt-i 
McFarring, David Owen, Nathaniel Vernon. | 

'"•Note — Isaac VaiK-ampen, Benjamin ShoennkLr, JoiiJ 
Walker, John Cowken, summoned to serve on ibe Gim'^^ 
IiKjuest, made default in their appearance. | 

"The following iiersons were made Su])ervis..;-s, vi/.S 

" Isaac Telb and Christian Crall, for U])pt;r MilfoiViS 
James (;ooker and Philip Schlauge, for Lowi t ;iancnn^ 
Conrad Hess and Philip Podewalder, \'oi \V inr.'nlou. % 

" The tbllo wing, ccjiistables, viz: h 

"Thomas Clarke, f »r the Foiivs of Dela waiv ; ( Iiiijiu'*| 
Newcomer, for Upper Saucon ; Jose[)h Olbcii. lur Ma^ 
cuiijie ; IvjichaeJ lloifman,lbr Egy})ta ; Connni Hli'.-.^^;, i^-^^ 
Heidelberg; Adam Schuler, tor Upper Milfoi.l; i^aviM 
BcUmair for Alleiuengell; Samuel lk)Ui;li(r, jb- [.uwiW^ 
Saucun : Mk-huel Shoemaker, for Williainti. n -. J;i;iic|f 



Perry, for Betlili;hem; James Craig, for Allentown ; 
I Pliilii) Trom, ndjaceut to Allentown; Adam Plank, lor 
Sali^])tiry; Johamies Vcnotta, for Upper Smithtield.. 
Joseph Seely was apjaiintcd in Jime term, constable for 
flower Smillificiil. 

"The Sheriir-tatod dial Ivol)crt Gregg, Peter Traxle/. 

and ]}enjamin Sliceiiud^er were chosen commissioner:'; 

(hat Fredi-rick Sciiil, George Custard, John Holder, JanitJ 

' Rawlston, Jnh)t Walker and Joseph Everharl were elect- 

i ed ass«.'ss(jrs, 

1 "The |>etitir,u of' divers persons, inhabitants of a tra-i 
■ of land eight miies loig by three miles broad, bovimh 1 
I oil one side by the AVest Ih'anch of Delaware, and on 
^ the other side by the ■; speclive townships of Upper San- 
I con, Upper Milfurd, IMacnnjie and Whitehall, })raying 
(hat the same may be Ldd (jiil in a township to be called 
Sulishurg, was allowed." 
I At the time NortliaiK])ton w^is erected, it embraced all 
: (hat is now coiuj)riseii with the counties of Monroe, Piki, 
Wayne, Susquehanna, Wyoming, Luzerne, Carbon, f .e- 
; liigh, and a jiortion ul' St.-luiylkiil ; Init it was gradualf/ 
rcdured, as will a]>pear in the sequel, by erecting oilu^i 
fcounties out of i(. The following townships were organ- 
ized in Northampton county, prior to 1763, viz : 

Whitehall, Lynn, Tfeidelberg, Weissenberg, Lowci 
Saucon, jVIount iiethel. Forks, Williamstown, Salisbmy, 
Upper Milford, Low Kill, JNIacunjie, Allen, Plaihfiek'k 
Kaston, J^ehigh, Up[)er Saucon, Lower Smithfield, Up 
per Smithiielil, Towaniinsing, Moore, Uethlehem, Chesi- 
nuthill, Ifamilton, Northampton, Delaware, Penn. 

The following mills liad been built before the county- 
was erecteil — SchuUz' mill, Uropi's, Samuel Depui's, 
Wilson's, Tnicfrer's, INLiyer's, Friedenthal's, Geori^o 
SeAvitz', Fredurii;],; I: r\s, John Jones'. 

CllArTEPv YT. 


'Viw. liniils of Nailham])l()n coiuity won- ^iiul.t ll 
I'cdui-',! Iiy- an ad iJa;ised Maivli :2l, 177 J, A( r/ '. . 
/jrr/(/j/tl C(H!iiiy Avas la-ectcd out ol' i)arts oT i;:c rori,!!- 
of l.;,)ir-slia-„ Cuiiiliia-laiid, lUnlloni, Hri-ks, ;mi>1 Aw.-'^ 
iiinplt};: ; l>y rrci-tiiit,^ H'dijin' (•(niiily, a( (-.,h.i.: { 
act of Assriiihly, Marcli "^,' 17MvS, Nurllui.uj Ion 1,^ 
more than li.ilf of ils Iccriliny " loji/ivd oJJV Vi.' :. , o 
1798r(.(|uii-. '! thai, -all lhat});ii1 of Noiliiaiu]:! m c ■;,:•.) 
lying l(j iIr' !) )rlli\v:ir(l of a line; 1(» In! (IraM'ii. ami !/• 'i 
ning at the v/ust (-mkI of (.leorgc .Mi(;!iarl's. j:: /iii < ■■ il- 
river Delawii'e, in Middh; Snnllilicid lown.->lii|!, aiil i ^ v, 
thence a sli;i!.dit hiif to the nionlh of i''roiiU-r'i 1, .m '.1 
Lehigh, atli(n!iini! Jaizern connly.'" 

In eieclin',; >SV//^?///A\7/ conntv, accord iu'.'^ i ; ;, . :' 
])as.scil Ahuvl, 1st, IMI, Willian'i Piainaiid Ji'iii {•, :4 
.ships, ot' Norihanipton county, Ma ic ^cjiaratca ii'jni \'.i\\ 
county, and iccludod witliin ihe hoinids o|' Si/iMiyllcill ] 

Like the i'acin of a Uoman patriot, L\(n-lhan.;4(.!:. ii :| 
to surrender tciaitory ior an euUro' county- -/.;'.•,,■._ ':j 
which Acas s,|);ii'atcd iVoui I's'oi lhani])ton hy iiU a( ! 
Asseinhly ])aNS(.'d AhLudi Lilh, Ksl',*. In lS:J(i, .a-t. j'.'d!.>.| 
to an act pai:-i\l in Ai>ril ot' that yeaj-, aiiodn r poil!^.;^ 
was taken iVo.a it t > form iHonroc. county. /\r'd ■a''^^ 
anotlier considi:!ra1)l(3 portion was scjjarated in I s J S — ■•nlh 
that i)orlion of Ntnihanipton which lies north ;-l'lii(.' I'.'cj 
niotiutain," was taken to forni pait of Curhoii vi\\\\[\r | 

Its ])C(^senl uirea is idiont 7///re hundred and ycrc:tl'\ 
square /yi/Zt;-— conlaining rising of 2J0,0()() acre ■• oi"l;i. •! 
Tiie count/, as at present reduced, is hounds d on iki 
iiorlli hy Carhon and Monroe ; east hy liie nver lal 
ware, separating iUVom New Jersey ; south l-y ij.."i 
aniLwest hy Lehigh county. Its ]io|)ulalr..( ':\ee,:ds 
35,000, Tiiecouiiiy is divided into Ihe followaue inw 

HisTonv or noh ihampton county. 25 

ships: Allen, Eoililclirvii, liu^likill, Forks, Hanover, Lc- 

liii:h, Lower Moim; 15-ilu'i, Lower i\azarelli, JMooru, 

PhinfieM, Saiicoi!; \]\)[ai- Mount Ik'tliel, Upper Naza- 

ixlh, WiliianLs,two honrjoli.^, l-lasti)!! and Sontii I^asLon. 

Tlieeoun1y,as no\v^ inrnted, i.-. entir(dy within ilie raimi^ 

sfiulh of 111'- !5liic i>,:,i|p|. in, .snuic times eallrd Killtil'tii' 

nij — orii^inally eaiird \.\ llit; {\vA\[\\\<. K(iu-!(i-tin-chuiiS\ 

i.e. t!i(! Ahiin, or jjrini'ipicl Mok /ilain, wliieli i'oi'njs ai 

present die norlh;;rii Lo'.mdaiy oT the county. IL is a 

\ very n -iilar I'id-c. ncririy unilonn in Iiei;iht ; averaiduL' 

I al)onl tWfivT' hnndivd i. "t. TImi-c ar<; srveial aaps or 

passes Ihroiiyli Ine nioiiiilain, within the' county. 

\ These are the JJelauu/rc uu//i /■ ^■/.'jj,\v]n:vc {\:i- Delaware 

■ river passes throiiLdi it; the fl'ijid i,'Y/y>, lil'tecn mih's ah>i\a 

iJie Di.'lawaie; tlie I.'ulle i^i'ji, and the ./..'///-A iratvi 

. i^ap. 'V\\v niouniain i-, -en^rally sleep, rocky, nnlii U.\ 

'cailtivalioii, and not w-li tind)>rcd. A ilescri['tion ui 

these scvei'al ,i,'V/y/,y, is aiaanjilcd hidovv. 

T\\v. connty is niisui'pas<cd hy any in I'^ast I^cntisyl 
vaiiia jdr I'crtihty oT son , iniprovcnu'iits <>!' various kniii,,. 
The -rueral appcaiani ' id' liu^ coiaiti')- c\'ei-y v. here, ii. 
ilieali s pro^pern\ andii.nly. \\hire\er dielr.iwhi 
turns his eye, he si-es sni : tantial. neal — huLv 
barns — Ihie (dinrches - -heanthnl orchards, hurdepa d 
down wall fruit, (ieianan iudusti-y every when' richly 
a'owned. The iew liidi th.:scendants reuianiiiiL^ diiiei 
here from that class (-i people elsewhert.' in the Siul> 
Tiieso are nearly all sm i-es:Mui I'a.rmers. Mills of ever_\ 
descrijition are alnuukn.t and eonveni(Mit.'* 

To return to the Ga| , in the Littatmny mountain: 
The ././///(• Cop, or - D.'i Kh'inc Kufl ,'' or Smith': 
Tia)., is ])et\veen the L iii-h ^Va,ter Gap and the Win.i 

Die JViiid KuJ'Lo\- i\\i'. tnml (lu/), is a deiM-ession 
notch, or opening m da' liiue iJioumaiii, wdiich is veiy 
abrupt, and OYleiais the toj) ne;irly to the hotton. 
of the mountain. l\o sire: m i)asses throujdn \ai'K)C. 

• l'\)r ;i deschplici ji ilu; s .11, o:i' , soc llic dc.-,rriiitiou ol" iJic tM". • .1 


have bcMi ilie conjectures toncliiiig the caus.: ot' ihj 
nolcli. '^J'he roiijcctme most ])revaleiit as to I'l- (n-igr"! 
of tlie Kiijh'i.^ tlmt it. was caused Ijy the Delaw.'H' iiv':!:| 
where, as is Niijjposed, it formed a hdce behind iht; mouii-^ 
tain, ai:d may have opened a passage at the notch :;f^ 
gap. Tlioso mriiUaining this view, theorize thus : "'r!i!;|l 
at some lime, amcu'ior to the Delaware river ha\ i.ig hiira^| 
its way, where it now runs, there may have been sc>\v *'^ 
slight dcprcssioii al the Wind Oaj), and subsp(ii:<;ntiy ::'^ 
tlie DeL'.w Lfo [.assing its barrier, vast masses uT ice nr.; 
have choaiad !:[) ihu passage below, wiiere l!:o riv. 
again lui-ni:>:l a Ink ■, many feet higher than ii. w. s in day/. ; 
of yore, and l.his water may have been diseli;ir,M.'d, fi- 
the ice yiehU: I, and siilfered the river oiicl' ii.nre, ;j.,J:; 
ever since, to pass," Tins is, however, meie ilicory. \} 

The Wind da}* is filu^en miles above the JJelawai, 
Water Gap. 

I'lie mountra.i is here de})ressed nearly as low as d,;'- 
country v\\. each side, for a ga}) of iteculiar convenir'no:- _ 
for the passage of travidlers and teams, and triwarf.l?'' ' 
which tiie leading roads cunverge and ])ass thriiiLih in" 
one great thuruighlure. 'fhe turnpike road pa.b.,:$« 
through he]-e. 

In the year 177 1, Simon Heller, Casper Dull Joi:.., 
Hartzall, Adam lliihha', Abraham Labor, an I .Vdam 
Joke, weie a[<p(amed to lay out a })ublic road, or fCihg'? 
liighway, from tlu: noilh side of the Jlhie mouiiiaii;, be- 
ginning at the Wdnd (iap, in the most direct and ..onv;>, 
uient course to ^Vyoming, so that the conmmnicavion bti i 
tween said place.; may be rendered safe and easy, (h n, , 
Sullivan, \\n\\\ an army, marched from Easton to '\VVo- ' 
ming on this roa.l dming the ilevolution, in Jun«; 1779, 

The Delaware \N'aier Cap is tliirty miles above l'K:st(»i), 
and is wordi a vjytige a(a-oss the Atlantic to see ir. Va- 
rious arc the theon;tii;al conjectures as to the cause, (ifthis 
re)it in the rocL'r, — Llis^^arangement of the ruptii. n/!iun- ■ 
tain mass. It is ;i sU4)undous work, and the " n.'U ^' is v 
chas/naticl'^shii urj. 

Ttic eMJmated lieight of the mountains, on eilb'-i ..ade. 
i; irom 1500 to KJOOteel; tlie widUi of the space between 

; HISTORY Oi-' i\ ..ilT'ilAMl'TON COUNTY. 2/ 

the two mountains ai tli^. base, one tliovisand loct ; and 
at liie summit, two tiion.sand Icet ; llic wiioU; distance 
ihrough the mountain is about two nnlcb. In mailing 
ail estimate of tlie cmt-unt of /natter tbrownuiit by tbu 
passing of tbo Di'la.wai;, if only one mile in length is 
iak'cn into tlie account, would tliun give Ibe enormous 
amount of cubic icot to bo 12,(J7^,00(J,000, a sulHciency 
of matter to cover a townsliip uf five miles s(|Luue, or 
twenty-five sciuare njil's, til'tfun feet in depth ! 

Well might it be sai'l. "Ifere has been a convulsion 
ihat mubt have shfikcn i/c- cmth to the very center, and 
the elements to gh-c aiiru^ llmt alt ivas lost.'' "■]hu 
//t' who governs tlie world and has all things at His 
command — He wl.o boLls the glob(j by the might of bis 
jiower, can removi; (be laountainslrom their loiindations 
and bury tliem in the d< ;:[), and ilu; great machinery of 
the universe continue to move, and lose non(M)f its func- 

Various arc the conjectures as to the formative cause 
of thi;se Gaps in the nioimtain. " It would seem," say.s 
n certain writer, iu speaking of diis (lap, "fiuin the cpian- 
tity of alluvial lands al).\e die luuunlain, tbal, at smiie 
remote jieriod, a dam oi great height liere obstrncted tlio 
jirogress of the J)elawaii,'. If it had been as liigli,or half 
as high as tlie mountain, it wonld have raised the water 
that it might have run into the Nortli River. It jirobalily 
had an elevation of 150 or 200 feet, forming a lake ol 
more than iii"ty miles in length, covering the Meenesink 
settlements. This heiuiit must have formed cataracts 
similar, the (pianiity of water excepted, to that ol' Ni- 

'•' It has been conjectured, that this d;im was engulled 
by some great convulsion of the earth : and tlie JbllowitiL; 
reasons have been assi.nied iVtr this o))iin()n : 'bbe dis- 
tiuice through the mountaiii is abont two miles, wiibio 
which the river has an average width ol'half a mile, and 
the water is as still as a mili-i)ond, so that a ratt will bi 
driven by the;^ of lib- wind up or dmrn ; and tli. 
boatmen rep(;rt ib it a. /tujidreit and ten ye'ars ai;o, ii 
bottw.t' could be foimd Vv'iih their lun>.^est line. 

y ■ 

28 lirn-urv or xou'riiAMPTox corx'jT. 

" Ifarl ilio iiioi;iitain IxH'ii worn 1)y alirasion, Midi ;; 
yiiir v/oiilii i!i»t lia\'c ('\isicd, and tin; hottoijiol' ilic nvcr \ 
Aere wouij ha', c i:oiisi.sK'd oT the tianu: material vvhi:-!! 
ibrnis the .sulo (>[ the pass ; but the bottom is o[' aibivi;,! 
umd,and I'r.c imr-j.jds di ihe mountain is ofa hard islamic, ' 
pccidiar t'l die jdaee. ll is also well kn<nv^ii thai aKuri^il 
particles, wiiidi /ioat in llie sudl't cairrent siil.-sidc-: i:i iW 
l>no]:.; ai ,1 'd |,,!s been Jinii-d liy an aci'urate ob ,"rva ■ ' . 
(i].;il the rivi;; i- : Iways mtich nioi'd muddy, *.r ;•;///., ;n 
the ])hras.- i., ^/A, ,■/-(■ llian />c/(>iaVAc (r,[\). IIiMU'i' > ia,-' 
j)rn[>uni.jiL (.; th-' albivJDii carried down the strcaiu i.i;;./. 
havL- been d^ p.-- anl m Ihis irult'. Supi)osin^u- di.- ' (u , 
iiave suiil: owo. lle.usecnd y(,>ars ago, and two jrct oi' e:i'll: 
])er aummi to have- b^•^;n duis dfj^osittid, ;jOOO ft-, i n;ir-:; 
thus hava.: been b.apad updii ibu ori;;inal dam, snii,:ns,;-.| \ 
lo liav(; be.jii oiir hundr;,'d and lll'ly or two Inmd!. d ie< i ■ '■ 

hi-h." ; 

All ai-e agreinl thai it was owing to som(>gi'i'ai , , ns;-, ^^ 

a mighty dislmbanec of t'lcmenls, whieh ' wroe il:! ; ;, ' 

diange in die euiicnt, as wfll aslhe strata ofror!.. ]■' >- f' 

lessor Jloia is mania ins, while some hold sonu' \ a-i !aU.: \' 
had bursi its bameis, thai by some, miehly (■(>nv'!i ioii. 

whifdi produvcd iians\'cis.:dislocaii(in in dn- Appa! . !nai. / 

e-Jjanue, may have eaused ibis J'oiit, or chasm. ,. 

Spealdng ol' this gi'eat eonvailsion, he says: '-Th') ■-. 

numerou.s aaps aM«l breals in the line ol'tlie J^liu,' uu,l\t\- * 
iain,or ICiiiaiinn;/, exhilais, very generally, a corri ■:p',)od 

in^- law. ' '^ i. 

"Hiis is shown hy die irieasurements at the \. id^.. ^v 

Gap ol'tih; Sus.jii.'hanna above llarj-isbirrg, and r-. ma!:i % 

test to the eye in die bold jiu/c/i called the JJ^ui^r Gir,. \ 

ijf the iJclituHirc when; ihe'Slrata rhatrise inl<j d,e.,-mi- } 

mit of the momnain on the New Jerse'y side of the fiver, J 

are thrown ^ev' ej himthed leet to the north of loo^-.; in * 

H corres|i ,)alin ; nosiiion. in Pennsylvania, leeiie^d'.. *^ 

daise trar...a r-e i'«--a;a.ns to pervade all the grea fi;]ges | 

and valley = '. I'enr .\ p;uilaehian region, and to be a prin^ia - t 

ryc<uise ofmo^i, il'nat all those tleep notches, w! nidi ar^ '^ 

Iniowii hy ill.! uam; of ITdter Gaps, and win. h el; ave i 

>; l\ TH \M PTON CO UKT V. 

SO iiiaiiyoi'uiii liighijiotiuiahiritlgcsto ihuir very bases."* 
Both theories, ixiid the ilieory o'L a gradual abr(ii,icra, 
may be sa))portcd by S(/iue plausible I'acts. However, 
may it not be that •' tliuse stufjeiidous steeps were Greeted 
lur the sole purj)Osc ol" nmii's observation ; tiiat lie nhghi 
he impressed wilTi a ]ii!ipor train ot' retieetioirs iipuij the 
power and dignity oi Lis Maker — of the inleriorily ol' 
man, and tlie instrd/ilhy •>{■ human things? Jkit, what 
.aused the openi:;/ li' \\\c niiiniitaans, whether by oui) 
mighty exiilosioU; ci i.y laadually wearing down to the 
present l.ied ut the Jive'-.i • a suiij' ct t<ju e„paeii.u.-5 lor tli*j 
liuiiled genius ot"n:a;i u. dv.aU iip(jn."'t 

.May nul Jub be riiihi: -jb- puUeth IbrUi his liand 
ii|iuii the luck, he iA( ilu: letb ibe' naiuntailis tiy the roots. 
lie cuUffh uut j'tt'cj's tn)u/ni^ l/tr. /■(jch'.s, and his eye 
seeth every precioUb thiijg. .lol) '^b ; !», 10. 

On tiie sonili side oftlie coiuily arc «• Ihc Lchii(h hills,'" 
loCiilly Ivuown as the Scuth MoujiUtiit ; though seareeb/ 
deserving that name. •■ In sorui' jilaces, however, they 
are (juile steep, and when viewed iVuin the level euuntry 
liektw ilieni, ajiiieiU' Very lurmidahle. 'I'his oinuily is 
well waU'i'ed, ;ind the ii-eaius ailortl abundani water 
power. 'I'he ri\ ers ol" the eoimty are the Lehigh and 
Delaware, with numerous tributaries, 


The Delaware river, v/hich lorms the eastern bounda- 
ly ol' this county, is so called I'rom some French, who, it 
is said, eomnieneetl seitl.inenlsnear theliead olthc Bav- 
It was called by them "La reviere<:A; la ware'' or "J)e-- 
la-ware," which words at length formed Delaware. 'J1iis 
river was known among the. Indians by various names, 
as Pontuxas, JSfarisquetati. MaliCrisIcillon, Alakerisk- 
kiskoji, Lcnawihitluck. (Stream of the Leiiape.) By the 

* Slc!j71(1 Annual F'^...,-! j;. ilic i •ui.)(.gical Exjiloration of the Suae ^ 
l'oiin.~\ Katiia, ])a. 79. 

j Editor oliNfw V jAi «u.'i. 

30 lH-3.,:»ur OF NOU'rilAMPTON COUNTY j 

Diitcli it Wcis <;;iI1,h1 Zi/ijdf, or south liver, A'ayyiu i:\ :.j 
and Vy ihc Sv.-ccii s, Nf'iv Swedeland Stream. ' 

The Di'Iiuv.-R' iisL's l;y two principal stretmi ; m ,; ^ 
State.ofNew Yoil;. It is rather crooked in ii^ oonrs-.j 
until it Masses ilu- lla/t. Its principal tribntari( s ii,:] 
the wci, in i^ioinoe county, are iMarshalPscrci'l:, Clu. j 
ly creel;, Si'i.hlitid creek; Broad 1 lead's, Pec, no ,:: ,1 
JVPMiclia;'i'.:, I ranoli.'.sof Smithfield creek. Fir-m N,, ] 
ampton coiLiii" an; the Cobnss, Oquirton, Marlii.'b ci-d \ 
and liiiylil.iii :'aiid at lOaston it receives the Lchiah ^'■r,,.] 
its imiHoroi;- i.iluiUuie.s, aiid llows onward. ' I 


* A full df,.scri,.iion ot ihe river is deemed uiinccebriury. 'J i., t [..■, I 
of this workiircclude.-j kiiyihy deacriptiuus. j 

Cd APT Ell VII. 

EAST(J\', LAivLY JIlsTOJiY OF, &c. 

EA.sTt)X, the seal of ji^ticc, it siipoars, was laid outliy 
Hugh W'il.soii, ol' .Vllo.i to^\'llshi]), and Col. JMartiu, o[ 
Mount Uctlicl, cciiiMiv'.i.iiicr.s, and William Parsons, sur- 
veyor, ahout the yiar 17;!7 i*r ',JS. 'I'lic Moraviansliad 
a Brother liouse here al an cajly ]icriod — a large edifice 
of stone — it is now one of the oldest huildings iu the 
})lace, forming a part of Mi. ,lohn Jiachman's liotel. Tla 
town did not imiaov'e lapidly till after 1752, when it 
became the seat of jnsti.o ol'tlie ncic counh/. 

It was a fovorite })la> ■ between the years 1755 and 
17G2, for holding treaties \\n\.\\ the Indians. These trea- 
ties wtn'e usually attendud with nn.ieh pomp and cere- 
mony. The limits of diis work i)reehi(U; uiving all the 
treaties al length. On.', ^vdlll■h it is belicv'od a\i11 be 
read with interest, is inserted at length. 

Council held at Easton, Saturday the 24tli July, 175fj. 

Frcse/U — The lion. K. H. iMorris, Lieut. Gov. of Pa.; 
William Logan, Iknj. Chew, Richard Peters, John Mil- 
llin, Escjrs. 

Three members of the council were sent with a string 
of wampum to the Delaware King, to ac(|uaint him thai 
the governor was come, and, by them, bid him and jjis 
company welcome among tjic inhabitants, and assure 
liim tliat, as the Indians were come on the invitation 
of the governor, their persons should not be hm-t ; he 
would alford them ])i\)lection, and charge his people to 
treat them with kindness. 'I'bat to-morrow being Sun- 
day, no business could ho dune, but on Monday mornhig 
the governor woiikl hold a .'.(juncil, sentl for them, and 
begin the confereii'je. Th'. string was given to New- 



c.^sth lirsi, :;s i-iie of the Six Nations, to be -nv.-r i , I | 
Xing. '- ' t 

The i.iembcs, beiuL^ i-f'tnrncd from ^lVedyuso;ii;- I 
lormed ill- govern. ,r, i|j;,t when th(jy filteni'j-l(;a t<^ 'i-., { 
John Pu'iiiishiie :i.-, niterpreter, tlie Kin;-- said be h-l . ' 
mtorpivu: r oJ b,s oum,, and incscnUul'^a yonm: Iv:], i 
ciUlecl J).-niai,ni, an nn|)iid»ait, ibiward vonlii ,\ ii,, 1, i ■ 

o-nhsled in. I 

•y f<>ni|iaini'S, and al'lcrwanh d^. 

c:d and v,,'nl ercr to ib.; (.iicniy Indians at |);ab.; 
John'.din'i said b... e.niid n«t be .•nn.-,,ni.',i m int 
prrinjL'. n' ji-nianiiu was allowed to :-j..';ik, but he v-.a 
att.aid e. v, i..„t .bneid he s;,id by the Km-, iu, ' ;.,' • 
oi iorgelliihK.'.s or niisai-|.rehensi,.n iji J^-oi ,vi. 
would endeavor to set bnn ri-ht ; and as ii.aij; r. \ 
<I.AJst(;od I'ar^di-h. lie nn-ht b,; ;dl(AV.d 

Th.; ni.nji, 

di'T a(;.[nainI(M| tiaj <n)v 

.the Kin- thank ■,! bin. lor bis kind iness;o.,. ;;,, ' u, . 
suraneesofpr(,hvt,„n lo bnn and Ins eonn'any ■ i|-,t 
gave Inni great sali.daction, and he would let 'd.e S' 
Nations know this, and every thing els,- that ^i.. ; M '] 

(l.uie. T[esai<l tb.' Indians 'know n.-tbin'- of 'aii..! . 4 

bullhe-nvrrn(>, did hinisrlf ;ijb'a- his in ,rn.> ! 

and when lie bail ivsied, the Indians w.)uld r,-un-n if';' f 

an answer to ins message. He Avas told Uiat the (.hi'-' ^ 

tiaiis employed Sunday hi the serviee of Cod, th^ oiii; \ 

great Creator and Covernor oftJic world } 

(j^ On the twenty-filth, Teedyuscnng' waited on di.' I 

governor, thanked bnn lor liis message, and gave a sirh,^^ f 

to open Jus eye- and dear bis tliroat'l " ^ 

Easton, Mond.y, -,] July, 175G-prcsent, th,; sa.,.. I 
persons as belore. -, 

Alter reading Hie several paj.ors r.dative to the lao,...,. ♦ 
ed treaty, the governor il.sircd the eonneil woinll d' .iv I 
upaspeadito the Lidians. 

And tb. , ,j:,, l,:dians were sent lor into coniM, u a 
iie governor made them the usual addressrs of ,■!■ -win.^ 
Iieir throar^ ears and ryes, and healmg the , f tb: ir 

The King gave a siring, to assure the gover..Ln' m .: ' 

HlsrOilV ,1 Nil!, i HAMPTON COUNTV. A.] 

Miicerity slioiiUl niirinl iVv iv thing lie spokt! t)ii tlie prc- 
.■yjiit oci.Msiuii, Mil i tilt; Li'iiv'ri'nm' made llie stuiio profc'^- 
^ions. ThiMi liu; cioVL'tiA-r lokl liim Mr. Wciscr, \vhi, 
lA'a.s one of Iho Si\ N;iim>iis, and Provincial intcrprctn., 
not being yet com/, In; was oliligcd to pnt oil' lIu; coii- 
k-RMicc till liis aii'i.;.!; (I wliicli the King a[i|»r(nTd, and 
ilic Uovui-uor in\, i! .i ] ::'i(o dlna with hini. 

i:.;;l(.i;,. \V<;diicsday, 2Sih .Inly, IT.Ci;. 

Same |)rrsoiis •■(•:il is hi'l'iMv, adding Conrad Wcisc 
and PiHo.'dnic \ii . A';'', i'v'r I'oiniiiu; to JOaslon \ a.sii iij;i\ , 
lib was .Nt'iil lor i:iN: i ;;;iiil and (Mnfcticd wilh. 'I'l.. 
mattert; that had |yass( li since lla; (iovoiiior's ;irriv'al ai 
I'iU.slon wci'c i'clat 'd in 1 im, iho go\';'i-iioi''s sccomt in( - 
!sag-(!, and Sir \\'illia)it n/hn'^on'.s lrU(;r to Ceii. .\\« i 
ci'Onil»i(! wi:rn rca.l. 

It was Mr. W'tMscr's opiiii./n, lhat,as no answers wrn 
I'clnrned to Ihe go\'ei'no:"s second ni(_*ssage, il was dn 
business ol' 'I'eeilynsrini:' to give the answers tirsi, beloie 
llie (h»vernor i^aid any llnng; and accordingly l^»ln■^tln(• 
was sent lor, and lids wa- int iilii nieil to him, wdio dioiiLdLi 
ihe conleivncc .slinnid he nn hy Tc'dynsenn-'s dela ciin., 
llio answers ol' die DiahoL'a Indian^. He went i.» Tee 
<lyusenng and aciiaamd d liiiii with it, and returned li« 
(lie Governor and inloiioed him, thai this proposal was 
agrceuhh; to the King. 

At a eonlerenee hold at I'^aston, Wechiesday, th(^ xlMi; 
July, 175(;. 

PrcscjU—'Vhv Hon. h'. II. Morris, Es.p, Lieiit. Cov .; 
William lA)gaii, Pichard I'eleis, lienjamm Chew, and 
John Mililiu, l]sc[rs., of die coniKal. 

John Fox, John llnghes, and William Jldnmnds, 

Teedyus('ung, tiu^ I) ;lawai-(! chieJ', and ronrttjcn otiu , 

Conrad ^^'eise;, 'Xs^.. Inierpreti'r liir llie Six Nations 

John lhim|)shiie, Josi oh [-eepy, Pen., lnter|)ieleis to. 
die l)(dawan\s, 

A i.i,. .' coiijj anv .' :.i;;..,:,!,ung ol' ollicta's ol' llse Jioy... 

n I 


Ainerioaii Ro^unent,aii(l of the Provincial foicr.-, kun.; | 
trates aid fi';L-liold('rs of tins and the nei^dibdiiiiu j?iv.| 
vmce, and about thirty citizens of Pliiladelijliia. ^ ' i 

The governor acquainted the Indians thai ht; .\> i 
going t(. spoalc, and desired them to he attentivL. i 

Brorlia — IJy a helt, which I sent by jN'tv/ea:,, | 
and tlie olh<.r imhan messengers to Diahoga, I i.dorri! ill 
tfic Indi 11 s i|. 10, that [ hadldndled a cotmcU five. !!■ { 
aiiotht ; .:iri!i'/ I invited them to it; and by a ^:iriiij ,.? 
vv^ampum. i u ;ar.:<i the road that they mighi con.e ? | 
.>a](;ty ' . US. i a.-.ancd yuu of a hearty welcome as ii I 
as I came h. ;,., and of my protection, and 1 nrw, m ii. J, 
name of this government, again t^id yon welcomo. v | 
Capt. Newcastle brought me^no answers U> sui,.,: p:i,' ,| 
the messages i sent last by liim, I expect to nc-i. : if,-, f 
by you. I h,;|)e you come prepared to sjjcak to n-, ■„ ] 
cendy and openly, and desire you may do sd. . i .?//•//,. » 

To which Teedyuscimg inmiediately answ.-j. d . L;i<' I 
spring, you sent me a slrhig, arid as soon as 1 heard a i 
good word from yon, I was glad, and as you l( /Id us, v,. j 
])i'lifve U cam • iVom your hearts, so we full i: m i'^ 
hearts, and re'-civtil wluU you said with joy. ) 

Hrolher— 'I'lie first messages you sent mc cam' :• j 
the; spring; ih.:y lonclied my^hearl; theyL^avu .ne abii'^ | 
dance of joy. I returned an answer to^ them, ai:(l w,.:,. , I 
for your second messages, which came afjci 
•md weri' likev/fse very agreeable. By tlu; Uim. y 
•luainted me that you had kindled a council hi.-. a:id i, 
vited me and my ])eople to it. Wc accepted d;e iiwu; 
tion and I came accordingly, and have staid sevei a Idra-. i 
smoking my [-ipe with patience, expecting u, lur-e^ yo,i | 
here.; we are ready to hear what you have lu say. ai i \ 
not only we, Ivut five other Nations, in ail t(;n Naiio!,, ^ 
are now lurning their eyes this way, and wail v. liat shtii | 
be suul and n one at Uiis meeting. 

lirorii.!--! r,v)l( iiiiily and widi the utmos; 
decian , (Im;, iiiouLh yon may think I am alon: 
it will n.u \u: f.iu; before you will be convin'-.-d 
here by ihe app ;ii:tinent of ten nations, a/i. 
Aie icy mirie^, iIk Six Nations, aiithorized n 

no n 




at sh' 



'■]■(■. V 
u 1 .' 


Uf1/1KAM1''I'0N COUNTS'. 

with you, aiul wli;u i (huhey will all confirm — tlie liuih 
ol'this, you will scrni Iulv;; luade evident to you. 

Brother — Hearken to v:hia 1 ain going to say ; 1 (l<:- 
clare in the most s'.K^nui manner, that what I now relali 
is the truth. Abundance of contusion, disorder and dis- 
(raction, has arisen among the Indians, from people tak- 
ing upon llieni to h', kings and persons in authority, li! 
every tri]>e of Initi;:i.s, ti'cre luivx^ been such [)retender.v, 
who have held tr.\;i;es, sometimes public and sometinu'- 
in the bushes ; souK^times what those people did, came ui 
be known, but frequently it remaint^d in darkness, oi a; 
least no more was iinpariud ca published thrmthey wer( 
pleased to publish; to some they field up their belts, bm 
others never saw them. 'J'his bred among the Indian.s 
great heart-burnings and quarrels, and 1 can assure yoi. 
that the present clouds d« in a great measure owe ttieir 
rise to this wild and irregular way of doing business. 
The Indians, sensible of iliis mistake of our ancestors, ai( 
now determined to put an end to this multitude of kings 
and to this dark way ot" proceedings ; they have agreed 
to put the management oi' tluir atlairs into the hands u' 
a very lew, and these -hall no longer have it in tlu-ir 
power to huddle up and give partial representations i»' 
what is done. I assure you that tiiere are only twc 
kings a})pointed to transact public business, of which f 
am one ; for the future, matters will go better on both 
.sides ; you, as well as we, will know with whom we havt 
to deal. We must beseech the most High to scatter the 
clouds which have arisen oetween us, that we settle peaci: 
as heretofore. */! string. 

Jkother — The Englisli, and }tarticidarly the Gover- 
nor of Pennsylvania, you know, have invited me liere ; 
1 came, therefore, and rny uncles, the Six Nations, wili 
«;onfirm what 1 say. In your messages to the Indian.s 
at Diahoga, you signified to us that you heard we wen- 
in want and distress, whi;.h, to be .sure, we were; an< 
pitied us and our po'iv wive., and cliildren ; we took u 
Idndlyand as a \'.'.'>u\ that came from your heart; now i.- 
the time for you to louk abom and act the part of a chan 
table ..•.,.'. .vise na.n ; be tho:eIbrc strong. Be as;,sured tliui 


"■: 4 

;]() liJ-;'i-i;v 01' KOKTil A.Ml'roN COL'NIV. i 

uillioilji: I Mill |i'i(ii', I wilicii) my share; wliab i . ..,. . | 
i)c>s yon lio It' 111'' oi- my pooiilc, .sIkiII lie |hi:.1i i,'',! | 
ilic Tel, >;alie!!Sj We ^Vcjllt hide any |)l-e,senl.s ..:<< .'1: ^| 
i^ivo ns : 1 \^-iy fjinly ^,h ill laiow thai we ha\e he:,i,i y, J 
LHiud "wr,:,:!-; , wc wil! iie[ do as otliers, and seea- i./ i .' j 
nut'les, iiii ."mx ^^'atl^.■us, iiuve done, sneak awa\ end I i | 
y onr w <ii is ,\k I je e;-,..'ii(s in ih(^ l)U>hes ; hut sh; li (inl ir, « 
lar and i.^ ai' i'lat ell niay j^in with ns. l^xei'l V'":.' ■ :> | 
no\r in dn' ])■>[ inaniier you ean, and you \\d|,t,;. j 
V>ui-.n;;. ' j 

ni'odser— I'ee (' on* Insion of niy words is no ive ', . 
'diis: th'- ju.ue r io hand is ol' ureal nionne, i^. . 'i 
man. I atn unt a ini'SNeniicr iVoin the tnnle(i ''.'aii . ■, ,< 
though I ail , . a ( liii I'mali ainnii- till' D.dau ai- ■, [ ,. 'j 
now heal- v\i'U ;on liavo to '^ay !o ni\ ['■■^^ !• ^i '.1,-4 
conned lie.', ii' n l.( Vih-d, 1 shall lay hold of u . mo..', ■ 1 
ii to til • nnn> d .NaiioMS. \/\u) will smile and ii'- nl ,;' .^ 
to h(,ar ;i\\-~;; if what yoii say Ihj disa;j . e".ii,'i:', ij 
will nulunth-emdin- keep ii close Mlien; he e|,,.> ■' j 
Ii.-,!) and dehv. r il laiddnlly to the mnled .\aii..cis. ,.• 
let (hem, as il[e\' er( m\' snjienois. do a> dii.'\ • ' Wr'.l 
ISene: a-d.e . if he had (K-lie speakni-, he >;:ld he i, s^ 
loi' the (vi'esei i. The jiiain ihinu. he added, is ,< 1 ie rA 
hreast, l.iyin- his hand to his heart ; hilt lliis ^vdl lii'j. , J 
OH wdiai woi'ds the I iovernor will sjjeak to ns. Te; ,i h ■ ■• 
jieated iIk; |). law, ire woidi // 7;/.v//,v/^//,',S'//, the sa e ;e i,i M 
liawd-v. hoeiiia e as ,/{"_rii-, with LTeal t'arne>lne^ ■,- m'! ., , 
very ]>ade'iie ione. Mr. ^Veiser, Avho knew ii. , ^'.'eel '.4 
have .( vei'y e\ieii>i\e and idreihli.' si-nse, desee ; [}<. e..jj 
terpreier to a k hiin w hat he iir-ant iiy ir/\-: "'. , \ 
tliis ]uu-iienlar o( e,i>ion, and ^^^.[)lamed hiniseh' e; ike ,, ; 1 
lowin,i manner; ■• Suppose y()U want (n mux e a kii '_:: ' ^ 
ot' woed dial leiimres many hands, you must uke jeaid 
to get .,v ma. V lo::elhcr aS Avill do lli(.: husine.-S: u 're J 
laU sl!..-| oi e:,e. ihoii^di ever SO Weaj< a one, vW di. : '; 
iO'C to M,| 1 e'j'ose; ihoiigll tllis heillg iu i's! it' ,nlhi.:..| 

yei il'y on e.iimoi move iht3 log without il, you oi's' -j: ; I 
jiopamsia e- r It- -//■T/Av/i.vA/c-Z'A'?/, he strong, 1";-,,; ai i , a 
y;^ii. ■' ns [u j.y{ every fndian nation ua i\i\ e. \\:\\ 
tlie' joie oni handf ; be sure, jiere'ii'i e^- ly a;. \ 

in->TOUV VV MU'jMlAM I'TON (JOUN'l'y. IJ / 

liii^o you have iiUfic \v ii>; iii |)ai'tu;ular, d.> nut piiicli 
lualtfi's lieilliur \\-'\\\y ii.^ in,- lahfr liuliaii.-^; \vl' help you : 
hul \vi'. ai'c j)Oor an I yi.u ai-.; rich ; uuike Ub .-^troiiLr, and 
\vc \v\\\ i:->c our •.>li-et..gih lor you; and besid(;s this, wJiar 
you ilo, do i{ui(;I;!}-; il:^: linii/s ar(' (iaiai;t'ro\is — diey will 
I'lul a(hiiil of delay, U'iiJishUriij ; do it ellcetual!y, aial 
till it Willi all j>os;:iia- d( -i)a[rh. 

Tiiu (.o\'ei'n. J' dill ,-:j)()ia- . 

I Hrother— J hav.- iicidwilli ailentuui all you havr 
i;;uil, 1 thank you I'-', tii : 'ji' iin.s.^ v, it!) uhirli \'ou ha\c 

I liei.'iand \<iur .S'.jjJ;,i ..-ni - , tii., juiUler,-, ijicntioiied are o; 

j iin])onanee ; J have laid them to heart ; J will ronsidri 
dieiii with 111)' < : ■ hen J am prepaj'ed to .speak. I 
will let )i)U know ; J wiil iis<: de.sjiateh, the- lime heim^, as 

i you justly ohser^-e, iJa!;L;i r(HJs. 

EasloUjO.i Thmsday, 'J!jdi July, 175(>. 
(TlKi .same person, )!ic.sci)t a.s day hct(jr(;.j 

{jiolhi 1 — I am lmhiij to speak to you on the allair 
Wi! lui: met alMUit ; my >peiih ^s■ill I'onlain malleis el 
qreat moment. 

I)y this slriuif ot' wanijium, tlicKd'ore, 1 open )'oitr ears 
that y«'U may give a ])io|)er attention. ^I ^trhii^. 

Hrothiu- — Tlic inliahitants ol" this proviuee have ever 
been a jicaeeahle peopl >, cUid remarkahle lor their lo\c. 
and conslaiil I'rieudship to the Six Nations, and other In- 
dians in alliance with them. ^\ hen our Lack inliahitaiits 
were attacked fall, we at Jirst were at a loss ironr 
whence tlic blow eame, and W( re much sur[)rised when 
we were intdnned that it v/as given by oui' (dd friends 
and neighliors, the cousins of our brethren, the Six Na- 
tions. AN^e wondered at it, and tlie more so as wc had 
not, to our jvuowli'dgc, given them any just cause of 
olfence. As soon is v.^e knew this, we sent to the Si.\ 
Nations, and infoimcd ihem of it, and desired to know, 
whether this blo^\' Irn] ',;ec;i. struck by their direction, oi 
with llu.'ir j>ri\'iiy or consent; and on receiving assii 
runi^es from them IIku it u'as not done by their consem 
and !! : they greatly ilisa|tproved such conduct, w.. 


made reivdy lo revenge the injury we had received, in.i 
we wanted neidier men, arms, annnunition or sirongtii l' 
do it, and to vake vengeance for the h)jury done us ; vei 
when we had the hatchet in our hands, and av ore' pis- 
pared, iioi only to defend ourselves, but to carry ]\\ 
war into the country of those wlio had struck ns, v, j 
sent again to the Six Nations, agreeably to the Iroatvs 
subsistnig between us, to acquaint them of our im, i,- 1 
lions. Tlicy lei us know they had held a great connt-il at 
Fort Johnson, on this matter, and that deputies froin ■ 
thence were s nt to sunmion a meeting of ilic D) ' • i 
wares and Siiuwanese, at Ostanigo, who were r-uinieu^ 
with an account that their nephews had, at tlnir intrr." 
position, laid down the hatchet, and would slrike ih/ 
English no mnve. The Six Nations having kccivo] 
these assuranc(,-s from the Delawares and Shawaiiese 
requested us not to execute our hostile purposes but to 
suspend hostil [lies, declaring that they would fully .t 
commodate tliis breach, and bring about a ])eace. Ai 
this request of die Six Nations, we kept our Avarriois at 
liome for guarding and protecting our frontiers. ] li -u 
sent Captain N.;wcastle and other Indian inesseii«'.-,s (u 
you, to notify ihe advices of the Six Nations, widu<'- 
spect to what liad been determined at Ostanigo, instrncr 
ing him, m case he found you sincerely disposed tii 
peace, and inclined to return to your alliance with i^- 
to assure you, on the behalf this government, that ^vJ 
were willing t., it, on just and honorable terms. Nlav- 
castle and the other messengers returned widi you; 
answers, in wliich you acknowledge you had beer | 
under the influence of an evil spirt, but were w( 11 dls- | 
posed to return to your old amity and friendship ; at d.r | 
same time letdug us know that you was sorry for what I 
had passed— t lint you was in distress, and desired wo | 
would pity y.uu' distresses. To show our readiness l.^ 
enter into a ti-e:Uy, and our sincerity in what was said 
by Newcastle, I sent him back agahi to you, to iet ym- 
know on behalf of this government, that I hod kiiull^^d 
a council tii-e, hivited all of your ]jeople to it '-iec-ed 
die road, washed o(T the blood, and promised, if yuiu' 


^ people would come to council and renew former leagues, 
and do what is I'urtiier necessary on this occasion, I 
^ would bring somctliing with me to relieve your dis- 
^ tresses. 1 tiiought it right to go through this account 
in this particular manner, that you might know from 
; myself what was the subject of the messages sent by 
j. Mewcastle, and what was the substance of the answers 
feceived by him ; and now I sui)])ose (as I do not see 
I t!ie body of your Indians here) your people in general 
did not believe Newcastle, bat seiit you to know if he 
had my autliority lor the several matters delivered to you, 
and to hear them fn^m my own mouth. 1 do not bhune 
you for this caution. It bespeaks your care. The mat- 
ters he was charged \viih, being of the last concern for 
the satisfaction of all your people, whithersoever dis- 
persed, 1 do in this public assembly, in tiie name of tiie 
government and jieoplc id' this ])rovince, assure you, 
j that Captain Newcastle acted by my authority, and in 
I /confirmation of what I have said, and that what he de- 
■ livered was by authority from me, I give you this belt. 
,<i belt. 

Brother — Being now convinced out of my mouth 
of the sincerity of my prtdessions made to you by Cap- 
tain Newcastle, and of the dispositions of the people of 
this province to renew the ancient friendsliip that sub- 
sisted between William Penu and the Indians, I desire 
you will report this to the Iridiaiis at Diahogaand to the 
Six Nations, and all the Indians far and near, as my 
words spoken to them m the name, and on the behalf 
of the government of Pennsylvania. I invite them all 
to this council fire — the greatest number tliat shall 
come, the more acceptable it will be to me, I invite and 
desire you will bring with you your whole ])eople ; 
but then you must brii;g here with you also all pris- 
oners you have taken during these disturbances, 1 
must insist on this as an evidence oi your sincerity, to 
make a lasting peace ; for without it, though ])eace may 
be made from tlie teetli outv/ards, yet while you retain 
our flesh and blood in slavery, it cannot be expected wu 
(tan bt Picnds with you. or tliat a peace can come from 



our liepai.s. I i cpciit this article of tlie prisoners a^ i 
oessary .'.oii<liiiu!i ut^ ].cace, and desire you will considt; j 
It as such ; n !M tins you deal with us sincerely, wo sli-. 
esteem you sincere in every respect, and proceed to it- ; 
new our lonncr leagues and covenants, and hecom- 
agani aiio lle.-,li as before ; and nuist remind yo' ^us vl 
arcactmgin c.mccrt with the Six Nations,) n/'biiii" 
some 01 your uncles along vnlh. vou, that they imv s,', 
all that p;is,-e.s. and be witness 'of the g.)ud cli-r'ts ;>■ 
their and our message tu you. ./J hdt. 

_ Brother— l>i testimony of the satisfaction y-u ]k:i. I 
given ail our people by connng to this connciriirciiiui I 
have put nUo my hands a small present far ■^^^^v ,'iucl j 
your men, whirh will ])e given you at an^M^l■e ■ i 
shall thmk i.ropej. 1 have likewise given nrd- , • h,'ik 
cai)tams ut theiurts cui the Ifuntiers, to luiiii.h y.'U v, ill 
as much ])rovi.sion as you can carry, lor tlu; us. (,i' d 
peoj)le ycu \va\v. left behind you. 

JJrother— (>nly a few of 'you are come dov. :, . d i- 
present ul goods, llurefore, is but small. Wjir.n 'h- 
body of your nation comes here, which I expi , x\v\ 
will, and the | risoncas are delivered uj), and ;: )i: ' 
peace made, large presents will l)e given, and ) ,;p, <k - 
tresses relieved in a more am])le manner. 

lirother— Great woyks require strong hami'. uiu, 
many— Ibis is a good and great one— ili(3 v/irfs of 
])eace— It requires strong heads and stought hea.i ,-^\p 
desn-c many sudi may be j(jined together. I tlna-eioa \ 
desire your assistance for Pennsylvania in this .Mau- \ 
Having great ii)lluence with many who hvc far di-i;u >' 
Irom us, yop are esteemed, and will be heard ; we- d'to>- | 
tore choose yon as a^^tut and counsellor for this pir.v I 
mce._ .Engage hi it heartilv— you oui^dit to do ir-yoi: \ 
owe It to die comitry m which you was born— you 'v,vc i 
Jt to your brethren, the English. You owe it to y'oiir owi' ■' 
people o\-,x whidi you ])resiap. We desire \-.)u --il! 
heartily vinderirdce it, and use your utmost ei':dL-av(,r. 
to bring about ihis great and good work we lirvc ^lov, 
begun. /2 laricc halt. 

TeedytiscuiJg answered that he had received mc 


Governor's words lantliy, and would in a lew words 
answer him. Then talciiiEr a large bc/t in his hand, he 
proceeded : 

Brother — At the very time Newcastle came with your 
last messages, I was in ireaty witli tlie Six Nations, and 
received this anthoi'iiy fjom them, (lifting up the helt.) 
This belt denotes tlie Six Nations, by their chiets, 
have lately renewed dioir covenant chains with us. For- 
merly we were accountf.:d women, and employed only nt 
women's business ; but now they have made men of us, 
and as such we ari' now eome to tliis treaty. Having tliis 
authority as a man io nj;d:e peace, I have it in my hands, 
: but have not opened h, but will soon declare it to tlu; 
other nations. This beh iiolds together nations — we are 
in the middle, between the French and the Engh^>h. Looh 
at it. There are but two ( hiels of the Ten Naticjiis. They 
i are now looking on, and ilieir attention is fixed to see — 
are disposed really lor peu^e. 'IMus belt further denotes 
. that whoever will not coKii)ly with the terms of peace^ 
the Ten Nations will join against him, and strike him. 
See the dangerous cin-nnistances I am in— strong men on 
■ l)oih sidles — lialclicts oil lioth sides; Vi'hoevor does in- 
L dine to ])eace, \^'ill 1 j(j!ii. 

F Brother — This is a g.>od day; whoever will make 
t peace, let them lay hold of this belt, and the nations 
[ round shall see and know it. I desire to conduct myself 
^ according to your words, which I will perform to the- 
I tihnost t)f my i)ower. I wish tlie same good that pos- 
l sessed the good old m;.n, William Penn, wlio was a 
I friend to the Indians, may nis}»ire the people of this 
ij province at this time. 'IV/cii deUvtrcd the belt. 

The governor receive; i it. I take hold of this bell, 
[ and am pleased with wlat has been said. It is all very 

i Teedyuscung then explained tlie belt, saying it was 
fi sent by the Six NDti-.iiS; and he accepted it; you s(j(', 
says he, a square iu ibo middle, meaning the lands of tin. 
If Indians, and at one end the figure of a man, indicating 
\ the EuLdish, and at the oiiier end another, meaning tin: 
^ Fren- !, Our uiicies laid us dial both these coveled ovu 


lands ; but let us join together to defend our lands againsi t .) 
both; you should be partakers with us of our lands ' <i 

Teedyuscuiig and his sou came and dined with il'. | 
Governor ; and at"ter dinner some more of the Indians f 
coming in, the Governor actiuainted Teedynscung that j 
he liad something of importance to communicate to 
him. The Governor then informed him, that as he wa? ■ | 
going to council tliis morning, he received a letter lioin ; j 
the northern frontiers with very bad news, that gave liini ' 
a great deal of concern, lly this letter he received ad- . ■ 
vice, that some iTidians had killed four of our white peo- 
pie at the Minnisinks. This occasioned our forces w bu ^ i 
upon their guard, aird a party of them fell in with three [ > 
Indians, and judging them to be enemy Indians, one of | ' 
them was killed in endeavoring to make his escape— '^ .. 
and then the Governor went into particulars, relating to '^ 
Van Etten's letter. . 

Tlie Governor said lie did not know what Indians liad .; 
done this misehirf ; it' the Indian who was killed, was , i 
our friend, he was sorry for it; but if our enemy, he [ , 
Wiis glad u( it. I I 

TeeilynsLungs lid, that when lie came here toceurici!, 'i 
all the Indians thereabouts knew of it, and therefore he | i 
believed it must he the French Indians that killed our | '< 
people ; but that if his people were so foolish as to conifi 
in our borders ai this time, and were killed anyhovp, i .' 
they must take the reward of their folly — none ol thosi! : 
private deaths ought to effect a public measure," nor . ; 
would this make any alterations in his councils. ■< 

Cr. ,' Easton, Friday, 30th July, 175(>. [ 

(Same persons present as before.) < ! 

The goods weje brought and placed on the ccuncii -^ 

table, and were delivered to the Indians — the Governor /' 
speaking as follows: 

Brother — I acipiainted you yesterday, that the pcoplu | 

of Pennsylvania had put into my hands a small [jresent Jr ■ 

to relieve you, and your wives and children, from tlieir | 

present di;.trcsse5. I think it furthe/ necessary io inform \, 

you that a part of this present was given by the people h 


called Quakers, (wlio aic descendants of those who first 
came over to this country with your old friend William 
Penn,) as a particular tesiiniony of their regard and at- 
fection for the Indians, and their earnest desire to pro- 
mote the good work of peace in which we are engaged. 

Brother — This is not only their sentiments, hut my 
own, and those of the people of this provhice, who will 
all rejoice to see this good work of peace perfected ; and 
therefore, as you liavc now received from us, this is a 
Bubstantial proof of o'li dispositions to relieve your dis- 
tresses; you will be hcii.;r enabled to encourage others 
to return to their friciid-lup wiih us. I say,'^brother, by 
this we give you a clear testimony of our readiness and 
good dispositions lor peate ; show you the same, readiness 
and comply with the tcnns I have proposed to yon. ^'l 

Teedyuscung returnci thanks, and repeated his assu- 
rances of doing all iii ins power to perfect a general 
peace with the Indians. From the council the Gover- 
nor proceeded to an entertainment that was provided 
for the Indians; the odicors and all the comi)any then in 
town, accompanied him. 

Teedyuscung, whilst at dinner, was so well pleased 
with his reception and generous entertainment, tliat 
he declared, in the warmest manner, no endeavors of 
his should be wanting to bring over to peace all the In- 
dians far and near, that he could speak or send to, and 
repeatedly desired the Governor would publisii what 
was done, through his and neighboring provinces, and 
lie would do the same at home. 

The Philadelj)hla Quakers, after dinner, came to take 
their leave of him — he jjarted with them in a very af- 
fectionate manner ; hut the other part of the comi)any 
staying, he entered into a free conversation with tlwj 
Governor, wherein he related many entertaining particu- 
lars respecting his jcuruoy to Niagoras, and afterwards 
made a council sp'^ech, will; a struig of wami)um, say- 
ing : 

Ih-other — You are so good, and received us so kindly, 
I will d^iO give you of some of that good tobacco that 


the Six N;iticiis put iiilo my pipe ; you shall siik !•:., ■ 
it yourfiC'l'/LS' — you will know it is good, and I will i,nvi; 
of the same tobacc<j wherever I go, (meaning iho nu'; 
sage from the Six Nations to them, to be at peace A\iil 
the EiiLli^h)— llie same thing that I have offered ynw, I 
will offei- to ail ihe Indians, and tell them that you lia\i, 
smoked of this lobaceu; but to do lliis, recjuires mo loli. 
rich, and yet 1 ,,m poor. It will take up a long tiiui^ a- 
tliere aje ninny nations to send the ]jipe to. ]hi: iu wv 
months 1 hope lo go my ronnds, and be here again will- 
a large nuiuuer ofdili'urent nations, I say it may be in 
two months: 1 Lit it niay^ be longer, as the people li\'e m 
great distances I'rom one another. I assui'e you, ] n-iil 
execute evci'y iliing yon have desir(!d of me^ . nd Icl 
the Six Nations know all that lias jtassed bi-'tweiju ii- ; 
and that I am your agent and counsellor in the lJ:!au'aij 
Nation. cJ str'.m^. 

Jh-other^-1 will not have you mistake me, as if I 
meant that I could prevail on the Ohio Indians; I c:".;- 
not tell diat they will leave off doing mischief. I I'o, 
yon will strtMa^thcn yourselves against them - i'i:;y, 
jnake yonrs^'U' s as sirong as ])0ssiltle oi'i thai ^'le. i 
must warn you likewise of another thing; perhaps m,i 
the east side ol' die Sust]uehanna, there may be iiji^^chi.i 
done. by Indians in my absence; but be assured ii will 
not be by any of my people; it will be by the I'riniili 
Indians iVoju the Ohio, who can easily pass o/.-r tlio 
Susquehanna and do wdiat mischief tliey ])lease — again- 
these you be sure to arm yourselves in the best iriannj,' 
you can. llemembtn- 1 give you this warnu'g. .1 

At a counci 
July, 175;.. I'. ^I. 

Present — Tii .' Hon. the Governor, William i,ou..i 
lienjamio Chow. Ki 'hard Peters, John Tvlililin and f'ci 
rad Weis'.j.;, iilfj^rs. 

Mr. AVeisor was asked whether it was intendi«] di; 
the (Jovcrnor should keep the belt 'I'eedyuscmig t'-a ve, < 
•;.'iurn it, JVIr. 'W'eiser answered, that havij.g >/im 

il held at lOaston, Friday, tlie 30th da\ u\ j 
I'. M. 

HISTORY OF >xOirrnAMP'l'0\ COUNTY. 4 5 

(loul)(^l about il, lie put ilu: same (juestion to Newcastle, 
who said the belt was .sent by the Six Nations to tho 
Delawaics, and as it wn.-; given by them to the Gover- 
nor, it ought to be preserved among the council wam- 
pum, being a belt of great consc(|Ucnce, and it would 
1)6 well to return another a (atliom long, and at the de- 
livery ol' it, which vuust be in council to-morrow, to make 
jiproper address to Te-dyiiscinig, that he would bo dilli- 
gcnt and carry it to all ihe n;ilions Avithin liis mtluencc. 
.Newcastle said fnillu'r, that 'I'ecdyuscung would want 
abundance of AViinrjiUiii, and it he had it not, the cause 
would suffer excee!iingly — h^'. hoped tlie council bag \vi\h 
full, and desired it migitt be t;mptied hito the la[) oi' 

Mr. Weiser concurrrug iu opinion, and saying that 
the French gave great quantities of wampmu to their 
hidians,andon matters of eonseqnenco these i)elts were 
several tathoms long, i;;id very wide. 'I'ho Secretary 
was ordered to bring all the wampum he had into coun- 
cil, viz: Fifteen strings and seven belts; a i>arcel of new 
black wampum, amouu'ing to seven tlunisand ; and hav- 
ing no new wdnte w^anipum, nor any ])roper b(dt to give 
iu return for Teedyuscung's ])eace belt. 

A messenger was seiit to Hethlehem, and he returned 
witii five thousand ; ui)on which the Inchan w^)mcii 
were employed to mal;e a belt a fathom long and six- 
teen beads wide; in the centre of which was to be Iht 
tigure of a ]uan, meaning the Governor of Pennsylvania. 
and on eacli other side, five other figiu'cs, meaning the 
Ten Nations, mentioneu by Teedyuscung. 

The King who was very iri-egular in his visits, as well 
iis his disctuirses, bolted all of a sudden into the room, 
and with a high-toned voice spoke as follows, viz : 
', ]5rother-— I desire all thai I have said, and you liave 
said to one another, May be aright; some speak in the 
dark; do not let us do so ; let ;\ll be clear and known. 
What is the rea^.ji) ihc Govi.'iiior holds councils S(J clo^i 
ni his hands, and by ciiidii' light ? The Five Nations 
used to let him sii oui of doors, like women; if the Fi\ > 
Natji wj still make him a woman, they must. Bui whii-. 


is the reason the Governor makes him a woman, (moan Ij 
ing why ho confers with Indians, without sending fo; f 
hhn to l)e present, and hear what passes.) The Gover- | 
nor answered, tliat lie held councils on a hill — ^lias m> f 
secrets — rjever sits in swamps, but speaks his rniud I 
openly to tlie world — what happens here, he has a riglii % 
to hear — the \uomen were sent for to make a belt, not I 
to council — the Six Nations may be wrong, they are not | 
under liis direction, and thereibre, he is not answerublo I 
tor their condncl, if diey have not treated the Delpwars.^ I 
as men. I 

'I'he Chief tlianked the Governor — seemed wel. \ 
pleased, and said, to-morrow he would speak more; i 
what lie had to say was from the Six Nations, ife thai | 
wont make peace, must die. ^rj siring'. v 

It was agreed in the morning, that the GmcriiOi f 
sliould deliver the new belt, then in making, to TcedV' j 
uscung, with a proper speech; that by two belts lied to- ; 
gether, Newcastle and Teedyuscung should ba iiuid.; 
joint agents for this government, and they be desired '.;; 
consuU togetheijlo love one another, and act for the 
best — that the ujw black wampum and all the fjlts di^^l 
strings should be given to Teedyuscung, and a privr.i- 
present made to him and his interpreter, 13en. Si 

Easton, Satuday, 31st day of July, ITjo, | 

(Same })ersoiis present as before.) 'i 

The names of the Indians present, at the treaty. w<tc | 

taken down by Mr. Edwards, and orderded t(/ bo en- | 

tered. I 

Mr. Weiser having enquired of Newcastle what mcs- * 

sages had been received by the DelaAvares at Diauoga. * 

Irom the Six Nations, received the following iiifovni;.- | 

lion, which he (<.ok down in words that are the literLii 1 

interpretation of wb:it Newcastle said, viz : .| 

The large iielt given by Teedyuscung, was sent lo il'ir * 

I>elawarcbi by the council of the united Six Nations, with | 
a message; tv ihe Ibilowing import : — Cousins, tiio Deia 
waie Indians — yoii will remember that you rac cii, 
women, ou? foreluthcrs made you so, and put .i petty 


I coat on you, and cliarged you to be true to us, and lie 
{ with no other men ; but of late you have sutfered the 
' string that tied your pctn^-coat, to be cut loose by the 
French, and you lay widi them, and so become a com- 
I mon bawd, in which you did very wrong, and deserved 
chastisement ; but notwithstanding this, we will still es- 
teem you; and as yoii have thrown ofl' the cover of youi' 
modesty, and become stark naked, which is a slianie for 
a woman, we now desire you, that you may be a com- 
plete man — we advise you not to act as a man yet, but 
be first instructed by us, and do as we bid you, and you 
will become a noted ma'i. 

Cousins — The Eughsn and French fight for our 
lands. Let us be strong and lay our hands to it, and 
defend it. In the mean lime we lend our eyes and ears 
to us, and the Knglish, our brethren, and yoit will Iivo 
as well as we do. 

Then the Governor sei. I to Newcastle and Teedyus- 
cinig. The new belt not being finished, he exjilained 
the proposed figures to them, and desired the women 
might finish it on rainy days, or resting in their juurney, 
whicli was proiuised. 

Then the Governor spoke : 
Brothers Newcastle and Teedyuscmig — Set an high 
value upon this belt — it is the peace belt which Teedyus- 
cMug delivered in council. I very cheerfully lay hold 
of it. I will lay it up willi tlie council belt, and declare it 
i to you, I am most heartily disjjosed to etTect the meaning 
of this belt — a speedy and honorable peace, and a return 
01 the otiices of love and friendship between the Indians 
and their brethren, the English. In return, I give you 
I tlie belt now making, which you will consider as finished, 
and when done, show n every Avhere, and make our 
dispositions, and the treatment you have met with, 
known to your own people, the Six Nations, and all 
your allies. 

Here the Governor g;i\o the new belt, as far as it was 
made, and all the wampum ])roposed for it, desiring, 
if it was not enough to comi'lote it, that they would add 

^8 n.'STOitv or xoktiiampton couxty. f ' 

Then taldiig two bells, joined together in his hands, j j^ 
and addrjessiiig Newcastle and Teedynscung, he declared ^ '^ 
them ageiiis for tiie province, and gave them authority I \ 
to do the jiiibli(i business togetlier. lie reconnnei)dei| ' j 
to them a mutual confidence, esteem and intimacy, am! I 
wished thcui success in iheir negociations. To v/hii^h i \ 
they answered, that they woidd be nuitual good tVii.'Lds. \ • 
and lay their hauls togetlier, and do every thing iu tlicir j i 
power to j'iovnoi J tlie weighty matters entrustci.l to ibom. \ ] 

Teedynscung added. If tliis meeting should not ' . 
serve bin; in ovcry thing committed to liis charge, or ■) I 
strings should l.c cn;(>ked, lie would return to l;s uijiI '' ' 
niakc them straight. What he says comes iVom his - 
heart, and not iVum bis lii)s. His heart and oius . bt/alj , 
be one, and b.- aire to une auuther; iur if' diilcrent 
liquors arc; i>iil 'iit(3 a cask and shaken, they will mix ) ; 
and come; one. I , 

The (lov(;rnor said he had v/ritten down whai Tee- 
dyuscung liad said on the belt delivered by hii.i, ami 5 
will keep it in bis heart. It is very agi'eeable i.. Iiini j ,' 
and the people cd' rennsylvania. He will lay ;;ii []w ] 
belt in the council clKunbi'r as a mark' ot' his 1ji<.'' I hip, ^ 
as he is a{)])ointed agent ibr Pennsylvania, witiit r|.t;ii!i ' 
Newcastle He puts into his hands all the belt ai;d i . 
wam})uni he has here, to be made use ot" by him ui the « 
course ol'liis ue':Mciatioiis,as he may judge most [.rojier, * 
and most lor the interest of the people of this pre)\'iiico. * 

Teedyascimg answered, that he might meet v uli dif- t 
ficnlties in traiisMctiiig the important business coieiuittcd ^ 
to his charge; but as he is imw one of the council of t: 
the province of Pennsylvania, he assures his bieihreii j 
that he will exeii himself jaitlifnlly, and to the ulmost ' 
of liis }io\ver, ni the service ; and if he meets with ^ 
crooked paths, ii ■ will endeavor to make them stridght. / 

The Goveniur ilim tbuuked Teedynscung and I'lcw- 
castle for ihoir uuderiaking to be agents for P. i.i: ylva- 
nia, on this occa.^ioi) ; desired that tiiey might cu-<j]H'rat(i 
one witli !.^.oil^.■!^ ; ud consult together on tin ju'oper 
measures iv be eiiteied into by them, and ^lulivii :(l two 


bells tied together, as a isign or symbol of that liarmony 
and iiiuuiiinity tliat ought to subsist between theui. 

Teedyusciing said, that he was pleased with being 
joined with Newcastle in ])ublic business ; that he hoped 
matters would be l)roiight to a hai)py issue ; that he 
wished there niiglii be a firm friendship and lasting 
union between tlu. Siy N;'.tions and the people of Penn- 
sylvania; and that they might be as ono man. lie fur- 
ther said, that he had a kngo laniily, and liaving a great 
way to gu, he had v.o mciuis of carrying any more pro- 
visions than would S(^rve liiui on the road — he therel'ore 
desired that he miglit be fiu-ni-ihed with a horse, that he 

i might be enabled to carry provisions to his family. 
Whereupon the (iovernoi; ])romisod lo let him have a 

t horse, and he promised to reliirn him again, the next 
time he came down. 

i The Governor then talking into his hands the belts, 
strings and bundles of new 1)lack wampum, gave tliem 
lo Teedyuscung, and desired he would use them to the 
best advantage. 

Tiie private presents w< )t' then given, and the Oovit- 
nor and llie eouneil took iheii It^ives. The eoimeil re- 

' turning to JMiiladel|ihia, and the (iovernor going to New 

; York, on an express received from Gov. Shirley. 

A list of Indians preseiit at a treaty at Easton, 26th 
July, 175'): 

Capt. Newcastle, one of tJie Six Nations ; Teedyus- 
cung, King of the Delawui es ; Ta])ascawen, counsellor ; 
Amos, Kesmitas, John Jacob, Tecdyuscung's three soiis ; 
Machmelawchchiidc, his son-in-law ; JohuSwalling, his 
grand s'ju; Ciuistian, William, Josiah ; Baronet Dow- 
man, an Onandgo Indian ; Weenochwee, Mongust, 
Ilatchchaan; lieiijamin, that speaks English; John 
Pumpshire, Joseph Milclity, 'J'homas Storer, Josepli 
Pupy, Nicodenms, Zaeh;aius, (Miiistian; Macharveheh 
iy, diat lived some n.oiiths at l^aston. 

I liave carefully perused the foregoing minutes, and 
do find iheni to give a true account of what passed be- 


tween the Oovmiior and tlie Indians, in my presLiiccaf 

Conrad Wkisdi:. \ • 
[Pro. !-:.:<:., jK lOo— i09.] \ ' 

November Stls, 1756, tlie Six Nations and tin: Del;.- j 
ware, Shawanc-es and Mohicans, represented \>^ thei* | 
principal cinels, met Oovernor Denny with his cr)!iii.,ii ? 
conunissi'jiiers and secretary, and a great nmnber oj ' 
citi'/.ens w,' Ph.iladelphia, chielly Quakers. 

'•At unee o'<:lock,'^ siiys the record, the ''' Onerji;.- ,, 
marched irom his lodgings to the place of conlereiier ' ■ 
guarded l)y a party ot" Royal Americans in front iwA or, f 
the Hanks, and a detiichment of Colonel Wei.s( I's pro- ; 
vincials, with colors Hying, drums heating and mii^V | : 
j)laying — which order was always observed in goitis: \ 
to the place of conierence. I'eedyuscmjg, who r'^pro- '-^., 
sented four tribi^s, was the chief s])eaker on th(3 '):irt • ' 
the Indians. This conference lasted nine days, anJ ai > 
the close a treaty of peace, was concluded hetwucu tlii | 
Shawances and Dohiwares and the English." |, 

Another council was held in July, 1757. An ahor % H 
the autunni of 1758, when alK)Ut live hundreil Indiiiiu- V- 
attended. Another was held in ()ctol)er, 175.'j. The V. 
following is an extract of the records touchint: iIjc iraiis ?;,f 
actions at this cuncil. 

Council at Euston., October 11, 175!). \% 

The Indian Chiefs and Oovernor Bernard and Govgi 
nor Denny in cianKal. 

Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagoes, Cayugas, Seneca^. 
Tuscaroras, N uilicokes, Conoys, Tuteloes, Ciniganh, U 
Delawares, Unamiues, Munseys, Mohicans and Wap- |^ 
(lingers. I 

Teed.iju.scu'ii.^. I called — tlie Indians hav- 
Spcak ii/id [hey wi!l hear. Sit and talk. 1 
hear and su.:. 

Tokaaio, chief of tlie Cayugas, I speal. 
fiayugas, Ttib'cnroras, Tuteloes, Nanticokcs and 
^V road has boon opened for as to this coij 

-- c 














Rlood has been spilt Ujton this road. liy tliia belt I 
wipe away that blood. I take tlie tomahawk from off 
your heads. 

Nichas then spoko. Teedyiiscmig has said lie is our 

chief. We knov^ kim not. It' he be our king, who 

made him so? Have you done it? Say yes gr no. 

Tagashata. Wo kuov/ ntit who made him our kint^. 

%/issara7idongii(n:. No sucii thing was ever said in 

our wigwam, tliat Ti'.edyuscnng was our king. 

Henry Kim^. i spcnk lur the Oneidas, Cayugas, 
Tuscaroras, NaniiL-ike:j ;uid Cunoys. We say boldly 
he is not our king. 

Governor Denny. You say that Teedyuscung said 
he was your king. He met us in the council fire at this 
place last year. We considered him your representa- 
tive, not your king. lb; said he was not your king, 
lie cahed the Six Nations his uncles. 
Governor Bernard. \ do not know tiiat Teedyus- 
; cimg is a greater man than any of your chiefs. 
^ Teedyuscung now spoke. You placed us at Shamo- 
( Jkin ami Wyoming. You have .sold that land. 1 hm 
[ jjike a bird upon a bough. I iouk aroimd and know not 
lAvhere 1 may take my nst. Let me come down and 
^3nake that land my own, that I may have a home for 
f ever. 

[^ Governor Benny. We will settle matters. 
\r^ Nichas spoke. Settle miitters — those tilings are in 
i«ihe dark. Place thcin in the light. The proprietaries 
»Uiave our deeds — show lliem to us and we will know 
gour marks. 

Governor Bernard then said he had something to say. 
q Taga,^htita said. One Governor at a time. We will 
jIBnot hear both speak. 
M A deed being produced, 

m Nichas again spoke. This deed we remember. We 
' sold the land. Tho laud was our own. All thinss are 
;, right. 

t A member ot ti.e Pt; comicil then observed: 
* Teedyuscung a.sks u.s to mole you owners of tho lands 
i atWiti iiidc and i-ihamoking We have no power to 


sell those land-s, Your request shall be laid bcfoi-c 

7''eedt/uicnnL,' ie\)\ie(}. Onas will grant our nq.. 
We trust in liirn.. We know hirn. lie loves justid, 
We are salisiicij. 

"There ums also another council held in IToi, con 
earning tho Dri avarf,- settlement at Wyoniiri;j, Jii Vvii'':!: 
Teedyiibcung look an active and eloquent pari. " 


Easton is sifuatcd at the conlluence of the ri'.'Lis Du 
aware anrl Li iii^li, and cxteiuls iVoru the inuiiiii oi il. 
latter, along thf- loinur, nearly hah" a nnle, to i!..- Ih;s| 
kill creek ; so rfiat ihi- l(Arn is Imunded on tiu'to sidi 
by water. For the advantages of position, as well as; 
for its beauty nf scenery, it is unsurpassed by any iriLmdi 
town in Peini^syh'ania. The soci(;ty of the ]ili:ci, ;;■: i 
morals and inrelligence, is certauily no( snr[»a--s.\i ic. ^ 
any town in ihe connu-y. Industry and ecuniuny /rJ 
the characteri.-tics of all classes; both professicnal iti.'| 
mechanical gentlemen, are an ornament tf) lb.; ;,ia- 
The dwellings are generally well built — their ; LiMct 
.spacious, and a lew of them costly. 

Easton was incoporaied in llHii. The streets {tin eii,il 
and west, noith and south, and are well paved, wil:. 
side \valks. In the ceiitre^of the town is a line sqiiajv 
surrounding the Court House, which makes i.[i.if',' aii 
imposing a{)pe;irance, since it has received '' a iirashinv; 
np'^ and otlier additions. The mnnlxir of dw jUiriir,-; b 
between seven and eight hundred. There an/ iv/cIvl 
taverns in the borough ; about twenty stores, sovera! 
appothecaries, fom- foinideries, viz: Iron and Urvis^ 
foundeiy, ovv'iied by Aaron Miller, now carried mx ny liie 
iirmof Fishery Knight, manufacturing principally gratf^i ! 
and fenders; the Eagle foundery, carried on by Rictu.r'.U ■ 
Templin ; George W. Harnet's foundery, and f.'iu i:; ,i 
i3uckl('y's foundery. There are seven co,i-.;]i m i/i'; 



factories, carried on respectively by IMessrs. Slilwel), 
Seip, Steckel, Wolf, Diidly, J.,ud\vi'g and Godown. 

The borough, in addilioii to tbe usual county 
buildings, a Geiiurtu iielbrnied, two Lutheran, Presby- 
terian, Ej)iscop;il, Ciiiiolic and Abithodist chuiclies ; also 
a Jews' Synaguaiie. 'I'hc Baptists are ajjout erecting 
one. Coniniou .-.-cliOoN and Sabbath schools are well 
j liy an act of As-srinbly, Abuch 9th, 182(), a college 
I was established, iijidi.i- tin; nth; ot' La Fayette ColK'ge. 
I This will be unhi'rd i'l tb:' eha])ter ''on Education.'^ 
A library was ;'(. 11. jci iu ibl 1, containing ab(Hit thrr< 
I thousand ^'olunl(•s, wiili which is connected an extcnsix e 
cabinet of niineruLs. 'J'Jiere are siiveral news papers ]-tub - 
. lished here, viz ; Tbu ]<]a-.>lun iSentinel, by .lanr(3S \ 
I J)iinlap ; Unabhaengig^.-r Deuiocrat, by the same gen- 
i ileinan; Tlie JJeniocrat ^ Argus, by \V. A. Ilutler; 
j Easton Standard, by Mr. Sn.ndei's; The Whig &.bnn'naij 
: by Mr. Iletrick; and a (leiman pa|)er, by Mr. II. Sen- 
senian. 'I'he town is libnndantly su])plied with v\''ater, 
oonvyed in iron jiipes ti'oni a spring alK)Ut a mile I'rum 
tlie borough. Theriiare \.\\\) luidyes across the Hnshkill, 
one across the J)ela\v;ii'e, and one across the Lehigh. 
Formerly there wivs a chain bridge across the Lehigh, 
: suspentied on four chains, hanging in two loops and two 
lialf loops, having two pass ways for teams, and a foot 
walk between, wdiich was guarded by hand railings. 
This one was swept away by the freshet of 184L The 
town and vicinity sustained considerable injury from 
freshets in Novembcj", 1840, and Jamiary, 1S41, as ap- 
pears iVoni the followhjg extracts: 

Huiu Watek-^Loss of Pkoi'erty. — Tlie rain wliich 
fell in torrents on Tlinrsday last, caused our streams to 
j'ise very much. Tlie Leliigh, which usually rises very 
rapidly, came tlunidering duvvn with her torrents from 
tributaries among the mountains. Tliere wasconsidera 
ble damage doni; at the mouth, where the new dam is 
constructing. The abuinient of the dam, which is but 
partly linislied, was overllowed, the water washu.g 
iiwiiy '.lie bank alongside. 

54 Hi'->Toi.y OF NOKTiiAairroN codntt. 

The laii^^c lli e-proof four story brick house, iuuik 
ately below the dam, was entirely deinolisiied, being un ; 
dermined by the water. It fell with u heavy crash inl 
the river. Tiie water by this time liad got suilicioiii 
head to endanger the whole bank, which it was fast' 
undermining. So great^was the apprehension, thai tli' 
larailies along die river removed all their good.s. !;.s:pefi 
ing that their dwellings would be swept away. 

The excavation along the bank extended to v.iiliiu;, ^, 
few feel of some of the dwellings, taking away iLi; i 
whole street for about twenty yards. There was, li')V,'-l 
over, no dr.mago done to any other ])roperty hut il. ] 
store house. 1 

The scene on Friday evening was truly wii.l — li.. | 
roaring and gushing of the waters, the fires that wcr | 
kindled to light the workmen, the groups of pcrsi;i:. 1 
collected together at ditierentpohUs, altogether pi escntci | 
a grand and majestic spectacle. | 

There is but little damage done to tlie dan.. Ti;. < 
principal loss sustained, is the destruction of tli*; -i.,it J 
house, and wa>hing away of the street, which v, ;il r- | 
quire a vast anouiU of fdling in and slo])e wall ;i n S 
heavy expense, to jilace it in pro})er order. — II h:g ii.ul \ 
Journal, Nov. !, 1810. ] 

Freshet. — Great destruction of property, &c. on i!k S 
Lehigh and Delaware rivers, and inmidation of tli ■ | 
borough of Easton. \ 

As chroniclers of passing, events, it becomes our pain- 
ful duty to record a scene of destruction and dev i;slaiioii, 
such as never was before witnessed in this section ol 
country. The late excessive rains, carrymg witli it \\\t 
snow, which had covered ihe ground, caused our streams \ 
to rise beyond all precedent. Tliey came careering dov/it I 
with awt'al rapidity, on the morning of the 8th inst; nt I 
producing waste and ruin on every side, bearing o]i \W i. I 
angry waters every kind of property — house ., burns, | 
store-houses, fences, stacks of grain, and furniture of all \ 

The Lehigh river, one of the most unruly ai.d i!nl;i- 
lent of streams, has caused the greatest amouuL oi'd;':i- 


age.- As far as liciud from, not a bridge is left spanned 
across it. Tiie bridLics al Stoddartsville, Leliightoii, 
Siegfried's, Biery'^', Allciitown, Hctlilelreni, Freeman's, 
Kaston — all of them swept clean away. The beautifn! 
bridge at our borough, went about four o'clock in the 
morning of the 8th. It breasted the flood most gallantly, 
fur hours, but at last ^vas obliged to yield, and gracefidly 
parting, lioated oft' Mpou the angry waters that destroyed. 
The Jlals, below Soudi Easton, between the river 

Rand the cunal, cdiilniiiing the Collector's olllce of the 
Ivchigh Coal and ,"'»uvi2;irion (Jonjpany, and a small vil- 
lage, were so completely inundated as to hide the build- 
ings — all but the store-house were carried oft". The 
lower ])art of IViUiarns/u/rt is almost destroyed — the 
canal basin nijparunlly demolished — the Collector's oftice 
of the J)(!laware division moved oif its foundation — the 
way-lock stript of its covering, and botli sides of the 
river here, present but one scene of ruin. 

The dwellings, in the section of our borougli, adjacent 
to the J.ehigh, as far up as Lehigh street, were inun- 
dated in their lower storie-s, destroying their furniture, 
&c.,the occupant's haviiig only siUJicient time to save 
themselves. Some o( the dwellings were considerably 
. injured by the drift wood, the end of one being torn out 
and otherwise damaged, and leavhig all in a nearly 
untenantable condition. We have seen a saw-log, on a 
porch, about lifty yards from the river. Tiie houses, all 
along Water street, were overllowed, leaving them in a 
most forbidding condhioii. 

The Delaware, usually so remarkable for its mildness, 
as to be called the "silvery Delaware," also assmued a 
new character, tliough not so destructive above the 
Lehigh,asthat river, did, notwithstanding,nntch damage. 
It is estimated that it was thirty-iive'feet above low 
water mark, six feet higluT than has ever been heard of 
before. The de^tmciiou of the bridge across it Avas 
looked for during ilii; wliole olthe Mth, but it withstood 
the flood, though nui> h injured and torn. I?eport has 
it, that below tf.i s, every oil',!;r bridge on the Delaware 
is ^o\i-.. Coming, as this tliMMJ has done, in the motjt 



inclcmem part of tLo season, the clistress produced wil. | 
be great. It i;as fallen ni)on many wlio are in no \vav I 
nl)le to bear it. The d weUings, overflowed, were mostiv | 
ocenpied by the poorest of ouv citizens, who liave loi | 
tiien' all \Vr are iiappy to say, that the usual kind and 
charitable 1( ehii- uf our townsmen are in exercise, aii'l 
all that c>ui possibly he done, is done to alleviate die 
(Ustresse.s of the sniferers. 

As yet, we laiow oi' no loss of life. Mr. Lowvy ii);ii 
son, fi'om Celcnian's dam, were both swept away. Tlio 
father jumped upon a log, and while passing jii.^i above 
bere, l)i;Jore <\.,y, was seen, when one of our ciiizenv 
John Beam, at the risk of his own life, pushed out iii 
his boat and broiigbt hini safe to shore. Thi.s act oi 
mtrei)idity, to save a fellow being, deserves, aij(i liaj 
secured to Mr. iieam, unqualified praise. 'I'he scii. it 
IS said, v/as taken up about twelve miles belo'v. .-iiii' 

The damage done to individuals, it is iniposMMe ti 
correctly estimaie. The coal and wood yards, next dir 
river, haye sutfered considerably, 'j'ho Lehiiili T,\iP3- 
portalion Compa ly have k)st six or seven of ilietr fv-v 
deck boats. Tl;e loss of tlie Mauch Clmnk C(»m).am 
must be very considerable. We understand th;u one 
iiundred and fihy of their scows were counted as ihe\ 
passed dov/n the river. 

In addition to tbe bridges along the Lehi-li, tlic 
destruction oi' ))roperty v/as very \n-eat. Tiie lar^c- 
store house, at the north abutment of Coleman *,s dam, 
was undermined, and fell in. The lock attendee's- house' 
at the same place, met a similar tate. Tlie lock's and 
sluices on the soutli side of the dam, are all carried 
away— the Lehigh having forced a channel arouiui tk, i 
<Jam. ' I 

At Bctldehem, the loss of private property is very 
great, in addilicn t<> tbe destruction of the voH/abk 
old bridge, which had ^tood the surges of the hchJ-h 
lor nearly a century, and whose charter bears an rariu', 
date than any oilier iiridge company in Uie stale. Tiic. 
I'.^ss ou (he low huids, below the bridge, is very extei... 

nisTor.v cv Northampton county. 5j 

sive; l)ut the hotel and oiher substantial buildings, were 
miraculously XJreserved. 

, At Alienlown, tiie sweep of the flood over the low- 
lands is represented as having been awl'ul. Of thai 
substantial bridge, erected but a few years ago, not even 
the ]jiers and abutments remain. This company has 
been peculiarly uutbrr.mate; l)Ut a few years ago, tiiey 
lost a bridge by i]i\:, iiud soon after another, in i)art, by 
a freshet. The siiltnidid stone bridge, over the Jordaii, 
erected a few yeic's agu ;it a cost of eight or ten thousand 
dollars, we are jilia.-cd to learn, sustained but little 

The company's daju. at this place, is not, as was 
reported, carried away; but tlu; canal and locks, imme- 
diately below, are all destroyed. The destruction cvi 
private property, consisiing of store houses, coal and 
wood yards, basins, boats, &;c. at this place, is complete. 

At Jiiery's bridge, one span, with the abutments and 
pier, are uninjured, and the company ho[)e to have it 
repaired and o})en to the public in tan or fifteen day.s. 
Much i»rivate luopcit)- was ;ds(i airried away at thi-. 

The havoc at the Lehigh Water Gap, as will be sup- 
posed, from its jx-'culiar location, was very great. Tlu: 
county bridge, which v, as linished but a few months 
ago, was raised Irom its foundation, and carried dowii 
the stream, strikmg the hotel of our friend Craig, buL 
widiout tloing much damage, passed on and crushed thi; 
building in which he kept an extensive store, and rush- 
ing on, there was nothing left of the valuable improve- 
nients, coal, lumber, plaster and other properly, innnedi- 
ately below. The hotel was in great danger, and the 
family and other imnatos were taken out with a boat,iii 
the night, and were obliged to remain in the mountain 
until the next morning. 

The loss at the Clarissa iron works, above this point, 
is very heavy — tlio greater part of the valuable improve 
nients of Joseph J. Albiight, are in ruins. 

At Parry viUe. Weisspon, iMauch Chunk, and up tin. 


Lehigii, the .samo devastation prevailed — many hous:^ 
and other vrJiiahlo projterly came down the river. 

The state work's along the Delaware and the Leliigl, 
Company's improvements, on the Lehigh, are damageii 
to a great extent. At many places no traces of lli*i 
canal are left, iho cnrrent havhig swept them away lo low 
water mark, lor a great distance; and all along ilie line 
rhoy are more or less injnred. Jcmuary 8, 1S11. 



' Upper Afointt Belhi I townsJiip is bounded on tlic 
north, by MDnroc coiimy; t..';ist, by the Delaware vivei ; 
on the south and west, by Lower Mount Bethel town- 
&liip. The surface is hilly and rolhng; soil, ])rinci])ally 
limestone; well riihii'Lie'd and very productive. It i^ 
watered by Cobuss' cmek. a small stream that rises 
within the township, and llowing seven miles eastward, 
falls into the Delaware river, about three miles helow 
the Water Clap, 'ilific are si.v <.rist and six saw nulls 
in it. 

p]xtensive slate (piarries liave been opened in Xh\% 
township, near tin; Delaware, where roofing slate, of a 
su[)erior quality, is ohtiiuied, in large quantities, and a 
manufactory of school slates, untter the auspi<'es of tla; 
Hon. James iM. I'.orter, ihe i)ro]>ri('tor, has been esta1;- 
lished, in which, by the aid of ingenious machinery, 
slates,ofa])ecnliar neatness and excellence, are produced, 
at a very moderate price. 

There are several villages in this township. Shilc 
Port, near the ]Jelaware Water Gap, consisting of some 
six or eight dwellings, occu])ied by persons at work, at 
Mr. Porter's slate ([uanirs and manufactory, 

Centreville is a post village, sixteen miles froni 
Easton; it contains twi;nty tlwellings, one store, on(! 
tavern and a fountlry. Near the village is a si»leiulid 
edifice, being a German Reformed church. Thevillagt; 
is pleasantly situ;: ted. 

IViUiani^ibitrg is a post vdlage, on the main road iVom 
,Easto)i to the Delaw^.re Water Ga}), about twenty mile> 
from Easton, and live iVoni the Ga]). This place ua. 
laid out by William Lander, some twenty-five or thirty 
years ago. It contains ;d)"ni forty-five dwellings, on . 
store. . .ic tavern, uvo churches, an l^^nglish Presbyterian 


cliiircl), Li-ecic'l i)f brick, iu lS;^fi; and a i'lciliuiV 1 
church, a iVaiin' Imiltliii^-, m-ectcd in lb35; and a iv,:], 
brick academy, hnilt in ISIjI, bnt now occn[ii;'(i by .i;| 
cununon scKjoI — [Kjj)nlation about two hvuidi'od i)i',i| 
seveniy-iivo. | 

Thecailieyi settler here was a Mr. Forsnian — [ui'Oii.l 
the otii.r uany settlers were Frutchy, J5rodi, ())' 
Krot/.er and Stein. 

Dii'l\- l\'.'"rij i.s between Slate Port and WiUiani-b;e J 
ojiposiio (Dhiniljia, in New Jersey. Tliere is a lavu 
hei'e in Vvdiici; a, jhisI olllee is ke])1. 

The i-oiaii.iiioij al' tins township iu 18.20, wu,^ 2.1~3 \ 
in 1830, 2,'.iil; lyio, 2,(ilc;. 'I'he county r/.tes aiiMJ 
levies lor UilJ,ou iti-olessions, was j5'S;5,t)!»;3 : ou !-eal| 
estate, liorses I'ud catllr, :;^751,525 ; .state tax, y>' .8J!i iT I 
'I'he junuber .n' la.xables, (JjO. 5 

Lower Mo:' /if liclhcl townsJiip 'mi boundeii on il r . 
north by Moinoe connly, cast by Upper Mount iJediei \ 
south by l''oiL l()s\'nshii> and the Dehiware ii\ er, airl 
west by Plaiatiidd township. 'Idie surt'ace i- jiailly 
iullv, and .•^oiiii portions of it leveb A small lavpuriii.i 
is liniesiuiie soil, bnt the m'eater part is gravtl. li i 
pj'ctiy well waiered l>y Uichnu)nd creek', (jr (Jijuirlun, 
Alartin's ami Muddy creeks. The Ocpnrton idioril- 
some mill jjowm r. Martin's creek rises at the (iujf crtin 
J'jlue UKiimlaiii, and runing a, st)uth-western coiirsi;. . 
eni})ties iiito ib.- Delaware some iiltoeu or twenty inilc-: | 
above Easton. It alibrds several excellent n.i'.l seats. ; 
'J'liere are ninii yris! and eight saw mills in tins town 
shi]>. There i;> a post ollice at Ahulin's crock in llii:. \ 
township, and near it, two splendid ciuirches, the onenii 
ICuglish Presl)yterian, the otiior a Oerman Uoibrnici] 
and Lutheran ; both within a mile of the Delaware river, 
Tliere are sevcard small villages in the township. 

RicJi))it/id -x po-;t village, is the priiici[)al (jne ; ii i.-, 
near the la'ad of 0:/uii'fon, or Richmond's credv. It k 
on tlie iiiain rviad litan ICaston to the Delawa.*' W'af.^i 
Gap, fointeen miles from the former, and el'tvcn from 
the latter— also eleven miles froui the Wind (^ap. It 


contains between tliiny and forty dwellings, two stoiec, 
two taverns, a giisi: mill, a distillery and an excellent tan- 
nery. It was laid out many years ago. ''i'lie po])ula- 
lion is between iwo ;m.d tliree Jmndretl. 
, Flalfie.ld, on iNTai'tiii's crerk, is tlie name given to an 
irregularly bnilt viliaL'-e, hiid out by William McCaH, 
about twenty yoars ugo. Here are eiglit or ten dw(jll- 
ings, two mills and an extensive taimery. A bridirr, 
across Martin's ••reel: bert'. 

The populatidii oi" ilie !uv/nsbip in 1S20, Avas 2,472 ; 
1830, 2,66(J; 1 SIO. 2,!K-:7; inxablesin 1844, (i59. County 
rates a levies, 1'' 11, ':)a pii'icssions, ;2)95,327 ; real estate 
horses and cattle, J5^:^t)5,780. Anionnt of state la-. 
i52,08l 11. 

' Allen toioiship is I'onndcd on the north by T^ebiiih 
and Momoe townshi|i., on the east by Upiierand Lowim' 
Nazareth townships, uw ihu south by Hanover jind 
liethlehem townships. ;ind on the west by the Lehn.'i! 
river, which scparatL-s it iVom Ldiigh cottnly. Tlu; sni- 
face is generally level -soil, linie ;5ti»ne, nnd well nii- 
proveil. It is well Ui.ieied. liesides the Lehigh, whieh 
is its western Ijoimdaiy, the llockendoqiie, or Ilockyon- 
doque and Cahulai|ue creeks are considiirable streams. 
The Ilockendoque rises at the base of the Kittalinny 
mountain, near Smitli^s (^ap, running a south-western 
course, passing Kerns\'ille, or Petersville, and Kridcn's- 
ville, empties imo the l^ehigh river, ten or eleven miles 
below the Leliigh Water Gap. It has a number of dom- 
ing and grist nulls on it. ('aladaqne creek', is a small 
stream, witli three or lour mills on it. It springs in tlii.~ 
township, and tails into the Lehigh near Jhery'svilie. 
aboiu two miles beloAv the month Of the Iloiiketidoque. 
This towiishij) wa:. originally settled by immigranis 
from the north of Ir 'iKud, between the years 172S and 
1733. It appeal , ib.U 'A'Hiiaiu Craig and Thomas Craii . 
were die prmcij);d seiiler:>. Their residence, acconhiir 
to the Rev. Welisier's sia.leinent, in his notes on iIl- 
enrhj histurij cf .'J licit Ihionshij), was about lour mil';> 
fro I' !!.;th, net I'u iVom wKeie the Presbyterian churei' 

11:^ Northampton county. 

ill this townshij', now stands. " Others — men of jiropei i 
iy, inliuen.-i- ai.d roUgious character, were John Rawls- \. 
ton,. Robert Walker, Jolni McNair, Jolui Hays, Jamoi |. 
King, Galvrici King, his only son, eininet for |)ieiy ; Ai- ^ 
thnr Latiiiiuu'c, llngh Wilson, William Young, Ojnr(.v j 
Gibson, Itobi,:!-! (iiltson, Andrew Mann, James lliddlo. |' 
.fohn I^oyd. Widow Mary Dobbin, Nagle Gray and i 
'I'liomas A;msii(iiig, who at'terwards removed lo Fogg's % 
MaiKjr." F. 

'J'iiis was, and is still known, as the Irish Settinntnl. %. 
It extends fV(,'iii the Dry l.and.s up to Biery's bridgi-. f 
During the Frencli and Indian war, in 1755 and 1756', | 
several massacres were cointnitted inthis settlenuTt, and. 1^ 
nearly all tied to Ik'Udehem. Dr. FrankUn, in a loiter io 
Governor Morns, dated at Jiethlehem, Jaimary 1 J, 1750, 
writes : '• As wo drew near this ])laee, we met a riurf- 
ber of wagons, rmd many people moving off with tlieii | 
clTects and families from the Irish Sett lone }il anl \ 

Lehigh township, beitig terrified by the defeat ol' 1 lay's | 
company, and tlie burnings and nnu'ders commiUed ii; | 
the townshi])s ou New Years day. We found tin.- piace | 
fdled widi relniines; the workmen's shops, even dn' cd- f 
lars, being cro\v<led with women and children, ai;;i \v', | 
ieartied that Leiiigh townshi]) was almost entirely alaii- 
doned by the iniiabitant.s. Soon after my arrival hert 
the princijial piN^ple of the Iritih Settlement, as Wilson, 
Elder Craig, and others, came to me, and dernaudt.'d aii 
additon of thirty men to Craig's company, or tinea tciied 
they woidd immediately, one and all, leave theii' 'oaniiy 
to the enemy."" 

A few days afterwards, the ItJth January, l7o>! | 
Franklin stopjied at (ho house of Mr. Hays, '• W'c left | 
15ethlehem," s;.ys Franklin,t "the IGth inst. wills ., 
Foulk's o(.nipai.y, f(aty-:six men, the detachment of Mr. 
Laughliii's twenty, and seven wagons laden Aviiii storoi 
and pro\'i;d()i.o. We got that night to Hays' (luartcrt 
where M'ayiie's cunii)any johied us from Nazared. 

*l'rovii.u:',, l^•(■-.v.■,l^fov 17:)(J. 

•jLelui to (,i>v, Aluni^ (ialeJ Fort Allcu, at (.ireiulen Ifuli • t .:. , . 
i'.i, i75U; 



The next d;iy we marched cautiously through the fiaj; 
of the mountain, a very daiii^erous pass, and got to l)]>- 
liiiger's, hut tweiity-oiu; miles I'rom Bethlehem," 

A number oriamilies were nuirdered in and near the 
hi^h Setllemeni, [See Wliite Hall township, J^eluLrli 
county.] The vvife, of If ugh Horner, Jane Horner, wa^' 
nuirdered by the Iiidiaris, under circumstances of great 
cruelty, the Sth of Ociober, 17G3. At the same time, 
"the liouse of John Slinton, about eigiit miles Iron, 
I Bethlehem, wa.s assailrj by the Indians, at which wa-. 
i Captain Wetlierolt. \v i(h a parly helonghig to Fort Allen 
The Cai)tain designed early in the morning to procited 
[ for the Fort, ordered a servant out to get his horse ready, 
'■ who was immediately shot down by the enemy; u])(m: 
i' which the Captain, going to the door, was also mortally 
(,. wounded, and a sergeant, who attempted to draw th< 
Captain in, was also dangei'ously hiu't. The lieutenant 
i then advanced, when an Indian jumping onthe bodit;. 
of the two others, i)iesented a loaded })istol to Ins 
breast, which he putting aside, it went olf over hia 
shoulder, whereby he got the Indian out of the house 
and shut the door. 'I'he Indian then went nnind to a 
, window, and as Stinton was getting out of bed, shor 
;' him; but rushiugfrom die house, he was able to run a 
f jnile before he dropped dead. His wife and two children 
ran into the cellar. 'J'liey were fired upon three times., 
' but escaped uninjured. Cajjtain Wetlierolt, notwith- 
standing his wound, ciawled to a window, where lie 
killed one of the Indiiuis, who were setting fire to ihi: 
( house. The others then ran off, bearing with theii; 
their dead companion. Captain Wetlierolt died soot; 
after." *-^ 

There are several churches in this township, Lutheran 
and German Reformed, and I']nglish Presbyterian. There 
are alsti several viilagi^;-; in it. 

Jiulh, named after ]3ath in England, by the Iri^i; 
settlers liere, who laid it oiu some years before the Rev.;- 
lulion of '7G. It i,> a p.. si village^ on the Mouockac* y 

Uu. oj" I'l,. /si.i.ejMiiv, 1). G33, C2'i. 



creek, eleven miles frotii Easton, ten from Alleiitowri, 
live from Nazareth and eight from ]3cthlehem — is very ,|, 
handsomely situated — contains between iifty and. sixty | 
dwellings, many of them of hriciv — two tavern^., llirec -| 
.stores, one church, erected in 1834, held in comrndii by | 
the Lutherans ahd German Reformed — two schools, o)it | 
tor males and one for females. 'J'liere are tv/o mills | 
contiguons lo it — population about two hundred ;in.| f 
iifty. Ylits ago the Land Oltice had been a 1 }5ntli. | 
George J^aluicr was Surveyor General many ycwrs — h.; | 
lies buried in Allcntownsiiip grave yard.* » 

Prior to ITiiO; the Englisli Presl)yterians had occlj:! 
a large stone academy on Monockaeey creek, a nulc froiii 
Bath, and Uev. 'riiomas Picton was the prin(:-ip;ii. The 
house is now ii od by the congregation for diviu'; .'/or- 

Kreidcrsvillc, a post village, was laid out by tluiiiud 
Kreider, between thirty and ibrty years ago ; il is on 
the main road from i5etblehem to lierwick ; it coplain,,' 
fifteen. or sixteen dwellings, one store, one tavern, a ver/ 
splenchd iiouse, erected by George Weaver, in l£ia i 
()no mile fromthe vilhige is ^^ Zton's Kirche," l)ei:uiP.!Ui: 
to the German lletbrnied and LiUherans. There is olso 
a grist mill here, turned by the Hock'endoque creek, and 
a slate quarry, near this village, where rooting slate lias 
been formerly ]jrocured. On the farm of Josei)li Ila^vii- 
bach there is also a good quality of roofing slate. * 

Hauertowii, or IJowertown, laid out Ijy Mr, liauiu. | 
is on the road from Betbleiiem to Mauch CImidv — con- f 
tains eight dwellings, one tavern and a school house. I 
Near it is a German lletbrmed and J^utheran ch;,r;li. | 

JVeaversburi;, a post village, on the road fromAllcii- ^ 
town to ]iath, contains twelve dwellings, one sinre,onc | 
tannery, ovie mili on the Collasauque,oi Colesoque creek. .1 

Cenlreoille or Nti'.gh.sville, consists of five dwellings, f 
an Eiigiish l^resbylcrian church and a grist nml Tlio f, 
])opulatioii of Ihislownshii), in 1820, was 1,847; in 1830, |- 
fiy\i]G; 18-10. ii. 5 17. Taxables in 1844, (JI'J. d^nity | 

* Rev'd Wcbstor. 1 

rates and levies, on proj'essioiis, i598,173. On real estate, 
horses and cattle, iil, 050,380. Amount of state tax, 
Jg2,440 50'. 

Plainfield toiunship is bounded on the north, by 
Monroe county ; on the east, by Lower Mount Bethel ; 
on the south, by Forks lownship ; on the west, by Eusli- 
kill. The surface generally level, except along tlie Blue 
mountain; soil principally gravel, but well improved. 
The turnpike road, from Easton to Berwick, passes 
through this townsliip, by way of the Wind Gap. During 
the French and Indian v/ar, ihe inhabitants of this town- 
ship, in common v/iih otiiers, had lied from their lioirje.s, 
and taken refuge at, and in the vicinity of Nazaretii. 

In 1779, General Sullivan, with his army, marciied 
from Easton, tjn-ough this lownship, on to Wyoming. 
The army consiisted of a uinnber of regiments, as appears 
from Sullivan's Journal. ''ICaslon, June 13, 1779, three 
soldiers, belonging to the Pennsylvania regiment, com- 
•nanded by Col. Ilubley, were executed for murdering 
au inhabitant of that place. The whole of the troops 
on the ground weie ju'e^ont at this melancholy occasion." 

June 14 — Was lirc:d a feu de Joie, at evening, on 
account of a victory obtained over the enemy in Soutii 
Carolina. * * * * June 18 — ^The whole of 
the aforementioned troops warmed, by firing of a can- 
non; inarched together, with the pack-horses and bag- 
gage wagons, at four o'clock in the morning, on their 
way to Wyoming. The road, for tliis day's march, was 
good; encamped at Ilelliard's ( Heller's) tavern, distant 
eleven miles from Easton, June 19 — Marched to Lar- 
ney's ( Earner's) tavern, on J-'okanose ( Pocano) point. ' 

This township is watered by the Bushkdl creek, wliicli 
rises near the Wind Gap, at the foot of the mountain, 
and running a south-east course, falls into the Delaware, 
about one hundred rods above the mouth of the Lehigh. 
It is an excellent mill stream. There are three grisi 
mills and four saw mills in this township. Tiiere arc 
several small villages in il. 

• Siilil'un's Joiirnul .jfMiifclic--, 


66 Hi3T0i;r of Northampton county. 

Bellevi/lj, consisting of five dwellings and one taveri, % 

{Varihhurg, on the road from Euston to tlie Wini] 
Gap, eight miles iYom the former, and four from the lat- 
ter, consists of eiglit dwellings, one store and several 
mechanics' shops. Near it is a Lutheran German ]{e< 
formed church, on the left l)ank of the Bushkill creek, 

Johnsoiiville, contiguous to Ward.sburg, on the saiii-. 
road, consists of fourteen dwellings and one tavern. 

The po])uUition of the township, in 1820, was 1.137, 
in 1830, 1,L'S5 ; in 1840, 1,508. Taxables, in 1844, 37] 
County rates and levies, ^2:3,353; real estate, hoi-:^es [iii'i 
cattle, !^31 3,445 ; amount of state tax, ^707,90. 

Lehigh toiunship is bounded on the north, by Carbor. 
county; on thi; east, by Moore township; on the ioulh 
by Allen township ; on the west, by the Lebig(> river 
which seperates it from Lehigh county. The surface is 
partly hilly and partly level; soil, limestone and ■x great 
proportion gravel, but considerably improved. As thu 
IJiue mountain fornLs the nortiiern boundry, and ih 
Lehigh entering it on the west of that part, as well <!.;, 
towards the eastern line, by the l^iltle (Jap, ihrnug) 
which a road leads to lierlinville, is considerably brokon. 
This township is pretty well watered by the Leliigl. 
river and the Indian creek, a tributary to the Ilcckei-.v 
doque. There are six grist mills and three saw milU 
m it. 

This townshi}) was wholly abandoned by the iuhuLi- 
tants of it, some time in 1755 and 1756 ; many (jf them 
fled to Bethlehiim and Nazareth, to seek refuge aiid 
protection against the cruel and barbarous ineursion; ,^ 
and depredations of the Indian savages. Eonjaaiin |* 
FrankUn, on his way from JJethlehem to Griaden Hiii- ^ 
ters, passed through this township in Jamiary, 1 756 ;' Lt; '. 
was accompanied by several companies, under tiie coin- i^ 
mand of Foulk, M'l.aughlin and Wayne. |.' 

The southern ])art of this township embraces a portioij IH 
of country formerly Icnown as " Indian Landr There i' 
are one or two small villages in it. L 

BerlinvillC) or Lehighville, is on the road from Eusluii if 


to Mauch Cliuiik, iweiity-two miles t'roin the former, 
and foLiiteeu i'rom tlie ^tttti. It consists of a cluster ot 
sixteen dwellings, one store and one tavern. It is cen- 
trally situated in il c tiAvnship, and two miles from the 
Water Oaj). 

Ckerryvilh, so cidlf a, from Clicrrtf Row Lane, con- 
sisthig of one hundred trees, is twenty miles from Easioii, 
and five from th.-- \7att r Gap ; cojitains six dwellings, 
one connnodiousaud large public house. About a Uiile 
west of it is the well known " Indian Kirc/i,"^ or Si. 
Puiilus Kirch, gegruendet 177'J, Neuerbanet 1833; a 
spacious rough-cast binldiug. It belongs to tlie (Jerman 
Reformed and LiUherau: . 

The population of this township, in 1820, was 1,5.jO ; 
in 1830, 1,()59; in 181C, 2.0'\'J. 'faxables, m 16-14, 
496. County rales and levies on prot'essions, $66,678 ; 
on real estate, horses ani caitle, $317,775. vXmounl ot 
state tax, S777 37. 

"Moore township is boimded on the north, by Carbon 
and Monroe counties; t;;).st,by BushkiU township; south, 
by Allen and Upper N;czareth; and west, by Lehigh 
township. The surface is hilly and rolling; gravel soil, 
but pretty well improved and tolerably fertile. It is 

I well watered by the sources of Manockacey and Hock- 
endocque creeks. The lormer of these stream^ rises iu 
this township, and runuing soutliward, falls into the 
lichigh river at JJethlehe/n. This is a delightful stream, 
and in its course, alford: superior mill-seats — u number 
of fine mills are on it. There are five grist mills, five 
saw mills and two fulling mills in this township. There 
are two small villages in it. 

Kernsville, or Peten^vlUe, situated between the lorks 
of tlie Hockendociiue, in the south-west angle of the 
townshi[), consisiir-g of seven dwellings, two stores and 
a grist mill. 

Klecknersville, a [.o^t village, four miles north of Bath, 
consisting of sevoi'al dwellings, one store and one tavern. 

:i The country around i.s gravel soil, but well improved. 
Th^ ,..>puluticni, iU 1820., was 1,645; 1830, 1,853; 



1840,2,381.'. Taxablcs, in 1844,606. County rales and 
levies on jfrofe-ssions, ^65,793; on real estate, iiortes anij 
cattle, S40C,i;lO. Ainuiuit of state tax, $932 81. 

Saucon tovjnship is bounded on the north, i;y tl,t . 
Lehigh river; oast, l)y Williams township; south-enfl i'-^ 
by Bucks county; south-west, by Saucon townsliip, in l' 
Lehigh county: and west, by Salisbury, in Lcliigh 
county. The sartace of the country is hilly; the wiil is ' 
limestone and gravel, and generally well improved. It ; 
is well Weltered by the I^ehigh river, Saucon creek ainl .; 
its tributailes. The Saucon creek rises in llpjar 'Mb- ^ 
ford township, Leiiigh county; running in a north-ea-storr \ 
direction, it empties into the Lehigh river, about ,foiir )| 
miles below Beiiilehern. It is a line mill stream; therjj Y 
are several mills on it. ^| 

Hellerstoivn is quite a brisk post village, situated en \\ 
the south side of Saucon creek, about four miles soaili- \\ 
east of Bethlehem. It contains twenty-two dwellings, i] 
three taverns, three stores and one grist mill. Therfi is f ' 
also a large chinch near it, belonging to the Luther.ui | 
and Oermun Reformed. From its peculiar situation fbw |i 
inhabitants were measurably secure against the incii,'- -^ 
sions from the Indians, during the French and Iiidiah j^f 
war. I 

The population of tliis township, in 1820, was 2,£0h , ' 
in 1830, 2,308; in 1840, 2,710. The luimber of taxablf-:;, I 
in 1844, 602. County rates and levies on professiGn'>j I 
$95,526; on red estate, horses and cattle, $l,i01.7i'>'i { 
State tax, $6,612 67. |j 

, 't 

Hanover toioivihlp is a very small township. \\<. \ 
greatest length is only two miles and a half, and greatest I* 
width two miliy. It is bounded on the north by Allei; f 
township, on the east and south by Lehigh couiity, and i, 
on the .soutlt-west by Bethlehem township. SueAicu T] 
quite level, the soil limestone and well improved, Tlif l-^ 
Monocl^accy creek, which runs along the southern loan- ^' 
dary of it, drains the township. Its population in 1820. |^ 
'.yas 353; in 1830, 348; in 1840, 382; and its taxr-We^ '^ 


^ ] only G5. Tlie early liislory of this township, and the 
sutTerings of its iuhabitanis were identilied with those of 
Uelhlehem towiiiJiip, and the adjoining townships — to 
which the reader is referred. The taxbles of ItiAA, 
were 90. County rales and levies on professions, $Hi,- 
213 ; real estate, horses and cattle, $218,640. Amount 

i ] of state tax, $Q15 '][>. 

~ i Williams towHHhip is bounded on the north by the 
Lehigh river, east by the Delaware river, south by 
Bucks and Lehigh counties, and on tlie west by Saucon 
township. Nearly tlie whole siu'face is covered by the 
Lehigh hills, or South mountain, which abound in iron 
ore of various kinds. Magnetic iron ore is found in 
several places on the hills, associated with the primary 
rocks. On the banks jf the Lehigh, a {q\y hundred 
yards below South Easton, a mine of ore has been late- 
ly opened. The ore found in this township is of the 
best quality, a large (luantity of which is used at the 
Glendoii Iron Works, where sixty tons of pig iron are 
weekly ntanufaclured. 

r /rhe soil of this town:.hij) is limestone and gravel. It 
is rich, well cultivated, and very productive of wheat, 
corn and grass. The iownship is drained by Fray's 
Run, which, by its tributaries, receives the waters from 
the north and the south. There are three grist mills 

tand one saw mill m ihe township, besides those m 
South Easton. 
South Easton, a borough, is on the right bank of 
the Lehigh river, about half a mile above the borough 
of Easton. It was laid out and established by the Le- 
high Navigation Company, and bids fair of becoming a 
great manufacturing place. Many of the houses are 
brick, and it presents a neat and brisk appearance. The 
present populati()n is about eight hundred. There are 
in it, three regular stores^ besides several shops, a Metho- 
dist church, and Union ckurck, in which all orthodox 
divines are allowed to preach. At present it is occupied 
as a school housg. The inhabitants are a '•^ strict hj 
chw r,. ^;ioing jJco}>li.*' Business, as it should be, of all 



kinds is siispiMid on the Christian Sabbath. Canal boats, 
1)eing reckoned ;;ui//r, pass on, up and down, sercu days 

in the week i ! Tiiere arc two grist mills, two sa^v mills, | 

and several faciorics in operation. f ^ 

Here is an extensive cotton factory, originally slaiieti 

ill 1S36, by Messrs. Swift & lireck, at an expense of ^ '^ 

^^70,000. About a year ago Edward Quinn, the present [' 

])roprietor, conn-nenced to carry on the factory ; iiaviiig ^ , 

expended within the past year ^^7,000 m putting it into ■;■> 
])erfect irioi. Mr. Quinn gives employment to about 

ninety hmds — lias in o|)eration 5,000 spindles, in spin- [ 

mng cotton yaiii — prod\icing monthly 20,000 iK)U)ids of '| ; 

spun yarn. lie expects to produce shortly l,ono \ ■ 

l)ounds daily. All this yarn is assigned to Messrs, |y 

Woodward ii Ikvinckel, of Philadelphia. An extensive f 

machine shop is connected with the factory. f . 

The Le/iigh f Forks, or rolling mill, of considorabk \-* 

magnitude, owned by Messrs. Rodenbougli, Stewart ik *' 

Co., is also in successfid operation, giving empkyniciit h 

to fifty hands, day and night. Wire of ditierent l/mad" ' ' 

or tilamenLs, and nails of every kind, are prodiici'd in '' 

great (piantitie.s. The principal part of the mela! iiscil, "■; 

is brought from Juniata countv. V.' 

Soutli Easton Furnace or Foundery, owned i.\ 1 

Frederick Gooddell, of Massachusetts, and managed liy t 
George Freeborn, is also in successt'ull operation. Thi 

original cost of it was 4^^20,000— ])ut in ojierarioii In k 

May, 1844. Ik re employment is given to fifty hand^, S 

engaged in various kinds of castings, such as gratt.s, \ 

fenders, flat-irons. 'Phe gross, estimated value fur 184-1, Jj 

will be about ,S75,000. Shortly there will be an artkk ^ 


nuamfaciured here (at present imported) to supply the 
American demand, to at least ^75,000 during next year. M 
This small item will be in favor of balance of t/ado, to ? 
be put down en '< our side oj accounts.'"' fe 

A few ye,:r.s ago, Messrs. James M. Porter & Ihoud- r 
meadow, <:.xiabli,shed a tstill manufactory. It ■aT.s un- I, 

*Mr. FieL-born named the article to the compiler, but v 
quest tlial it should no( be made public now. It is tli 
.^pecijial. " Something hangs by, and (urm on it." 



successfully in operation — it failed. It is contemplated 
shortly to start a blasr furnace here. 

There is also an extensive huilding here, in whicli the 
manufacturing of rifles is carried on. 

Immediately above the borough of South Easton, arc 
the Glendon Iron IForks, owned by Charles Jackson, 
Jr., of Boston, managed by Mr. Firmston and his clerk, 
Mr. E. Rockwell. One furnace has been in successfid 
operation for some tinu-; using for smelthig, anthracite 
coal exclusively. The iron ore used here, is red, brown 
and black oxide ol iron, obtained in Williams townsliip. 
The furnace now in operation ])roduces ten tons of jug 
iron daily. There is another stack or furnace, building; 
which, when comphjt;:d, it is believed, will produce 
daily fifteen tons of }Hg metal. The greatest sucet's.s 
has attended the trial made, on the most extensive scate, 
in reducing iron ore wiih anthracite coal. It is now 
well settled, that tliis kind of coal will answer exceeding- 
ly well in smelting on,'. 

Here is also a small hamlet, consisting of eight dwell- 

, IViUiaynsport is a suiall village, on the right bank oi 
the Delaware, immediately below the mouih of the l^e- 
high river, hard by tin; base of a high limestone bluti', 
the rocks of which nearly overhang the town. It con- 
sists of some fifteen or more (U'dinary buildings, princi- 
pally one story high. It contains two taverns. It was 
completely inundated by the .lanuary freshet of 1841. 

Tlie population of the township in 1820, was 1,590 ; 
in 1830, 2,707; in 1840, exclusive of South Easton, 
1,937. Taxables in 1844, 437. County rates and levies 
on professions, ;j572,3i)0 ; on real estate, horses and cattle, 
$493,005. Amountof Stale tax, $1,172 39. The taxa- 
bles in South Easton, in 18 14, were 191. County rates 
and levies on professions, S3t,513; on real estate, horses 
and cattle, $175,535; state tax, $442 39. 

Bushkill toionshij) is bounded on the north by Mon- 
roe county, eayt by PiainAeld township, south by Uppoi 
Niw ,; '.th to\v;iEinp,and west by Moore township. The 


surface of the country is rather thin; the soil priucipaily 
of a white gravel with some red shale, pale and olivf 
slate. Some parts of it have been rendered very pro- 
ductive. By a proper course of culture, it may still •be 
much improved. The Bushkill, or as it v.'as fusj 
known, " The Lehieton,'" which rises near the Wii.d 
Gap, at the foot of tiie Blue mountain, traviTsi^s ibis 
township in a south western direction, and in its cour:^^ 
through the township, receives several small sfreauis. 
There are four grist mills, and four saw mills in it. 

The inhabitants of this township, with others neat- tli:' 
Gap, were greatly exposed ta the depredations (jf tiic 
Indians, from 1754 to 1763. Many of them ft; d i'. 
Nazareth, tool: protection there under the JJrelhrcn., 
which place had been for some time in 1755, and 175';, 
under the protection of forces coirmianded by Gupta ii: 
Anthony Wayne, Captain Trum]), and Captam Aslon, 
as appears from a letter dated, Bethleliem, January 1 1. 
1756, written by Benjamin Franklin, to Governor iVlor- 
ris : " Wayne's com])any we found posted at Na',^;uctli, 
agreeably to your Honor's orders. The day after my 
arrival here, (IJcUiledem,) I sent o(f two wagons ioruj-'d 
with bread, and some axes, for Trump and A.^lou, io 
Nazareth, escorted by Lieutenant Davis, and twenty 
men of M'Laughlin's, that came with me. I ordered 
him to remain at Nazareth to guard that place, v/hilc 
Captain Wayne, whose men were Iresh, })roceeded with 
the convoy to Guadenhuetlen.'^* 

There are tv;o small villages in this tawnship, Ed- 
munds and Jacobsburg. Tlie former is a post village 
on the road to Smith's Gap, between nine and ten miles 
from Easton. It contains six or seven dwellings^ and a 

Jacobsburg, A post village, on the main roail fr >ii. 
Nazareth to the Wind Gap, eleven miles from IC^ston. 
It contains one store, one tavern, eight dwellings, a gris: 
mill, a furuuco, formerly owned by Matthew S. llenr^, 
now belonging to Mr. Sidney Clay well, and is in sue- 

*Proviiicial fieccrdi. 


cessful operation. There is also a riile factory in opera- 
tion in this township. 

The population of this township in 1820, was 1,262 ; 
in 18:^0, 1,402 ; in 1810, 1,7HL Taxahles in 1844, 375. 
County rates and levies on professions, $5 1,653 ; on 
real estate, horses and cattle, $214,340. Amount of 
state tax, $500 55. 

Forks toivnship. so mmed from its locality, being in 
the " Forks of the Delaware,'^ is bounded on the north 
by Plainficld and Lowti Moinit Bethel townships, on 
(he east by the JJelawaro river, and the borough of 
lEaston, on the south by the borough and the Lehigh 
'river, on the west by Upper and J^ower Nazareth, and 
Bethlehem townships. 'J'lie surface is generally level ; 
the soil limestone, well cultivated, and very productive, 
though parts of it had ben not more than thirty years 
ago, considered a " L'arrcus." 

Passing, it may here be stated that " The Forks of 
the Delaware/' is the name by wluch, a century ago, 
not only the present site oi Easton, but all that portion 
ofeounlry included betwet nthe JXilawarc river and iho 
1-eliigh river, and bounded on the north west by the 
Blue mountain, was known. This beautiful portion of 
Northampton county was occupied by a part of tho 
Delaware natives, who held it till about 1737, when 
Monockyhichan, Lappawinzoe, Teshakomen and Noo- 
timas, Indian Sachems, relinguished all fnial claims ta 
diichard and Thomas Peiin, sons of William Penn, tho 
founder of Pennsylvania. 

Tliis township is draiiu.'d by the Bushkill creek, and 
several of its tributaries, and is traversed by a number 
of roads radiating iVom Easton to the several Gap.s^ 
towns and villages. Occasionally tlje traveller will meet 
with finger boards — "7b J'iul Cap'' — "7*0 ftlji 
Cap" — " 7b Binl Cy(fc.'' There are seven flouring 
mills and three grist mills in this township. 

Stockersville, a post village, is on the right bank of tho 
Little Bushkill, seven miles from Easton, consisthig of 
nine dv i llings, ouc tavern, two stores, two lumber 


yards; a mill contiguous to it on the left bank of ili- 
Little ilu.shkilL wliicli is crossed here by a pcrn-ia.iei^i 
stone bridge. The village is in a very fertile plain 

The population of this township m 1820, was l u" 
in 1830, 1,9S9 ; ni ISIO, 2,16U. Taxables in 16-14^^'^' 
County ralfs and levies on professions, $13-4,300: on 
real esuUc, Ur>rscs and cattle, $1,223,010. Auiumn u' 
state tav, ;:-2,S:J2 50. 

J.owcr Nazareth township, so named aft.r Nc~.,. 
rcth, wl.rre tl..- ]{...v. (leerge ^Vhilrleld i)nn:l.asea • 
parcel of g!;)i:iid m 17'10, and connnenced lu rivrt 
large stone house, with the intention of estahli'-hin" i 
Iree school lot negro children.* It is bomidcj ou Tl. 
north by Upp,,r Nazareth township, on the . ;i^t b 
Forks township, on the south by J5otlilehein, and oh ik 
west by Allen township. 

The surface of this township is level ; the scil Jiai. 
stone, and well improved by a judicious course ufcn,';^ 
and careJul culuire, and very productive. It is drauK-t 
by tiie MouoiKicey cicek, which atlords some .in.' lai" 
seats. Then; arc live grist mills, and live saw mills ,., 1 
ihis townslni.. There are several small towns in u. ] 

Hechtuwn, a post village, is handsomely locair^d . ^ 
the road from Bethlehem to the Wind Gap, seven mil 
from Easton, mikI mne from Bethlehem. It coiUu: 
hlteen dwellm-s, one tavern, one store, a Lutlu-ia/i ai 
(-.erman KeU;rmed Church, called the " Dn^ f^ai 
Church.^' 'i'h,! country around the village is wclli.,, 
proved. ' ' [ 

yewberi^, ir.ur miles from Bath, and sev, li hoji, \ 
Kaston, IS m a highly improved limestone couiiuy ) 

•Heckewelders Narra.ive. p. 18. N. B. In a journal wriuer i> 
iTnoiicH ''''™' ^^'''''"'^"''^ companion in lravell,ng, ■!,,• (oUowing 

"April 2-, 1710-Agieed with Mr. Allen for five tliou ..nd .cr o 
of the hiiKi on ti.e Fnrks of the Delaware, at £2 200 M-rJu.o ■ '\ , 
conveyance u. be made to Mr. WluUield, and after that a-.i^Med lu 
tue. u. .ecualy lormy advancin;,^ the money. Mr. Whitfield propose, 
-oj^ivc or. ers- (or b..I,],n<r the Ne^ro school on the purchased int. I 
LeK,rc i^e Ic-ve. the province."- J/e.«o(Vs of Whit/uld, p. .^(J, 



Contains ten or eleven dwellings, one store and a tavern. 
The population of this township in 1820, was 1,084 ; 
in 1830, 1,204 ; in 1S40, 1,201. Taxables in 1844, 305. 
County rates and b'viea on professions, $38,860 ; on real 
estate, horses and cattle, 8027,280. Amount of stale 
tax, !ii2,08l 11. 

Upper Nazareih township is hounded on the north 
by Moore township, on the east hy Forks township, on 
the south by Lower Nazareth, and on the west by Allen 
township. I'he surface is, in many places level, but 
generally, rolling. I'ho soil slate and gravel, and ren- 
dered very productive. It is watered by two branches 
of the Monockiccy creclv. 

" There is a small slate quarry wliich has been occa- 
sionally worked, lying about one mile and a iialf west 
of the town of Nazarciii. In the neighborhood of Na- 
zaretli, which is on the line dividing the slale from the 
limestone Ibrmation, a material is i)rocluced, which an- 
swers well the ordinary i)urj)oses o{ blade paint. This 
appears to be simply a more than usnally carbonaceous 
black and soft variety oi the slate, occurring near tin 
base of the Ibrmation, a little above its contact with tin' 
limestone. It occurs also further cast on the Ikishkill.^' 

There are several prominent Moravian settlements in 
this township, which will be noticed below. The po])- 
ulationof the township in 1820, was 603; in 1830, 942; 
in 1840, 1,118. Taxables in 1844,230. County rales 
and levies on profession s, ^31, 360 ; on real estate, horses 
and cattle, :&372,485. Amount of state tax,*934 74. 

The Moravian settlements are Nazareth, Schoeneck, 
.Christian, I5rumi, and Gnaderethal, alt within the vicin- 
ity of the iirst named. 

. Nazaretti, on the head of a small branch of the liush- 
kill creek, is the next to the principal Moravian settle- 
ment in this county. Its eady history is identified will; 
the history of llie comity. George Whitfield, a cele- 
brated divine, and ibundor of the Calvinistic Methodist' , 
sailed for Georgia i)i 1737, where he remained two yeai':;, 
retUi.- 1 to England, and soon afterwards agahi to 

; I 

76 ni.-iTonx oc noutiiampton countv. |>' 

America, :ui:l made a tour through several of thu prov- p 
uices; and m 17 10 pureha.sed a tract of land, .vilhit, ' 

this township, Av-iih the mte/ition of establLshhi'^ a [-,■ *' ■ 

school lor negro children, wliere he laid the toundntioi ' '' 

lor a largo stone house, which he expected the Moravian H 

Brethren, lor some had been induced on his invitation I' 

to setde here, to finish the building which he hac^ com- \ 

menced, though attended with great danger on ac:.ouni * 

of the Indians, v/ho liad refused to quit the country, and j 

threatened to murder the ]]rethren. Whitfield liad Ird I 

the lomidaiion ,4" the house, and called the place Naza- V 

reth, Iroui whj,.li, atierwards, the whole manor iv-reived { 

Its name. Tlie Jiretliren having erected the wails or,. I 

story high, they were nevertheless obliged to le.^vr tho .d 

pla/;e m 1710. Whitfield had in the mean time poi- ^ 

Jo Georgia. Th,. lir.ithrenhad another ofier made them i" 

by a respectable merchant, of a piece of land, when- ' ' 

liethlehem now is. Some time afterwards, Whitfidr} i 

otleredthem the. man<n- of Nazareth in 17-L% to'-dir-r * 
with the uiifinisli,,-d building, which they accepted.'^ Tin 

(lilliculties with (lie Indians were settled partly bvcom- , 

promise, and by treaty with the Five Nations.' Tli, i 

lioiise was finished, and Nazareth became by decrees';, i' 

very pleasant selilement.^- | 

On the eastern border of the village, the ori'^ind I 

house commenced by Whitfield, is still standhig, ^t i.s : 

a large antique edifice, built of limestone, with a iii.^li .'• 

root, and has a bride hand in tlie wall, to mark hmv - 

Aln r'V; ' "'^ ^^"^'^ ^'^'^^^^^^ ^^ tl^^' property or house 
w.^i"^' '• . ^' '"^''■'" d'^fi"^t>y tlie height or limits of 

U Intfield s labor. AVhen the ]Jrethren had finished the Z 
house, It was aj^propriated as a place of worship m 

1744. It IS at present occupied by four families, two ; 

widovvs, and two other families. This house, or spot - 

IS locally called, ^' Ephruta:' . ^ ' V, 

Nazareth was,duringl754,'55,'56,a place of reluee i' 
lor the mhabitanis of neighboring townships, who had V 
lied to escape being murdered by the Indians. In 1 75t], ? ' 

'Craniz' Bfi.eclLTlIisir.rie. n. 340 T.,..l.;«i t .. m.... ,.■.., ^- 


aider's Nar.uive, ji, 18, I'j 

e, p. 349. Loskiel I. p. 16; aua ii 


Captain Wayne, dpiaiu Trump and Captain Aston, 
were stationed heie witli companies each. These were 
days of suffering — many of tiie soldiers "were without 
shoes, stockings, blankets or arms."* 
- Not only was Nazareth a place of refuge for the 
wliites, but on several occasions for the friendly Indians. 
Tiie christianized Indians at Wequetank, having been 
threatened to be niurdored in October, 1763, were re- 
moved to Nazareth. Wequetardc was about thirty miles 
from Bethlehem. 

In the vicinity, imrth-oast from Nazareth, was a jilace 
called the, uiioro many refugees took slielter. 
i if Loskiel, speaking in relation to these refugees, says : 
h " As long as there was room, these poor fugitives were 
i f protected and fed. Na/.aredi, Friedensthal, Christian 
Brunn and the Hose, were at lliis time, 1755, considered 
as asylums for all who Tied from the murder and rapine 
of hostile Indians ; and the empty school houses and 
mills were allotted to thtjm for a temporary residence."! 
• At present Nazareth is a post village, inhabited by 
Moravians. It is a very pretty, neat village, Xan milts 

P north of liethlehiun, and seven nortli-west of Easton, on 
the turnpike road to U'ilksbarre, principally built on 
two streets, forming a right angle to the south and west. 
The ground on which the town is built, descends to the 
south, and the houses are generally of stone; many of 
them only one story high. They are built close, and 
the streets are paved — on each side a footway. The 
public buildhigs are a church and seminary for boys 
The church is a spacious stone building, rough east. It 
cost seven thousand dollars. Some splendid paintings 
from the ])encil of the liev. T. V. llaidt, are preserved 
in one of the rooms. The school is at present under the 
care of the Rev, Jacohson, numbering about fifty 
scholars. Every thing that renders a school attractive, 
is to be found licr;'. The scenery of the place can vie 
with any in the state. The JJoys' Retreat, or the Shad\ 

•Benjamin Franklin's leiiei lo (iov. Morris, January 14, 1756. 
jLobl id's History, Pait I. p. 175, 17G. 


Grove, is very inviting. There is also a sister's iioi; 
here ; several .-lores and a tavern. Tiie poulation ii; 
about 500. 

As a place of resort, Nazareth presents many u.dii; 
ineuts to ll'.e visiter. About a mile Irom the vlUago, i 
a deep shady glen, a medicinal spring gushes out iVo) 
a slate rock. A delightful summer retreat. 

ShosHL-ck was commenced 1760. It is about one-hu 
mile nordi of Nazareth; consisting of nine or ten dwell- 
ing.>, aiid a Moravian chm-ch. 

Giuidi-nthal was connnenced about the year nil' 
The site of tiio county Poor House is here. It is aooi;; 
one mile from Nazareth. 

Christian IJrunu, two miles south-west of Nazareii.; 
was commenced about the same lime with Guadenth-\l; 
it consist.'? of se/eral farm houses. These are all Mora- 
vian communiues. 

Bethlehem township is bounded on thenorthwuid f;. 
Nazareth township, eastward by Moore township, soulli 
ward by the river Lehigh, and westward by Ilraiovc- 
township and die Monockicey creek. It rec-ivoi i!.- 
name from the village of liethlehem, founded m 1711 
by the Moravian lirethren. The surface of the country 
i.s rolhng; limestone soil, and liighly improved, and ve;y 
productive. It is watered by the Lehigh river, and 
MonockicL'y crock, which afford considerable wati ■ 
power. There are eight or ten mills in ttiis tov;'iishi[). 
Besides Hethlehem, the chief village, there arc seven.! 
others, of whicn an account will be given below. TIk' 
population of this township in 1820, was l,S(iO; in lfc3(). 
2,430 ; in 1840, 2,983. Taxables in 1844, G88. County 
rates and levies on professions, $104,333; on real cstat.;. 
horses and cattle, ijjl, 047,220. Amount of st;Ue tax. 
€i3,l94 U2. 

Frcenuinsbur-', two miles below Bethlehem, on ih^' 
left banlv of tiu Lehigh river, is a very neat village. 
commenced son.fe ten or twelve years ago, consisting of 
lil\ecn dwellings, ])i-incipally of brick, one tavern, an 
ncudcnjy or school .house of brick, a storing lu;ase ;uid 


[several shops; a mill and store contiguous to it. There 
f is a bridge across the river at this place. Tliis place 
^sutlered considerab'y by ilu great freshet in January, 
1841. Among those wlio lost considerable, is John 
Warg, having lost a large quantity ot" stone coal, lum- 
[ber and u canal boat. 

Bethlehem is situcaed om tlic north side of the Lehigli 
river, a branch of thi j)>:laware, twelve miles above 
Easton, and iifty-oue lanih of Philadelphia, and is one 
of the earliest principal seidenients of the Moravians or 
United lirethren, in the United States. As early as 1735, 
the Moravians directed then- aitv.-ntion to the New World, 
ifonning at that time a colony in Georgia. Adverse cir- 
cumstances induced them to leave that and accept an 
[otler made them from the iiev. George Whitfield, to aid 
jliim in improving a tract (/f land he had purchased m 
fpennsylvania, called Nazarclh, by him ; but a diilerence 
[of opinion terminated the engagement. At this juncture, 
1740, a respectable merch'jut olfered to sell them a piece 
of land, at the present site of Bethlehem, and David 
Nifschmatiy arriving in 17 10, with a company of brethren 
and sistt;rs iVom Enro])e, ;hey resolved unanimously to 
purchase the tract oi land olicred them, and make a 
permanent settlement here. It was wild and a Ibrest, 
at a distance of fifty miles from the nearest town, and 
only two houses occui)ied by white people, about two 
miles up the Lehigh, in all this region. No other dwell- 
ings were to be seen in the whole country, except the 
scattered huts or wigwams of Indians. Mere they com- 
menced a setdemenl, and built the village, which, by 
accessions from Europe, increased gradually.* 

Bethleliem is handsomly situated, on a rising hill — it 
is parlicukirly romantic. The scenery is unsurj)assed 
by any in Pennsylvania, 'fhe Lehigh river and Mo- 
nockicey creek, atford extensive water power for milling 
and other manutacturing purposes. The Lebigh canal, 
passing through the lowcx part of the town, alfords great 

•Loskiel's Histury, fK\rt 1, p. 16. See also David Crantz' Neue 
Brueder HiiiDrie V. Abschniu, § 'J8, n. 318. 


tilul pie,„,.e.,„e and ox.ended vVwf ,,:/">! ''^:;''- 

nrthl ^'^'^^^^'^^''^ '"ly ^^'J»«re 1,1 tlii.s country. J; ■• lu 
ol the church, .re a nuniber of portraits of dist^ vm i 
missionaries and ministers viz- or r^ " l"'^ 

Martin Mack, ii-ederiei^Aianain, R c' ^^"t ' 
aeus, Johann Arboe, David Zeisher^e^ A P^ Th Jj ; ' \ 

//aid/. ^ "'" ""^ iii^sfer j,c-,icii „; j; /■, j 

ladierclblhwr'^'™''™'»"'-'J"'S^'='>»''' '■'■ V"a... I 

iciuics, LSldOllSl'.Cd SlliCP 17S« .,,■,, I ;, . ;•-"'"'- ' 

auasyhnnin ]^:^d^ *\;;;^";"'^«^ «^ widows fin,l | 
oia agt. , and m another unnuuiied \ 

r^'h^'T t"v'-"".,;i wooden building; aaerwar.i:; u vr. 
appartmeats Tor \h'ermn,[,^''^T 'n'*"" P'^'^'^ent one. 1- contain? i 
came neccss^Z^T^Z^e^ ''■ Y'"" ^ '^^^'^ '-'^'^^ bt- 
thre^ ,0 f.n,- btm.lred person Thl' ^ '' ^'^'^''"^"^"",. froM 
«arge builcling u'as ended P'""'"^' ^"" '™^"' "'*^ P'--eia | 


women, chiefly likewi^jc of advanced age,board together, 
under proper regnl itioiis, and the guardianship of the 
society. Here is also a Brothers' house, where those 
wlio choose to continue tlie state of single blessedness, 
can do so, and slill gLiiu an independent support. 

The Corpse House, wiiere, on the decease of a mem- 
ber of the sociery, the C(>rj)se is dei)osited for three days, 
is wortliy of a notice. \V hen a death occurs, a part of tlie 
choir ascend tlie cliurch cup(:>la or steeple, when a requi- 
em or funeral liyrin is played for tlie departed^ and the 
melancholy notes as they fail on the ear in a calm morn- 
ing, are ])cciiliariy solenm iiud impressive. The body, 
on the third day, is removed liom the corpse house, the 
mourners place themselves around it, and after several 
strains of solunm music, the ])rocession forjns a line oi 
inarch to the grave, preceded by the band, still playing, 
which is continued seme time after the colfin is de- 

, Tlie grave yard, thouuh studiously avoided by many, 
is worthy tlie attention of the visiter, as well as other 
parts of the village, it is kept with perfect neatness. 
The graves are m rou's. On each grave is placed a 
marble slab, or otlun- stone, of about lifteen inches square, 
on which is engraved the name of the deceased ; the date 
of his birth and death. The visiter looks in vain for 
sculptured monuments reared over the cold clay of the 
departed, with labored p.uiegyrics upon the distinguished 
characters of tlie dejKirted. Instead of these, the 
blocks of "cold pule m;nble," or hewn sand stone, with 
a simple inscription murk the place of the remains of 
the departed. 

The poetical elTusions of Mrs. E. C. Embury, touch- 
ing tiie Moravian burial ground at Bethelehem, may 
iifFord the reader some idea of impressions created on 
visiting this place : 

When in the sliadov/ of the tomb 

This heart shall rest. 
Oh ! lay n\e where spring flowrets bloom 

On earth's bright breast. 


Olil ne'er in vaulted chambers lay 

My 1103 less form ; 
Seek not such mean, worthless prey 

To cheat the worm. 

hi this sweet city of the dead 

r fain would sleep, 
Whore flowers may deck my narrow bod, 

And tiightnlews weep. 

But raise not the sepulchral stone 

I'o nvdik ihe spot ; 
Enougli, if by thy heart alone 

"ris ne'er forgot. 

On a visit to this place in October, 1844, the- vnti 
copied, among others, the following epitaphs : 

.• . . ISAAC 


• ■."■' of Shecomcco. 

'' Jiap. a. 1743. 

Dep. Aug. 2nd, 1746. 




wife of 
"- '. ■' s Departed Sept. 21 thy 



a Mohican 




Aug. 27t]i, 1746, 


' ^' I/i nieniory of 

Tseboop, a Mohican Indian, ('• ' ■••> 

who in holy baptism, April 16th, .'• 
. •- 1742. received the name of ' ' 

One of tl'o first I'ruits of the 
missioii ;il Shecomeco, and a , . ■ 

remarkabie instance of the power 

of divine grace, whereby he ■■..■. 

became a distinguished teacher 

among his nation. 

He departed this life m fall 

assurance of faith, at liethlehem, 

Augirit 27th, 1746. 

*' There shall be one fold and one '. ' 

'■ ,. . ■ Shepherd." — JoAw x, 16 • .a 

These were all Indians. Tsehoop was a distinguished 
teacher among the sons of the forest. 

Among many others of men of distinction, may be 
found tliat of tiie piout. and learned Rev. John Hecke- 
welder, who was borji A. 1). 1743, and died m 1823. 
He was many years a ;nissionary among the Delaware 
and Mohegan Indians. He is author of a Narative 
of the Mission of the Uoited Brethren among the Dela- 
ware and Mohegan Indians, from its comencement, in 
the year 1740, to the close of the year 1810. 

Here is also a MLii<eam of the Young Men's Mission- 
ary Society, containiiig a well selected cabinet of minerals, 
and a pretty extensive c;>lleclion of natural and artificial 
curiosities, collected aid sent in by the missionary 
brethren, from all parta of the world. 

The town is adeqnaiely supplied with good water 
from a copious springs Situated at the foot of a hill, car- 
ried up one bundled and fovnteen feet, perpendicularly, 
to a reservoir on its siimmit, by forcing pumps, in iron 
pipes, worked by the Manokecey creek, and thence dis- 
tributed into every tnreet. The same creek allbrd:; 
adei^i'. ' t:; water powci to several mills. 

84 nisTOHY or Northampton county. k 

There are three hotels in the place ; two of theni very | 
.spacious. Mr. T. Riipp keeps one of these. His house > 
is very large, three stories high, and commands a fins | 
view of the coanlry. It belongs to the society. Tlierc- i 
are live stores in the place, a' paper mill, grisi mill. | 
woolen and :o1,ton factory, an iron foundry and a nii^rkel I 
house ; the population about twelve lauidred, wi-eTfo! f 
one thous'ind mc- Moravians. There is a bridge over | 
the Lehigh ticrr. Most of the usual mechanical iradcs | 
arc carri.'-(] on. In tlie vicinity of the ])lace are several i 
vineyard'; ^ 

The liDii.t -I'i.cie U(aieral hn Fayette lay, duiing l:i^ v 
recovery from ilie wound lie had received at the hatfif | 
oi' Brandy wine, Seplember ]lth, 1777, is still standing: % 
and the vvdrnari, vvlio acted as nurse to the old (iejicrnl. : 
is still living in (he Sister houses — slie was, at lea.'l, i^orrc >' 
few years ago. | 

This place suffered some damage from the iieslui. 
January 8t[j, and i)tlj, 18-11. Along Water street, Soul|. 
Bethleheni, the wat<;r tbrced its way irUo the .iec.jrK! 
story of some d .vellmgs, the inmates in one of whiol!. 
were rescued from a watery grave, by means o[ Hm^ 
and canoes. 'I'nnothy Weiss &. Co. sustained a -oi:- 
siderable loss; the greater })art of the lumber yard wi^ 
swept away. The t)ridgo company, besides the if sj^ oi 
the bridge, lost a large quantity of dry board; Nif, 
Doster's saw rniil, fulling mill, dye-house, weaver ,^hoj\ 
machinery, &c. were greatly injured ; his loss was cor - 
siderable. Mr. Beckel's foundry was much dairi..LH;' 
A small brick tajuse, and a large quantity of stone crci 
the property of Henry Goundie, were swept away. Mr, 
Owen Rice's cooper-shop was injured, and its cojjient'. 
consisting of two hundred Hour barrels, were carried tn 
The Anchor hotel of Mr. Heisser, was in great darig^'. 
of being swept away. The iiethlehem Pleasun; (kr- 
den, for girls* play ground, was laid waste. The damrg. 
done to pro{>eity of alt kinds, along tlie Lelnn.h v.:m 
Monokissy, was great. 

Bethlrhon, and its vicinity, from its earlie-L fielii'- 
.nent, and foi ■naj-ry years afterwards, was the uvi-:u n 


many an interesting incident, ami the place of refuge for 
many oppressed and marked victims of cruelty. It is so 
full of mteresting occurrences, implicated with the general 
history of the couniry, and early efforts of missionary 
enterprizes, that to relate a i'ew, in tfiis place, is not 
deemed inapproju'iUo. 

As early as 1742, Jictidehom was visited by that dis- 
tinguislied minister of tlie gospel, Count Zinzendorf; 
while here, in compajry wiUi his daughter, Benigna, he 
visited the ladiLii villv-es m the neiglijDoriiood. His 
first visit was to,: a distinguished Indian, who 
lived near Nazareth. He iound Patemi remarkabl\ 
quiet and modest, who had regulated his economical 
11 alfairs much in the European style. The Count also 
"I visited Clistowacka, an Indian town, inhabued chielly 
by Delawares. He called on an old Indian, wdiom the 
people called a priest, ;ind whose grandson was sick 
unto death. The Cou'it prayed lor tlie child, recom 
mending him to his great Creator and Redeemer. Ik- 
next extended his tour beyond the Blue mountains, (hi 
(his tour, a Mr. Remberger, a European trader, kindly 
accomi)anied the Count, The jilaces he visited, beyond 
the mountains, were Pochapuehkung and Meniolago- 
mekah, not far above Ouaden Huetten, or Fort Allen, 
in Mahony valley. He also extended his tour to Tul- 
pehocken, the residence of that eminent and useful man, 
Conrad Weiser, near the present she of Womelsdorf, 
Berks county. 

At Betlilehem, many of the believing Indians were 
baptized. It became a central and controlling station, 
from which missionaries, and the brethren, generally, 
received instructions from the elders, on their departure 
to their ditferent out-posts. In 1746, it was the refuge 
of the persecuted IndiLuis, from Shekomeko, an Indian 
village, bordering aa Couneoiicatt, near the Stissik moun 
lain, among whom the pious christian, Henry Raudu 
had labore 1 whh much success. The poor Indians, to 
tlee from those who had meditated their exthictioj 
accepted of an invitation tandered them by the brethren 
at P Li'diein, ai?d tool: ;efuee here. Ten families oi 



1 746, M ith soncxv and tears, and were received ai Bp ' 
iehem with tenderness and compassion. Several ofTh;' 
immediately built cottages neir tlie settlemeiU ' t ,' 
morning and evening meetings were resulated ar d '. \ 
service penonned in the Mahikan language. Tl S ;: I 
Loskeii, comiort.d ihem, in some measine° for the k. f" 
ilie regular ssrvice at Shekomeko, which was mo4 rr ' 
uous to them. Soon after, two Indian girl v ;"« C' 
nzed m Beihiehem chapel, m presence°of t h".,- h 
congreganon, and a great numbir of tViends.' ^ 

liiis small colony of Indians, settled in the iiir,,, ^,li' I 
vicmuy oi Bethlehem, was called 7^e.T^Peatl 
I'neden.Huetlnt; subsequently, these IiJliav w', ■ 
removed on a piece of land, on the junctio lo h^^ Ah 
hony creek and l.ehigh river, beyoLl the I^,e rw' \ 
tain, about thnty m.lcs from Betldehem m^^ qX, \ 
county, and near Lehighton. The pla e wa. ' H i 
G..«./..j //^,//,,,, , ,, Tents of GraL\ ' I 

ihe Kev'd David Bramerd, the celebrated ms.,, 

Sla^at^^tflT"'^'^^ '""^^ "^ tl'tks of :: 
J^UdwaiL, viMUid this place m September, 17.1 , „.] \ 

K^'"a^.T"r''^"''"'"^^ beeuLhined'to n ;": 
by leason ot md.sposmon. -Had tlioudits," s.v. ^ 
m his journal lor September soth, 174J,^-oi' ^. ^^r 
ward on my journey to my Indians; bu towani m 
was taken with a hard pain m my' teeth ad ^i;^,; ' 
cold, and couM not, possiblv, recover a .1, vt r^ 
degree of warmth the^hole night follotn g" 1^' 
tmued very lull 01 pai.i all ni^ht? and m the uorn v' 
had^^veryhaid lever, and pains ahnostov:;. my ^ 

French and Indian war, from 1755, to 1760 Wl en 
Mission-house, of which a full acconi t s ' iv - n 
speakmg of Guadon Huetten, m cXn co^u ? 

part 11. p. So. 

•I^osk.i,. ^._. 

t Fort .-^ Her,, C?rbcn county. 







Mahony creek, was destroyed November 24th, 1755, 
the Indian congvegatioo, at Ouaden Iluetten, lied foi 
security to BeihU^diem, when tlie following interesting 
conesijoiidence took place between them and the Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, viz: 

To the Hon. Robert Hunter Morris, &c. The hum- 
ble address of the Indians late residing at Guadtii 
Huettcn, at their instance taken Ironi their own mouth : 
. First — We present our love, respect and duty to the 
Hon. Governor of Pennsylvania, because we are nui 
able to expres.i; ourselves, as it shoidd be, we beg tliere- 
fore that the best coriJtniclicni be ])ut upon what v/e 
havG to lay before hun. 

We have been heretofore })oor heathens, who knew 
nothing of God, but lived in blindness and abominable 
sins. The Brethren have told us words from Jesus Christ, 
our God and Lord, wlio became a man for us, and pur- 
chased salvation for us widi his blood. We have heard 
their words, taken them to heart, received them in faith, 
and are liaptized in tht; name of Jesus Christ. 

The Ihclhren since that time have faithiully cared llr 
ns, and not only I'luluer inslructed us in (Jod's word, 
but have also j)crmilted us to live u{)on their land, and 
plant om- corn, at the same time instructing our children. 

It is now a great many years that we have lived in 
quiet and peace, imder the protection of the government 
of this province, so that we have not been burdensome 
to none, (any,) nor has any body molested us. But now 
it is come to jjass, that Avicked people, who serve the 
devil, havc! connuitted horrible murders, and inhumanly 
butchered even our own Brethren. 

We well knew that we had nothhig better to exptc; 
at their hands, as long as we continued with the Breth- 
ren under this government; for which cause we sought 
to save our lives by ilight, leaving every thing behiiid 
which we had in Gauden Huetten, that is, not only our 
habitations, but also o\u' Nothing and provision, tleeing 
hi the dark night, naked and empty away with our 
wives and children, 

N . ,v we la.; here in Bethlehem with our brellucn, 

88 nisTOKV f)r nokthampton county. 


willing rather to sutler and live with thein as heretolbr^. . j 

We cannot but declare to our Honorable Governor? { \ 

First, That v/e are thankful from the l)ottom of our \ \ 

hearts for the itrotectiou and peace that we have hitiicrta I \ 

enjoyed in this province. Secondly, That none of us | \ 

have any baud in the abominable umrders kitely com- I < 

mittetl by tlie Indians ; but we abhor and detest tijoni.. .? I 

TJdrdhj, It is our desire, seeing we are persuaded thai '^ 

our lives aviII be ])rincipally sought after, to put our- ■. ^ 

selves as children under the protectio.n, we cannoi say | ij 

otlierwise, but tint we are entirely devoted to thi: , •; 

English GovernUient, und wish success and pros|;enty •■■ - 

to their arms, against their and our enemies. |-« \ 

We hope that our Honorable Governor will give us u * 

gracious answer to this om- hinnble petition, and pro- .f ; 

vide for our future weltare and security. { \ 

(Signed by the following, in the presence of Rerniivd ,, , 

Adam Grube, John Jacob Schmick and J, Okely ;) | ij 

. Joshua, the Moliickan ; Augustus, Delaware; Jacoli. * '' 

Mohickan ; Anton, Delaware; John Peter, Wainpenas ; < 

Joshua, Delaware \ Andreas, Wampanas ; Michael, Meni- ;; ■ 

sink; Jonathan, D^'lawart;; Philippus, Wanij)onas; Tob.n, ^| 
Mohickan; John, Delaware ; David> Moliickau ; Marl:, 

Subscribed before 

Justice, for Northampton county, Nov. 30, 17.jj. 

To the Ibregoing, Gov. Morris WYOte the following in 

answer : | 

To the Indians lately i^jsiding at Guadcn Huetten, anit li 

now at Bethlelfcm — Greeting : ^ 

Brethren — You may always de])end on the Uiost %\ 

favorable construction being i)ut on whatever yen lay f^, 

before me. It gives me a true pleasure to fuid yen are ^. 

imder the force of religious impressions, and speak in so 1 

arfectionaii? a mranicr of the great Author of tiic J bris- I 

tian salvation, our Lord Jesus Christ. A 

As you liave made it your own choice to b:;i run.: » 


meiiibers of our civil society, and subjects of the same 
' government, and to determine to share the same fatt; 
with us, I shall make it my care to extend the same pro- 
tection to you, as to the other subjects of his Majesty, 
and as a testimony of ihc regard paid by the government 
to the distressed state of that ]:)art of the provmce where 
you liave sulfered so natch, I have determined to build 
a fort at Guaden Knetten, from which you will receive 
equal security willi the wiiite people under my care. 
I have not the le.tst .suspicion of your having been 
I concerned in the lute nitschi<jts. Your precaution and 
^ flight are an evidence of your innocence, aud take in 
good part your professions of trudi, and fidelity to yom 
l)retln-en,and thank you for them. 
1/ I heartily commiserate yom- losses, and think you 
entitled to relief; and as 1 intend to send for all our 
friendly Indians to come and confer with me in this lime 
of danger, I shall let you know the time when I shall 
meet them, and desire you to be present, that 1 may 
speak to you at the same lime. 
t J In the mean time, I desire you will be of good be- 
' liaviour, and remain where you are. 

Philadelphia Deo. 4, 1755. 

These were trying times to the people of this region 
of country, as may be learned from the subjoined origi- 
nal letters : 

Letters by express from Northampton county, inform- 
ing the govermnent liiat the Indians had begun hos 

A letter from Timotiiy Horsefield, to the Governor. 

Bethlehem, Dec. 12, 1755. 
Mail/ it please yoi-.r Honor : 
! Sir — The enclosed are a faithful translation of two 
original German lett.ns to the Rev. Mr. Spangenberg 

♦Proi. Uec, N, ^21-^^0. v , , ■ ■■■ 



which are jusi do.v come to hand, and which will < . t 
form your Honor of the particulars whicli I have i j 
•lay beJbre yon. Your Honor will thereby bce v/ii,n 
circumstances we are in, in these parts. | 

I would also just mention to your Honor, lluU u.. i 
bearer brings with him some pieces of arms which fail I 
m the using, and which make the people afraid to tal,.>| 
Ihem h-. hand. I ];ray that your Honor will t^ko it 1;. I 
your Innher consideration, and give us all the a.yistaiict ' 
that lays iti yoiu' power. 

J am, with all <hie respect, 

YoWi Honor's most obliged 

ri'' ■'■ and hmnble servant, ! 

■_3^' , TIMOTHY HORSF.FiKLl), J 

1 . S. I have sent to alarm the country with all iL { 

expedition pc^sihle, but when we have the p.'!;|de, v,- • 

have no proper persons to lead them, and what ran v,-,- i 

expect ? I 

A letter from W. Nathanael, to the Rev. Mr. S'^ai- j 
genberg. ^ ' 

-, ^,. ^^azareih, Dec. \1, ]153. 

Mr. J5uman; who just now came from the lilue rnoar ' 
tain, and is the hearer of this letter, will tell you thai thei 
IS a number of two hundred Indians about Eror'dhead^ 
plantation. They have destroyed most all the plonti 
nous thoreabonls,and killed several families as ]fopd,'> 
\ oil will be so kind and acquaint Mr. Horsefield direct- i 
Jy ol it, ihat he may send a messenger to Philadelphi'' * 
.and let all our neighbors know what \ve have to eYced' 1 
and that they may come to our assistance. ' | 

:?''-:^i:l\^ .■ ' : nathanael. 

A letter from Mr. Grail' to tlie Rev. Mr. Spangenhu 

Nazareth, December \\, 17 35 ■' 
An hour ago came Mr. Glotz, and told us that ihc lOlli I 
instant, m the night, Hoeth's family were killed by tho ' 
Inaians; except his son and the smith, who made their 
-scape, and the houses burnt down. Just now cam3 oJu 


Mr. Hartman with his family, who also escaped, and 
they say that all the iieighboiiiood of the above men- 
tioned IIoeths,,viz: Bioadheud's, Culver's, McMichael, 
and all houses and fuiiilics thereabouts, attacked by the 
Indians at day-hgnt, and burned down by them. Mr. 
Culver's and Hartnuin's liunily are come to us with our 
wagons, &c. Lodged partly here in Nazareth, and 
partly in the tavern. Our wagons which were to fetch 
some corn, were met by Culver's, three miles this side 
liis house, and when tliey heard these shocking news, 
they resolved to rctmn, and to carry these poor people 
to Nazareth. 

They say also that the number of Indians is above 
two hundred. We want to hear your good advice what 
to do in this present sil nation and circumstances, and 
': desire if possible your assistance. 


Letter from Horsofield to tlie Governor: 

Bethlehem, Dec. 12, 175.5. 
I\I(ifj it please your Honor: 
' Sir — I have despatched an express this morning to 
yo)ir Honor, in Philadelphia, to inform you of the cir- 
cumstances we are in; but since hearing that you'were 
I in New York, I thought it my duty to despatch another 
messenger with this, thinking it might yet iind your 
Honor there. 

- In the night an express arrived from Nazareth ac- 
quainting me that there is certainly people now in Na- 
zareth, who tied for their lives, and informs us that one 
iloeth and his family arc cut off, only two escaping, and 
the houses &c., of Hoeth, liroadliead and otbers, are 
actually laid in ashes, and pcojde from all (piarters Hy- 
ing for their lives, and the common report is tliat the 
Lidians are two hundred strong. 

Your Honor can easily guess at the trouble and con- 
sternation we must be in on this occasion, in these parts. 
As to B<^thlohem, v/e have t.iken all the precaution in 
uur po ., '1, fur onv defence. We have taken our luUe 



infants from Nazareth to Bethlehem, for the grealei . . 
security ; and these, with the rest of our children, are neai j ■ 
three hundred in number. Ahho' our gracious King and \ ' 
Parliamem hcive been pleased to exempt tliose anion^ |' 
us of tender conscience from bearing arms, yet there are § 
many amongst us wlio make no scruple of defending (I 
themselves n gainst sucii cruel savages. liut,alas! whai * 
can we do, liaving very few arms, and little or no annrai- 
uition ; and we are now as it were, become the frontier; |^ 
and as we are circumstanced, our family being so large, fj 
it is impossible fur us to retire to any other place for 

T doubt not, your Honor's goodness will lead yon to 
consider the distii-ss \vi^ are in, and speedily to ail'urd i!> 
what relief shall be thought necessary against diusi- 
merciless savages. 

I am, wiiii due resj)ect. 

Your Honor's most obedient servant. |' 


P, S, Ifoetii's, ]]r(jadhead's, &c., are situate a I'evv 
miles over the IMue mountains, about 25 oi 30 ruil-.'s 
from hert;. 

Benjamin Franklin, on his way to erect Fort Alleti, 
on the left bank of the Lehigh river, where Weissport 
is, stopped at this place, as may be seen from the follov/- 
ing letter, addressed to Governor Morris, viz: 

Bethlehem, Jan. 14, 1750, 
Governor Morris: 

Sir — As we drew near this place, we met a mnnl/jr 
of Avagons, and many peo])le moving olf with tlion 
etlects and families, from the Irish settlement and l.ehigli 
township, being terrihed by the defeat of Hay's coni- 
pany, and the jjurnings and nun-ders committed in the 
townships on new year's day. We found this place 
filled with refugees, the \vorkmon's shops, and even the 
cellars, being crowded with women aiui children ; and 
we learned diat Lehigh township is almost entirely 

'Prov, Kec, N. 3^1-3^. 


abandoned by the inh;ibitanis. Soon after my arrival 
here, the principal people oi" the Irish settlement, as 
Wilson, elder Craig, &c. canity to me, and demanded an 
r§ addition of thirty men to ( 'raig's company, or threatened 
they wonld imnietliaiely, one and all, leave then'conntry 
|5. to the enemy. liay's company was reduced to eighteen 
ij men, (and those without shoes, stockings, blankets, or 
arms)partly by the loss oi' (iuuden Iluetten, and ])artly by 
desertion. Trumj) and Aston had made but slow pro- 
l^ress in building the liist for., complaining for want of 
tools, which it was thouglit the people in tliose jjarts 
might liave supplied ilunn with. 

• Wayne's company we found posted at Nazareth, 
•# agreeable to your Honor's ord^irs. I inmiediately di- 
F rected flays to complete his company, and he went 
} down to Bucks county with Mr. Heatty, who promised 
I to assist him in recruiting. His lieutenant lies liere lame, 
* with trozen feet, and uniii for action; but the ensign, 
with eighteen men, is posted among the present froiuier 
inhabitants, to give some satisfaction to the settlement 
[leople, as I refused to increase Craig's company. In 
iiiy turn, I liave tlneate.ied to disband or rejuove the 
tjomparnes already posted, for the security of particular 
townships, if the })eople would not stay on their places, 
hehave like men, do someihhig for themselves, and assist 
-the province soldiers. 

The day after my arrival here, I sent oiT two wagons 
loaded with bread, and some axes, lor Trum]) and 
Aston, to Nazareth, escorted by Lieutenant Davis, and 
twenty men of M'Lauglilin's, that came with me. I 
ordered him to renrahi at Nazareth to guard that place, 
wiiile Capt. Wayne, whose men were fresh, })roceeded 
Avith the convoy^ To secure Lyn and Heidelberg town- 
ships, whose inhabitants v/ere just on the wing, I took 
Trexler's company into pay, (lie had been betbre com- 
missioned by Mr. Hamilton^ and I commissioned W^et- 
lerholt, who commaadcd a watch of iburty-four men, 
belbre in the pay of the province, ordering him to coni- 
fileie his company. I have also allowed thirty men to 
i,t'cuie t'" iowi:.':hip of Upper Sinilhfield, and comniis- 



sioned Van Ettcii and Ilinshan, as Captain and LifAite/,- 
ant. And m order to execute more speedily the firsi 
design of creeling a t'ort near Guadeii Iluetteu, lo com 
jilete tlie line and the rangers into motion, f have raised 
anotlier company under Captain Charles Foult, to joiii j 
with Wayne in that service ; and as Hays, I hear, is nri. '• 
likely soon to recruit his company, J liave ordered Onvh 
to come up from Rockland, in Bucks county, to 
strengthen this part of the provhice, convey provisior.-: 
&c., to the companies who are and will ho at work ovv:,- . 
the mountains, and quiet the inliahitants, who se-Jiii tei- i 
riiied out of th 'ir senses. 

The arms aiid blankets wrote lor to New Yoik, iu.. f 
not yet arrived; but I hear that 100 gims and 150 ] 
blankets are on tlie road, sent me by Mr. Coldon : tiiosi' •' 
of Mr. Walton's being sold before. I have consulto^ 
IVfr. Parsojis, and if the wagons come to-day, it is pro- 
posed that I prcKced to-morrow, with Wayne's conrpary. 
which is returned, Foulk's and the twenty men of IV- 
Laughlin's, to Guadea lluetten, to lay out the intendel 
fort, and endeavcr to get it despatched, Capt. Wayn.i 
tells me that Triunp expects the iirst fort will he iinished \ 
next week. 1 hope to get this done as soon, havir*; f 
more tools; at this season it seems to befighlinj; , 
against nature. But I imagine 'tis absolutely necessary 
to get the ranging line of forts completed, that the peo- 
])le may be secured as soon as possible in their habita- 
tions, and the internal guards and companies dismissed, 
otherwise the expense and loss to the province v/iU br- 

I want much to hear the event of the proposed ifeaiy, ^ 
and the determination your Honor and the commifw 
sioners may have come to, for the encouragement ci 4 
volunteer scalping parties. » y 

I am, with dutiful respect, l 

' *' .• Sir, your Honor's most 

■ . Obedient humble servant, 

•,.'•■- B.FRANKLIN. 

% i 


The Brethren here, as well as at other Moravian set- 
tlements iu this part of Pennsylvania, were peculiarly- 
situated. Notwithstanding that they atforded protection 
to refugees from a cruel dijath ex])ected to be intlicted by 
the savage Indians, " the Irish ot the Kitlatinny valley 
viewed the Brethren with jealousy, and openly threaten- 
ed to exterminate the Indian converts, and it was 
dangerous for the friendly Indians even to hunt iri the 
woods,'* or even when sent on j)ublic business. The 
fallowing letter from the Rev. Spangenberg to Governor 
i Morris, goes to sustain the truth of this in the main: 
j Bel/iic/te/n, May 2d, 1756. 

May it please your Huuor : 
I arrived at Bethlehem the 2Sth, 1st month, and com- 
) municated with our Indians, at your Honor's desire, 
I that one or other of them might go with the messengers 
f; who were sent by your Honor's orders, to the Indiana 
f at the Susquehanna, and would soon be with us at Beth- 
I lehem, in their way thither. Augustus, a Delaware, 
alias George, upon serious consideration upon going and 
I not being ignorant of many dangers he might happen to 
; meet with, he called his wife, mother-in-law ami two 
^sons together, and ileclarcd to them his last will, in case 
\ he should be either killed or hindered some how from 
■ coming back again, viz : That they should conthme with 
our Saviour, with whom he was determined to abide as 
long as he had flesh and skin upon his back, and that 
they should not leave the Brethren. 

Tegrea and company crime from Bethlehem the same 

day, and when I presented to them the said Augustus, 

I they were very much pleased with him, he being a man 

of good judgment, of an nonest countenance, and well 

'. acquainted with the woods up tliat way to VVoyming ; 

and so they are gone tor,ether yesterday, to Fort Allen, 

1 and to-morrow they will proceed from thence on their 

journey to the Susquehanna, [thought them all in 

greater danger of being lixirt in the Irish settlement, 

than any lohere else in all the province, and therefore 

I did desire James Ennis aiid Thomas Apty, not to 

leave tf'iu till they v/ero at Fort Allen, and so they 



went along. Mr. Edmunds, David Zeitzberger, Geoi,^ | 
Klein and Stephen Blum, all of them went al;so v.'iiii J 
rliem to Fort Allen — the slieriiF of this county not lo- 1 
ing at home at the time of setting off. "| 

We have used tliem well at .Bethlehem, and shewt.ll 
ihem so much kindnes as they were able to accept nf, | 
and 1 think they went away well pleased. Tlieir la:' I 
declaratioti, ;'.k well at Iklhlehem as at Fort Allen, whicl>j 
he also u'^.ntcd me to write to your Honor, wa^ as fol- ' 
lows, viz : I 

•• Wc do remember very well the words the Go\'cn\h\ \ 
hath pul I'i our nuuili.s, and will deliver them laithfrJK. j 
May bo this uiTair will take up some time, tv\'enly, ii' J 
not thirty, or thirty-tive days. If we do not return i.i } 
that time, be sure that we are either killed, or tli,a | 
ihe danger is such that we cannot get througli. Bat ii | 
we can, we will go directly to Thomas Magee's, and ••^t | 
on to the Govi-rnor, for so he hath ordered us to do; unl | 
so we will do if we can. But if either the white people 1 
or the bad Indians are in the way, we cant go down iIil' f 
Susquehanna by water, then we will come by F' u Alli'i; .| 
and Betlilelient back ag;iin. | 

'' If we happen to lose our flag or passport {for il;.e ni;i., \ 
who carries it may be shot, and others may be forced to j 
liy for their lives,) then we will come to the forts, or nay j 
of them, and our token shall be a club'd musket mm \ 
green boughs in our hats. s 

" If Ave meet with had Indians in the wooJo, (ui.' ; 
some of us be killed, you may expect any one tliat ! 
(^scapes, in ten days; if we do not return insLK li a linif;, ' 
then you may think that we are luckily arrived. i 

"If we dohl come in twenty days, tlien let ihc cajj j 
tains of each fort look out for us in fifteen days, wliicli ' 
m all makes lldrty-five days, and we will not come in • 
the night to any of the forts." . I 

Now tl'.is is humbly to request your Honor, that if they j 
comedown to Harris' Ferry to meet your Honor, then 
Augustus uiay liave your passport, and be safely cart- 
ducted by proper and careful oflicers to Bethlehem agaiii^ 




for SO much I have promised him, and he expects it from 
your Honor. 

I am your Honor's 
. • Humble servant, 


' The Indians ai Jiethlehem were repeatedly instrumer!- 
tal in preventing the destruction of the settlers; when they 
lieard of a plot against ihe whites by tlie warriors, well 
disposed Indians would travel all night to warn the 
brethren and others, and thus defeat the schemes of the 
cruel enemy. An istance is related hi the followi/i;; 
letter : 

H' Jii'thlche77i, June 2\, 1156. 

- Alai/ it please yov.r Honor : 
This morning early, ;vl)Out five o'clock, there arrived 
here two Delaware Indi.ns, from Diahoga, who, declar- 
ing themselves friends to the English, and peaceahly 
disposed, were by us n^ceived as such. Their names 
yre Nichodemus, and ( liristian, iiis son, and formerly 
fC lived in Gwatlen Ihu;tUii. As soon as I heard of their 
being here, thougli sick in bed, I sent for Captain New- 
Vt castle, and acquainted him with it, and what I had 
\l heard of the circumstances, namely, that they left Dia- 
hoga with a comjiauy of their j'riends, nine women and 
children, to the number of hl'teen ; that a day's journey 
beyond Guaden Ilu(.'tten, they had left the rest of their 
A" company, and determined lo venture their lives and 
i come through, and see how they could get the rest after 
them. When the Cai)tain heard this, he directly re- 
l solved, in virtue of his cv)miuission from your Honor, to 
jl go this day with his company and Nichodemus' sun 
'1 (Christian, attended by iVir. Edmonds, to Guaden Huel- 
1^ ten, and immediately proceed to bring Ihein to the fort, 
'' and from thence hither in safety, till further orders from 
your Honor. 1 thought this liighly necessary to aequaiiu 

• 'Prov. Kec, iJcok 0, j). U/^, )*ji> ,. . . 

G . > 

98 insTOKv ov Northampton county. 


you with hy express, that we may speedily know yotu |^ 

lionor's jileasine herein. ' ," ^1 

1 uiri, witli all due respect, ' t. 

Your Honor's most humble f^ 

•- and obedient servant, j- 


P. S. The under- written particulais I got tp \h>i |' 

knowledge of, from our Indians who hud conversed v/ilh •>/ 

ihcni, but as I had |)rondsed Capiain Newci'Stle b« || 

should know iho contt-nts of my letter to your Honflv *' 

I would not insert tlieni in it, doubtin 

be prudent he slioulJ know so nmcl 

1. Wiicn tiic Indians came away, and it was knov/n. 
they foimd therL! were a great many oi' the same niii)(i 
with them, and wished themselves under the pjotectior. I 
of the English, and they think many will follow tlioni, i. 
particularly il'they h.ear these have succeeded, |j 

2. That sev( ;al of the chiefs wlio had lived in iJia- | 
hoga when Caitiaia Newcastle was last Uiere, v. ere iiovv 
moved higher up, and generally thought, (thongh not 
certainly known) to have gone 1u the French. "L 

As things are circumstanced, 1 humbly conujivi! i* | 
will be highly necessary to use all the despatch imagiii.i- | 
ble to send away the Cai)tain — -he hitnself being very ,| 
urgent lor the messenger's return, that he may itTthw;'.} f* 
proceed to Dialioga. I 

TIMO. IIORSEFl!':i,lJ. | 

. Governer Morris' answer to Horselield, to the uiiov- "I 

•••,'/<■ Philadcip/tia, June 2.3, n5'o. I 

■ Sir— I am favored with your's of the iJlst by express, | 
and in answer, think it proper that Captain No wcastlo i 
should set oil direcdy for Dialioga, and take with bin. \j 
two or diree cf llie Indians just arrived, that tjiey may J 
testify along with him our good reception ol' ihcm. '| 
I do hereby empower the lirethren, and request tlieiii | 
to receive into ilieir liouses at liethlehem, all sncl) $; 
friendly Indiaiis as shall come to them, and (Lsno to U ^ 
Uken in, and to siipport and maintaiu them, till tl.e":. 


have my further orders, always taking care to advise 
me from time to time, of tlie arrival of any Indians, 
mentiomag their places of abode, their tribe and such 
other circumslaaces as shall he necessary to give me a 
just and proper acocarit of them; and any expenses at- 
tending this service, v.' ill be paid by the government. 

I herewith eiiciocse an additional message to New- 
castle, which I beg you to send to him, wherever he is, 
with all possible d(3spaich ; as every article is very 
necessary; and if he .siiould be gone, as you see from 
the first part of n.y ietier thut I intend some of the In- 
dians I'rom IJiuhoj^a should accompany him, I desire 
^^ you, or some of the Brethren, will speak in my name, to 
such of the Diahoga IiuUuns as you shall think most 
trusty, and send forward directly my additional message- 
to Newcastle. 

I am Sir, 
J Your humble servant, 

I ; ;,, ,^ ,, Roirr. h. morris.* 

In answer to the Governor's instructions and queries, 
the Rev. Spangenberg w.oic tin; following answer; 

liethlehem, June 26, 1 756. 
May it please your Honor : 

Having been iVom home when Newcastle came to 
Bethlehem, and your Iloaor's letter tome, my Brethren 
have taken care to see your orders obeyed, as far as lay 
ill their power. 

What hath been spolcen and done with Newcastle 
before he set otf from Ikthlehem, your Honor will see 
out of the eiiclosed accotnit, dated June 15. 

Since thut time he came back, and brought with him 
Jo. Pepy and Nicodemus and their families, the list 
whereof your H(;iior will see laid by in the close of this 

Yesterday he (Nc:v/'*;iytle) desired to know your 
Honor's furlher ijvd.;r, whi^h was dehvered unto hiat 

•Pov. U'.i., O. ICO- 2. 



accordingly, out of your Honor's letter, as will appr; . | 
by record, dated '^.5tli and 2tith June. i 

Now to tell your Honor tlie truth, I don't beiicve ihuii 
either Jo Pepy or Nicodemus and their families can st;iy| 
at liethlchoin. We have been obliged to put people <m j 
of the bijusc, to make room for them. But this is nolj 
all ; there is such a rage in tlie neighborhood agaiiisi ll^" j 
said poor ereaiures, that 1 fear they will mob us and tl-h:-;] 
together. For Jo. Pepy having lived among ;he Pi.;;; j 
byteriati.s, and treacherously being gone iVoni thf:aij;rt::i 
exaspoaled them in the highest degree. \ 

We have pul t.\76 men wiUi them to be U c'r mi ] 
guard, but your Honor knows very well that this 'voni ■ 
hinder the stream, wtien it is coming upon them and ii>j 
at ihe same time. I proposed to them to-day, v;iieik( r 1 
they or any of tliem should choose to go with N. wcasiir | 
but they did nctcare for it. They are afraid,! believe, b.".-| 
cause they have deserted from the Indians, as before lie, J 
the English. 'I'hey have told me the families v/hich aiv| 
mclined to come, and will come, if tliey can, with Nt;v ! 
castle. The most of them are known here, to l.c yj .■ * 
for nolliing, and quite faithless crealmes. ^ 

I therefore hundjly beg of your Honor to reiuovt il J 
said Jo. Pepy and Nicodenms and their families, ih: ^ 
sooner the better, to Philadelphia, for there thty un:- i.i ^ 
the heart of the country, and mischief may be p: ■vrni. :i ■ 
which could breed evil consequences. J 

As for the rest, I hear thai Jo. Pepy, as well a.-: Ni v \ 
demus, have been all along employed in councils ,ir.:i ; 
treaties, and messengers, since the time the war begun ; i 
so that if they arc friends indeed, they may give your ; 
Honor a light into many tlhiijjs, relating to th'^ h:d\?i^ \ 
ailairs. I 

I am, your Honor's ! 

Tvlosl humble servant, 


The names of die two Delaware familie: now . 
Bethlil.em, tliat cume there from Diahoga, Jiinc ■; 



■Joseph Pepy, WcwiilalDilenl ; Sarah, Natehetechque, 
(his wife.) Their children — James Petesch, Isaac, Sa- 
nih, Jesaias Gonasseiioolv, INletts'hisli. 

Nicudemiis, Weshicl.ngechive ; Justiiia, Saagochque. 
7'Ae/r children — Zacharias, Petachtshowechive ; Cliris- 
liaii Pulloky, Nalliau Woupris, Thomas Potshalagee5>, 
(fOshutis, Dorathe;i. 

Substance of whai vjn:. said to the Indians at Bethle- 
hem, June 15, 17.3() : 
\ ' Tiie Indians, viz: iNuwoastle, Jagrea, John Pomshire, 
Thomas Stores and Jo:;eph Milciiy, being togetlier, and 
I, I some of tiie Brethren al Bethlehem present, William 
\l^- Edmonds asked the Captain abont the interpreter, and 
John Pomshire was ap[iointed thereto. Then William 
Edmonds informed them from tlie Governor's letter, 
tiiat by a letter from Mr. Charles Reed, of the Jerseys, 
he had intelligence that some white people were gone 
from I^aiilin's llill, in the Jerseys, to scom after and 
ikialp the Indians, and tlarefore he desired out of love 
and care lor the safety of these Indian messengers, we 
would keep them here so long, till we 'could send| mc- 
iiengers thither to enqtine into the certainty thereof, and 
whither they were returned, and if they had killed and 
done any Indians mischief; and that two messengers 
were sent from here accordingly, with letters to Mr. 
Parsons and Justice Anderson, clesiring them to assist 
them all they could on their journey. Further, that since 
the said messengers were gone, the Governor hath been 
I pleased to let us know by an express, that he hath been 
I iiitormed by Col. Clai>ham, that Ogaghradarisha, a chief 
I of the Six Nations, was t;ome to Shamokin, expressnig 
R their high satisfaction at our building a fort at Shamo- 
|l kin, and that another Indian of Cayuga had accom- 
\ panied him as far as Dialioga, and had been afraid of 
,/ going on, thuugh lie might have come safe widi Ogagh- 
I radarisha. 

It was on this acc.Hini the Governor's desire that 
Newcastle and his company might proceed on their 
journey for Diahoga, as soon as possible. On this New- 
castle ,, plied, that lie v/ould consult with his com- 



panions, and lot us know his mind to-morrow moniiiig, " j 
The next morning iie said, that as it was so dangerous ■■ 
now to go up, by reason ot' the Jersey parties wiio wnre 1 1 
gone out against die Indians, and his cousins vv^ero ready | ■ 
to go with him step by step on this important at!;'.ir, he t ' 
should be short in duly, and always to blame, i( he should f I 
proceed widioul first acquainting the Governor Ihnt snid | . 
young men were gone, according to report we had by the i , 
messengers sent lo Jersey, especially if they shonid mw.\ ^ < 
with his co'.isins, and do ihem mischief. I 

At the same time, he dt;sired that liis companions \\ 
might have what they wanted lor their journey; und y 
was told, thereupon, that the Governor liad given orders !''. 
for it, and that wj. would not fad to let them havi: every Ji 
thing that could Ih; got here. i 


t. ■ i t '.■; 

Substance of what was delivered to Capt. New ca silt 1 ^ 

at Bethlehem, June 26, 1756: |^ 

At a solemn meeting with Capt. Newcastle aiullua v 

company, and .hi. IV'py? ^'^^ i*i 

Pirst — A string of wampum was presented io Jo. f| 

Pepy, that he a)id company were welcome among i;s. ' 

They then were told, that Ins Honor the Governor, liad i 

given orders to provide them the necessary relreshineuts '•' 

&c., and that he wants to know what ]iersons and fami- | ■ 

lies are come, and what families are still at Diahogn, thiit |*' 

' perhaps might come among us. % 

The taking of a copy of the Governor's proclai nation J 

for suspending all actions of hostilities, &c., with thcni, ^ 
was recommended, and we found they had one. 

The Governor's pass was read, exi)lained, and tlicii ^' 

delivered to them. They were spoken to abont the '^ 

Hag, it being the king's, which by no means shcudd lo k 

violated, Diid great care thereof was recoauncnded to l\ 

them. ^' 

Tlic additional uiessnge sent by the GoveriMr, was ;*■ 

read and interpreted to Newcastle, and two strings be- / - 

longing to il delivered to him, and the writing itself also, f' j 

ili;it lie may peruse it whenever occasion requires,. i • 



'• The building of a fort at Shamokin, and the great 
necessity for it, was strongly represented to Newcastle, 
▼iz : That the Five Nations liad pressed it very nmch, 
and Scarroyady urged also very much the finishing of 
it when he was at Philadelj)hia, and this matter must be 
represented in iis real light to the Indians at Diahoga. 
It is for the safety of cur friendly Indians along the Sus- 

- They were told fnithcr, that Ogaghradarisha was a; 
Shamokin, and voiy glad '.if the fort which they are 
building there. That he was c died by the (Jovernor to 
Philadelphia, and would lujt he detained longer than 
needful. Newcastle M^as desired to relate tliis to the 
Indians at Dialioga. 

Newcastle was also iiiloriucd that it would be agreea 
ble to the Governor's mind, if one or two of those In- 
dians, who lately cairie Iroui Diahoga, should go along 
with him. Newcastlcj's joiu-ney was urged that it 
might not ho delayed ; and lie promised to go as soon at; 
his health would j^ermit ; he being as yet a little indis- 
posed by reason of sui,.o buils. 

A siring of wami)inji was sent to .Fohn Shickcalamy. 
signifying that the (iovcrnor invites him to come to him, 
and if jiossible, in company with Capt. Newcastle. 

At last a string of WL'irjpum was delivered to New 
castle, whicli is sent by tlie Governor to the Iriendly In- 
dians, signhymg that as Sir William Johnson hath invited 
the Six Nations, and all the wesli:rn Indians to Oswego, 
it was left entirely to (heir own choice, either to go to 
the treaty at Osvv^ego, or come (o the Governor at Phila- 
delphia — Sir William and the (iovernor being of one 
and the same interest, lioth friends to the Indians, and 
servants to the same king. 

After we weic just going (o break up, Jo. Pepy de- 
clared openly in the Delaware language, which was 
interpr ted by Pomps! liio, diat he was very sorry tljat 
he had taken such a;p, as to leave liis English 
Brethren, when he should have come nearer to them. 

He s;iid further, that he :,ince then had been excessiv*:- 
ly t' iviuied in mind about it, and not being able to Yivl 

104 Hi;sroRi' ov Northampton' county. 


any longer under such oppixission and uneasiness of ■< ■ 
mind, he at ifist rosoived and ventured his lite, and so 

returned v/ilh all his i'amily to the English again. Now . ^ 

he hegs very much to be forgiven, and sin-renders liiui- \ ^ 

self entirely to the mercy of tlie government, to do v/iti; i , 

!nm as they pleased. '' j 

He further said, that he knew ten or twelve tariiilioi, ;' , 

which would I'e glad to come down again lo dic , 

English, but he did not think proper to acquaint tfoni ei | ^ 

his resohuioii, \d\<M\ he went himself, and so leli ilnin ' 

behind. j' 

Then he was tcld what his Honor the Govern, r liu^l \i 

written concerning them, .viz : That they were wel- f 

come among us, .md that he expected to hear wli.) dii,y i; 

were, and their names, and then lie woidd appoii.t i'ot -' 

them accordingly, a place of safety. In the moan tin.- •' . 

they were to stay anjong us, and tor their securily vo j.^ 

will give them two of our white bretliren to be dieir . 

guard, that none .hall hurt them ; and in case any v/lii.c [: 

man should i;ome and ollbr to speak witli them, In; shuli J.;- 

be ret'used, ex(;epi he have an order i'rom a magisirau fc 

and in tliis siuiaiion ihey are to remain till I'urther •■uli.'o n 

from his llouor, I lie Governor. % 


l^etter from 'i\ Horselield, to Governor Morris.. P 

• ' ■ i 

Bethlehem, July 0, I Jju % 

May it yltuse your Honor : 1 

I received you; Honor's liivor of the 4th inst., by ri- | 

turn -of the express, and agreeable to your diructien.- <: 

liave bespoke tluee of the Indians two shirts and :; | 

blanket for eacli, which shall be delivered to tlieni in I 

your Honor's nriuie. The inclosed papers will inform ' 

your Honor the occasion of this express. The liidians ^^ 

desire to be despatched as soon as possible. The reason i 

of it, your Honor will please to observe their families are \ 

in much \v\\\\\ of provision. They will, howev. v, v/ait g 

•Prov. }i;c., 0. J?JG-V, % 


two days for your Ilunor's answer, by which time I 
hope this express will return. 

. We labor under much diOicuIty on account of these 
Indians wanting their guns repaired, and to have some 
powder and leaU, v/hicli we cannot ])y any measure do, 
unless we have year Honor's express conniiand for ii. 
If it be your pleasure it shall be done or not, please to 
signify it, as year Honor's conniiand shall be strictly 
obeyed. I beg ieavc to observe Kolapecka, Paxinosa's 
son, seems very desirous to carry, according lo the Indian 
way of speakiiit?, some words from your Honor to hii 

I am, with all due respect, 
'i ^ Your Honor's most obedient 

Humble servant, 


; (0^A paper enclosr I in the foregoing letter. 

Ihtldchem, July (i, 1756. 

Last night, in the dark of the evening, arrived a 
Bethlehem, fom- Indians fiom Diahoga, widi a convoy 
from fort Allen, and a letter from Newcastle, which i.- 
enclosed. As Newcastle desired tliat kmdness might 
be shown them, they \^ere cheerfully received anil en- 

This morning they were visited, and told at the sann 
time that a messenger should ho sent to the Governor, 
and therefore they should let us know what they had ti'- 
say to the Governor. Kolapecha, Packsinosa's son, n 
Shawanese, answered lo this effect : — He did not couk 
from Diahoga with an intent to go to Bethlehem, hUt 
was out a hunting, his family being scarce of provision::. 
That Shekashano, Mekikachpe and VV'enimah, all 
Shawanese, now of Diaiioga, and formerly of Wyomink, 
in liis coni])any— ihutnct being sent by tlie chiefs, he had 
no message to the Governor, nor could he tell us any 
news. So miiel;,. however, he knew — ihat mne natioM':; 

•i^ v. Uec, 0. 179. 


were in the Cnylish interest, viz: The Shawanf^sc, 
Tasaiiiiig, Nuniicokes, Tuscaroras, Tuttelars, Onoiidii- : ,^ 
goes, Cayu^iis, Sunkikmun and (ianossetage. And he ; i 
said I am sure ll»ey are all friends to the English. i5e- • : 
ing asked ahoul the Dclawarcs, liis answer was: Al;out i ! 
ihem I can s ry nothing. . ; 

About Ins l.iihii;- he told lis, that he was gone wuli , ; 
another clu^l, (,i' the iMennisink nation, whose name is 
Onandaniiikiii, u- meet Sir Wm. Johnson at tlie enincil \ | 
with the Indian-; at Onandago. \ ] 

Tiien h( .; ;;s a,!, -d ;dH)Ut Ihe Alleghany Indians, wiili J, > 
an intent lo joni them and to lall upon the English, ^^\ 
whether \ui had heard any thing of it. He said h.^ ;* 
knew that ^ome ■>. ere gv)ne there from Diahoga, In! for ', : 
what end 1 do nU know. I could not hnd out. I 

Paxinosi's si^i, told the lirelhren that if they hadan^ ^■ 
message to his lidlier, he would bring their words unto 
him. Hereupon iie was told that the Brethren ■.verc ^ 
private persons, ,,iu\ that it would be better he staid lor \ ^ 
(he Governor's words. lie said I can't stay long, (or J 
my iiumlv is in want. I will however stay a ennpl. j; 
of days, and should be glad to take up some Wr'ids tu fV 
my lather. 

He was told that as he wanted to bring down liiii *^ 

family, he should l:e heli)ed with some ])rovision3,* |': 

The silnaiion .>i Ihe i)eople at Helhlehem, became y^ 

still more id.irnn ig. At ihiscritical juncture, Mr. Horse- l» 

field addressed (iovcrnor Morris in the following Ian- ^ 

guage : I 

Jiethkhe7n,Julyl, 175G. | 

May it ph'AKC. your Honor: ( 

I thmk it my duly to acquaint your Honor witii die g 

great danger 'v herein we apprehend not only the 1 

Brethren :.t BeiMebem and their fannlies, but ail llie 1 

country r^anul about us, are in at present. ^j 

Yoii'r 11 .nor ba.s n vited the friendly Indians, by laipi. | 

Newcasli'. , lo conie into this province, with a promise ^» 

that (bey should be kindly received and enUitained. W 

Your Honor h.s given out a proclauialion at li.'; ^anic i| 

-Pov. ii:<:., O, 17i}. I 



time,that the Indians corning into Pennsylvania should be 
received as friends, -owl not tn^aled as enemies (ill the 
third of July, a. c. Now Capt. Newcastle sends Indians 
to liethleheni, of whom we are not sure whether they 
are friends or enennes ; and we may expect more are 
coining. And who knows iiow many may come with 
them under the pretence of being friends ; therefore 
•give it your Honor's wise consideration. 

1st, Whether wicked peojile that are bitter against 
the Indians, cainioi ;iiid muy n(^t fall upon Ihem and de- 
stroy them, the ii|(Miani;',li(ji, being expired. 

2iid. Whether ilic Indians wlio come under pretence 
of being friends, as they have not engaged a cessation 
of arms, and as tlicy anually do keep their arms, may 
not fall, not only upon uj in Bethlehem, but also upon 
all the country, anti do a great deal of mischief. 

Your Honor will please consider that eitlier of the be- 
fore mentioned things Ctu prove fatal and destructive to 
the province, and his Majesty's most dutiful suhjtM'ts. 

It is therefore thatlW', Hrethien from InMhleliem, viz : 
NiUhan Seidel and ('hrisii:in Thos. lU'n/.ier, arc appoint- 
ed to go in the name ol' all the inhahilants of Helhlchem, 
to represent this aljairin its proj)er light, to ymn- Honor; 
and they do iiope that your Honor will not exj)ose them 
like sheep to the mouths of the wolves; but send sucli 
orders to theconniiaiuling oilicers at Fort Allen, &c., &e., 
that they may either laej) tlie Indians arriving at any 
of the forts, or eonducl tliem under proper convoy to 
Philadelphia, or where your Honor thiidvs most proper ; 
and let us know yoiu' pleasure, whether these Indians 
that came lately to Helhlehem, viz: Re[)c Nicodemus, 
&c., should not come to Philadelphia or any other place, 
Bethlehem being already so full and so crowded, thalin 
most of our rooms we have been I'orced to lodge twenty 
or twenty-fivi! porsun.s, antl s.jvenly of our Indians to 
have lived all (he v'/inter m a small house, where they 
had but two rootno. 

I am your Hoi^ur's most 

Obodibiit and lmml)le servatit, 


*l'-jv Kec, 0. i81. 

108 iCSrOi'./ 01' NOKTflAMPTON COUNTS. 

[^Gtter [rem (iovonior Morris to W. Parsons. 

Philadelphia, July 11, 17j<'i. 

Sir— llaviii>.5 or-lercd the Indians at Bethlehem, and 
such other liioiidly Indians as shall come thither, ti; b-? 
removed to KaKton,you will inmiediately make tl e nc- 
(.-essary preparations of houses and provisions for liicir 
reception, and ac a certain time to be agreed upon lor 
their reuuAal, you wiil order an escort of the town ol 
IJelhlchem, to |n'oiect ihem on the road. 

While iliuy n ni.iin at Iviston, you will take care [h:;i 
the soldiers and olncLis keep strictly to their duly, thai 
the guards and srntrics are regularly relieved, anti the 
arms kept iii gom! order, and either discharged or Uruwn 
every other day ; and you will post them in such man- 
ner as will iu(jst eireclLially protect them from the insulin 
of the people, and prevent any evil designs, in case fhey 
:!>liould not be so j.iendly as they pretend. 

The charges ailending this service, you draw lilli; 
upon the conmus^ioners for, sending tliem the necesMuy 
accounts; and yi ii will inform me i'rom tune tu lime, 
what is done in conse(iuence of these orders. 
I a.m, your very 
Humble servant, 

iioirr. II. MORRIS,' 

Notwilh.staudin/ the Governor's orders to make pre- 
parations lo remove the Indians from Bethlehem le 
Easton, there were still a considerable nmnber ul die 
former place, annuig the Brelhren, as will appeal l.on'. 
the following stahnienl : 

The Governor menlioned to the" council, December 
0, 175G,thaiat his instance, Mr. S])angenberg had made 
out a list u'f tb'; Muruvian Brethren belonging lo die 
Jiethlehem l'L;oiieiny, and a state of their society in o.her 
parts of Anieri, en wbieii was read ; and it appeal luj by 
'Mr. .Spangenl:(!ig's account, that at this time (Decembn 
175G) there are at Ikthleljem Jive hundred and leu 



perso7is, besides ni^iely-^^ix children, some orphans and 
others, helongingto some Brcihicn.und Iriends, wlio are 
not of the Beihlehem Economy. 

That Bethlehem mokos oui a eorlain Rehgious Society, 
intended I'or tlie I'urtlierancc of the Gospel, as well 
among the heathens as thri.stiaiis. Forty-eight of the 
above mentioned Iheiluon and Sisters are actually em- 
ployed for that end among the iieathens, not only on the 
continent of America, as Pemisylvania, New England, 
Barbice, Surinam, &.c. : but also m several Islands, as St. 
Thomas, Croix, Jamaica, «S:c. 

' Besides those moiiiioncJ just now, there are fifty-foia 
of them employed in Pennsylvania, New York, New 
England, Jersey and Carolina govermnents, in preaching 
the Gospel, keeping schools and the like. Sixty-two ol' 
them are merely employed in the education of our chil- 
dren at Bethlehem and Nazareth, as attendants and tu- 
tors. Forty-tivc single men, and eight couples of mar- 
ried people are gone to Carolina, to make a new settle- 
ment there, and liliy nh^ie who are come for tiiat end 
from Europe, will go there soon. 

There are seventy-two of tht; above mentioned Breth- 
ren hi holy orders, viz : Four Bishops, twelve Ordina- 
ries, (Priests) and the rest Deacons, and as many t.^oo/ic- 
thi, who are preparing for the ministry in the congrega- 
tion, and now and ihen made use of like Deacons. 

About ninety of the ctnldren at Bethleliem and ?4aza- 
reth, have their parents abroad, mostly on tlie Gosper."- 
account. Four hundred and twenty-hve of those in tiu. 
Ibregoing fist are under age. Not all who are named 
in this catalogue, live in Bethlehem township, but sonu 
m Sacona, some in Licky, and some in another toun- 
sliip, adjoining BethlehcLii township. 

There are eighty-two Indians besides those young In- 
dian women, who live v.'ith (Air young women, and 
besides the savagCd^ who are going and coining, and 
staying longer or shorter with us.* 

'Provincial Uecoru^,!*. pa. iOS. 

,; ;; CHAPTER IX. 


Leiikmt County was separated from Northnnpic;. 
county Ly an act of Assembly passed the 6\h Marcii 
1812. The ; ct defines the boinidariesas follows: 

" That all that part of Northampton county, lying ai' 1 
being widiin liic limits of the following townsiiips, m 
wit: The townships of Lynn, Ileidleburg, J.owiiili 
Weissenliurg, Maeungie, Upper MiKord, South While- 
hail, Northampion, Salis])ury, Ujiper Sancon, aid di;ii. 
part of liano'v'^ I' township within the following bonruls 
to wit: IJegiimiiig at liclldehem line where it jeins iIk- 
Leliigh river ; thenec; along the said line imtil it iiitci-sec!,') 
tho road leading iroin i5edileheni to the J^ehigh Water 
Gap; thence a'ong said road to Allen townshij) line. 
thence along tii>' hue of Allen township, wesUvr.rdiy, 1 1 
the Lehigh, sIklU 1)c, and the same are iiereby, acc.jrdi)\ 
to their present lines, declared to be erected into a i 
county, heneeforthlo be called LEnrcu." j 

'i'his county is bounded on the nort-west by the Kiii.»- ] 
tinny, oi l)lue mouutains, separating it from Sciiuylkill \ 
and Carbon counties, north-east by JNorthampton, south- | 
east by Bucks, and south-west by Montgomery ansl : 
Berks counties. The physical appearance of the country j 
is diversided. The surlace is generally level, ui .'•on:r ; 
places rolling, in others rugged and somewliat broken. ] 
The lofty Kittatinny on the north, gives that portion iii ' 
peculiar features. Tlie Lecha Hill, or vSouth mciintain ; 
crosses tlie south-east i)ortion of the county, which gives ' 
tlie couuiiy a rugged surlace. This mountain range iy • 
of priminy formation, abounding with iron ore. Be- ' 
tween the South and lilue mountains, is the fc:itile Kit- ; 
tulinny valley, perhaps unsurpassed in agricnkurd ; 
wealth, being liighly cidtivuted by au industrious cluss j 





of our worthy fuilow citizens, Germans by descent, 
I ' whose habits ot' iiidiUitry and (Vugalily they retain. 

Perhaps (cw couiitir:-; in the slate, are more pictur- 
esque and varied than Leliigh. The valley portion of 
the county is ne uly .-(jnally divided between the lime- 
stone and clay slate forinatiou. 

"The most iniportatit productions are those of agri- 
culture. In a feriiie region like tiiis, an industrious popu- 
\ iation naturally looks to the tillage of the soil, us their 
ji surest dependence! for support an(J profit. Considerable 
' progress has, ho\v':;ver, l.'oen made in many branches of 
manufacturing in:lr;sli'y, and the devclopunieni of the 
mineral resources o( Ihc country has not been neglected. 
The iron ore of this region supplies material for the 
operation of sevciral AiriKues, viz: Tlie Crane Iron 
Works, Stephen IJallici'.s Furnace, Hunter's & Miller'a 
Furnace, and Ibach's I'orge. The Crane \\'orks, of a 
very iage size, are conslrucicid expressly to smelt iron 
with anthracite coal, by means of tlie hot blast. 

The county is well watered by the Lehigh river and 
its numerous tributaii', s, viz: Antelauiiy. <jr Maiden 
creek, ('aply, oi' lialliei's, Trout, Jordan, (\ciir, Calada- 
que, Perkiomen, and Liille Jueliigh creeks; Crowner's, 
Linn, Willow and Sinking runs. 

, The Ji(;high river, cJled LeckhmVyhy the Indians, 
signifying jy^cst Branch, is a branch of the Delaware. 
It rises in Wayne, Pike and Luzerne counties, but it.Ti 
various tributaries unite ucar Stoddartsville,on tlie north- 
western border of IVlonroe county, and as the stream 
flows onward, it augments by receiving the waters of 
many moimtaiu crcieks; and in its course of twenty-live 
miles, it makes, at the mouth of Wright's Mill creek, a 
turn nearly south ; and alter stealing a serpuiitine course 
of twenty miles, it reaches, by v/ay ol" Mauch Chunk, 
Lehightou. Here it di ilccts to the south-east, and pur- 
sues that direction tweuty-frve miles, to Allentown, wlien 
it turns at an angle of one hundred and twenty or more 
degrees to the Lehigh Hills, Hows hard by Hethlehem, 
and twenty five miles bekc.y. reaches the Delaware rive.'. 
In its coiu'seil receives, v.'ilhin Carbon county, from th- 


'i , 

west side^ Quauukc creek, Nesqnehoning, Mauch CliunL, '. 
JMalioniiig and Lizard creeks; I'rorn the east,]Jear creek, 

Big creek, formed of lloed's creek, Poko-po-poko, '- 
Aquaijsliicola ; " from Lehigh comity, Trout creek, Jordan 

<;rcek, Littlc: Lcliigh, Iloekyondaque, Mill creek, or ; . 

Caladaquo, Moiiukacey; in Northampton county, lioni | 
the south, S.aicoi. creek, hesides some small runs.t 

The L(dii;di iii:iy, witli much propriety, by called, " ^J 5 

Mounlai." TarruU,^^ It rushes headlong when swollen, ! 

and swe(,']ib ^'.\'<A-\' impcidiiig obstacle. The fall of t!u' • 

river is, fioru Stoddardsville, to the mouth of the Ne.s- r 

quehoning ere; k. jboiit two miles above Lausanne, and ; 

three above iMaiich Chuidf, 845 feet; from Nesqueiio- 1, , 

iiiugto the Lehigh Water Gap, 260 feet ; from ihe flai) ; 
to Easton, 'J05 Icut. I'hus in a'comparative coiirse, of 

less than sevenly miles, it has a fall of thirteen hmidred J. 

and ten le'et. Vx^wn Easton to tide water, in the ])ola- i' 

ware river at 'i'i' -ntou, the stream falls about one li'.in- I 

dred feet. The Lehigh at Stoddartsville, is therefore | 
elevated 1410 feet above the level of the ocean. 

The navigation of the river has been much improveii, | 

In its natural slaio, the Lehigh was navigable for boat'. >v 

carrying lilteen (mus, as far as Lausanue, at the i'uot '.1 ' 

(he J3ruad momuuin, when a rocky rapid just above llie | 

Turnliole, called Ikitchctootk Fulls, improved ilie as- y 

cending navigation. When tlie river was low — iii i^ 

August and Sepi ;mber — boats with heading coiild net j 
ascend furdier ll.aii Allentovvn. 

The navigatiLui of the Lehigh was improved pniici- t 

pally by the e:-:(3rtions of Messrs. Josiali White and ]■: 

Er-skinc Hazard, who olitained, March 20, 1818, frojn ^ 

the Legislature .a act to authorize them to commence 

their operations. '' „ \ 

'J'lie improvements made by the Lehigh Coal and | 

Navigation Company, are of great advantage to ibis |k 

county, by alfurdiiig a <;lieup and ready means u( nans- ^f 

•In the I'loviucial Uucords, in the Secretary's office al 11. . ri.-^t ar^; 
the name ol' ihi.s stream is written Aquanihehah. Kecont of tJhrr- 
ters aiid Indian Deeds, ji. 128. 

jFor uu account oi' small ilreams, see description of u. *n.iii|;.^ 


1 p; ■ 

nrsTOUY OF lehigh county. 113 

^' porting produce and merchandize, as well as consid- 

^> «rable liome tniulvct. liy this iiiivigation a surplus of 

provisions, iioiir, hay, &ic., is c iriicd to Mauch Chunk, 

" and to the tinih<,-r region higlicr up. And that des- 

tined lor Philudjipliia is sent by way of Easton, and 
thence by canal to liiistol and Piiiladelphia. Mer- 
ciiandize is brought hack in return. 

In this connection, is presented an attempt to de- 
jscribe u stupemlous work of nature, namely : 

JJie Lecha IVasser-Kaft, i. e. the Leh'i^h JVater 
Gap, in tiie Kittatinny, or 15lne mountain, the divid- 
ing line betwetn Carbon county and that of l^eliigh 
and Nortluunpton, is so named from the river Leliigh, 

[i which steals its way through the G(ip, prominently 
walled on both sides, forms a sublime object of admi- 
ration, and ju'estuits to the observant spectator, one 
of the most piciaresqne j)ros])ects in east Pennsylva- 
nia. At almost every season of the year, the diversi- 
fied defile is exceedingly attr. ctivc. The writer 
visited this place in September, 1844. In ascending 
the eastern bank some jinndred feel, the scene height- 
ens in grandeur, and ;lic stream— the beauiiful, yet 
curling, rippled waters of the Luhigh river, add mucii, 
nay every thing, to make it impressive beyond obliv- 
ion. 'JMiough it is seemingly a rugged stream Acre, yet 
as you fi)llo\v it m its coiu'se, through a fertile region of 
country, receiving tributaries of different seizes, until 
itself IS a consideralile river, be'ore it reaches its 
silvery recipient, the Delaware. It is in all its ways, 
as well as at the Gup, where it rolls majestically over 
a rupio bed, and reflecting a sombre shade of the im- 
pending mountains, a grand stream. 

'J'o return to the Gap. The eastern bank is 
bordered lor the distance of about a mile !)y craggy 
cliffs, towering to an amazing height, and of forms the 
mosi bizarre. ILtween which wall of rocks and the 
river the road w inds along. Hastening to leave these 
black abodes, v/hich seem to afiord shelter to none 
: but the ravenous beasts of the lorest, the I^ehigh ap- 
pear.: lugerly moving on towards tlie fertile low 


lands, which succuod in view, on the eastern baulc t 

Ascending the easlorn height, the traveUer i^; am- j 

jily rewarded i'or the exertion ol' cUnibing from rock to j 

rock, hi scaling the pine covered side of the nionntain. 1 

by the ricli and extensive prospect which the eye- ^ 

then coiiiniahtls. At his feet roll the waters of tlie | 

tnajestic siieaiu — on the opposite side is a towtiing I 

ridge, near tin; •sumniit of whicli appears, right oppo- J 

site, enieigiiig uom the surrounding woods, a iuncly | 

pileofrock'j, whimsically called, '"yj/e Teufel's Kojv I 

ze/," i. c. •'• T/ie. Dcoil's Pulpit'' which indigtuuitiy j 

sutlers but a few bUuicd pines to shade its sullen Luow.. | 

At a distance an extensive country, variegated with | 

woods and farms, watered by the nieanderiiig Lehigh, \ 

and ridgo retiring behind ridge, till lost in the faint \ 
tints of the iiorizon, all bursts upon the sight, and fill 
the mind with sublime ideas of the greatness of dm 

Creator. The shattered rocks, thrown together in wild ' 

confusion, and the strata of rouiuled stones, which \ 
are to be met with in passing through the Ciap, have 
given rise to the supposition that the Lehigh, b-diig 

obstructed in w^ course by the lilue mountain, was j 

formerly daimiied up into a lake, which at ieiiglli I 

bursting the b;irrier, formed the chasm now called the j 

Lehigh Gap. The learned have not agreed, as yet, \ 

in the decision of this mooted point. \ 

A learned Wiitersays: "It m common lo ^pcak j 

of such passes as being formed by the rivers, which | 

are often supposed to have burst their barriers, and '" 

thus to have shaped their own channels. This may 1 

have happeneu in some peculiar cases, and tlieri; arc \ 

doubtles many instcUices where the lakes, of which \ 

many must have been left at the retiring both of the ;' 

primeval and of the diluvial ocean, have worii or \ 

burst away their barriers, especially when compojjcd, | 

as they mxxsi o'.icn have been, of loose mat. .rials. \ 

Jkit with respect to most rocky passes of rivery \ 

through mountains, there appears no reason what- » 

ever to believe that the waters have torn asbundcr i 

the solid strata. A uiore resistleas energy nm^t 1 



have been requisite tor such an elfect •, and we must 
therefore conclude that the rivers have, in most in- 
stances, merely ilov/od on through the lowest and 
least obstructed passiiges. Then- channels they liave 
^doubtless deepened and moditied, ol'ten to an uston- 
isiihig dergree but they have rarely formed them 
through solid rock.-,/' — Sllliman. 

Tlie county is conveniently intersected by good 
roads — the streams are readily crossed by substantial 
bridges. The county is well supplied with mills. 
There are about seventy grist mills, tifty saw milLs 
seven oil mills, six wooleii factories, and several full- 
ing mills, three pov/der mills and one paper mill in 
the county, besides thirty tanneries, ■ 

The county is divided into the following townships, 
whicii are fully described hi tiie sequel, viz : Hanover, 
Heidelberg, Low Hill, Linn, Lo\ven,Macunjy, North- 
ampton, North Whitehall, Salisbury, Soutli White- 
hall, Upper Milford, LTppcr JNlacunjy, Upper Saucon 
and Weissenberg. 

The population of this county was, in 1820, 17,175 ; 
in 1830, 22,2t)tj; hi 18 10, x!5,787. 

The first court lield in the county met in the pub- 
lic house, now kept by JVIr. Craig, then kept by Mr. 
George Savitz, The court house was erected in 
1814. The jail had been previously built. The fol- 
lowing is an extract ivom the public records: 

At a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace, began and held at the borough of Northamp- 
ton, for the county of Lehigh, on the 21st day of 
December, betore the Hon. Robert, President, and 
the Hon. Peter Rhctads and Jonas Hartzell, Esq., 
Associate Judges of the said Court. At the Novem- 
ber term, 1813. 

November 30. Cornt met at tlie house of George 
Savitz, and adjourned from thence to meet in the 
upper story of the comiiy prison, prepared by the 
commissioners for holding the courts of tlie county oi 
Lehii.h, until the court house be erected. 

116 uisroiir ov lbhioh couktt. 

Grand Juror.i. Jacob Newhard, ?>x.j foreman , 
Zacharias Long, Casper Moyer, George Brush, Philip 
Kleckner, Andrew Eisenlieart, Jonathan KnaUKS, 

George Yeahlc, John Gronier, John Bergenstock, John I 

Jerret, Gocrgc Wenner, Adam Snigmaster, Daniel | 

Trexall, Frederick IJyneman, George Fussing, A'nra- | 

ham Diehl. i 

Lehigh liavini^^ been part of Northampton county, <■ 

its early liistoiy is merged with that olthe county from I 

which it has been formed. In 179«-'99, scenes of> \ 

curred of i.o ordinary degree, a principal part of v. hich I 

transpired in thi.s eounty. I 

Shortly after the election of John Adams, several I 

acts were passed by Congress, which were obno;:ious I 

to a portion ot tiie j)eople of East Pennsylvania, ;r ^ 

consequence of whicli, lierks, Bucks and Northanip- \ 

ton, presented sc( lies of exxitemcnl. In Nortlmmplon, i 

a party headed by one Fries, resisted attempts fy | 

the federal government to collect a direct tax~^Md\ \ 

known by the name of 'Uhe house tux.'' Jcnn j 

Fries, a desperado, and his associates, not only r^sia' \ 

ted the assessors, but m hot pursuit chased them I'rom \ 

township to township. Ii is said there were parties \ 

of them— fifty and sixty in number— most of ti'em | 

well armed. Fries himself was armed with a large j 

horse pistol, ami accompanied by one Kuyder, who ' 

assisted him in command. They seized ueveral ars j 

sessors. | 

In some parts of the counties named, in demons! r<i- ^ 

tion of their opposition to government, they erecterl \ 

liberty poles. 'Vo quell the insurrection, troops, in \ 

obedience to Adams' instruction, were raised in I. an- \ 

caster county. Several companies marched from | 

Lancaster, April 1, 1799 ; wending their /row,/ toward I 

the arena of dispute, by way of Reading, when Con- 5 

tarn Montgome;ry'.-j troop of light horse arrived on \ 

the evening i.f the ist of April. Their first act, to f 

display their prowess and gallantry, was to go dnw- ? 
dcstincly to the house of Jacob Go.sin, who, m Ihc 
Bpirit of tha limes., liad erected a liberty pole on hit! 


own premises, which they cut, without meeting any 


To give undoubted proof of their daring bravery, 
they brandished their damascene weapons— drew 
pistols, to show that they were armed, in the house 
of tlie inoflensive fatiier, whose minor children were 
scared " half to death/' at the marshal manceuvers of 
the Lancaster troops. 

To let no time slip, and while they were undaunt- 
ed, they proceeded from Gosin's to the iiouse of 
John Strohecker, whither tliuir eagle eyes were drawn 
by a recently erected pole, tipped with a rag, " ihip- 
ping in the breeze." This pole, to show the inde- 
pendence of some sturdy urchins, had been erected 
by some children, in which Strohecker's were ring- 
leaders. To deter these young heroes, the solders 
took down the pole, stripped it of its insignia— entered 
tlie house where they found the little wights— and as 
they did at Gosin's, so did they here— brandished 
weapons of war— preseiUed i)istols and swords to the 
youthful company, to no small alarm of both parents 
and children ! ! 

To consunmiate their martial plans and designs, 
they molested the house of Jacob Epler — maltreated 
him unprovokedly. Like bravos ever merit- these 
merited the contempt of all reflecting persons— render- 
ing themselves obnoxious to the orderly and well 
disposed among all classes. 

Satisfied of having rendered their country some 
service, the troo]) next morning started for Northamp- 
ton, to fully execute tlie speciiic purpose of their mis- 
sion. This done, they again returned by way of 
Reading, where they entered the o/fice of the 
«*4?of/er," a paper edited and printed Ijy Jacob 
Schneider, whom they rudely denuded, by violently 
tearing his clothes Irom his body, in a somewhat in- 
clement season, and by force of arms, dragged him 
before the commanding cai)tain, who peremptorily 
ordered the editor, for writing and piinting some of 
fen :i articles, to be whipped ; " Twenty-five lashes," 

118 lilSroHY OP LEHIG^ COUNTy. 

said he, '■ sluill be well laid on his denuded back, ia ihc j 
market house" — wliich order was, liowever, not ex- ! 
ecuted, because ol' the timely and manly interposition : 
of some s;cnthmen of Captain Leiper's company, of ; 
Philadoli)hia. A few lashes, however, had been iiv ! 
flicted fiounc these men had time to fully intcr]'0S(; — ] 
these were laid on by one accustomed to Ijeat, whei> \ 
Httle resistance is to be dreaded — he wasadrnnrnicr ! > 

Colonel Eplor, who it ai)pears, had by this rime \ 
erected, by the assistance of his neighbors, a Uhtrtit , 
"jmh in place of the pole erected by his childiCh — \ 
Jhither ilie soldiery resorted, where they attemj'ted to | 
compel a common laborer to cut down the ''off;.n- ? 
sive wood," notwithstanding that ho i)r(jtested against 1 
doing so, at the same time, on most solenm assevera- ■ 
lions, declaring he was also a federalist — Ich bin audi ; 
ein Federalihr liebe l^eiU ; das bin. Ja ich auch ein | 
Federal ! \ 

t They succeeded in divesting the pole, and wuh \\ | 
appended as a iroi>!iy, they rode, vocii'erating as they \ 
went through i!ie streets of Reading, to their pla>M' ni \ 
quarters. In a lew days they left ; but on the 'l^ixV \ 
of April, an army, mider the coimnand of lirigidier i 
General McPh u'son, arrived at Reading, api)rL'heikl- ■ 
ing some of tlie insurrectionists, who were afterward-. * 
tried before Jiidge Peters — some ibund guilty- -some \ 
were fmed and imprisoned — some were condemned i 
to be capitally i)uiuslied, but none attoned with iheif | 
lives — they were pardoned through executive clem- > 
cncy ! \ 

The following extracts are taken from the rei^on \ 
of the trial of John Fries, and others, for treason : } 

A grand Jury was empanelled, consisting of die \ 
, following gentlemen, namely : J. Ross, Joseph Paricefi J 
Robert Ralston, John Perat, Daniel Smith, Edwa)d \ 
Pennington, Benjannn W. Morris, John Craig, Di^vid 
H. Conyugham, Gideon Hill Wells, Wm. Mojit- i 
gpinery, Philip Nicklin, Thos. M. Willing, Samni^i j 
Coates, T. C. Fisher, William Puck ley. A true bili \ 
found. ii 

Kisror.y of ikhigh county. 119 

May 15, IT&y. iMi, Setgreaves, of Easton, opened 
the triul un the part of the United States. The fol- 
lowing are extracts from his speech: 

'' It will appear, gontlemen, from the testimony 
-which will be prjsei.ted to yoii,tliat during the latter 
months of the year 1798, discords prevailed to an 
enormous extent throughout a large portion of the 
counties of Bucks, Northampton, and JNIontgoinery ; 
and that consiLicrablc difficulties attended the asses- 
sors for the direct tax, m the execution of their 
duties — tiiat in sei^'.;ial tov/nyhips associations of the 
people wove aciu lily iornied in order to prevent the 
persons charged willi die execution of these laws of 
the United Status, iixuu performing their duty, and 
more particularly lo pn^vent the assessors Irom 
measuring their housrs. This opposition was made 
at many public township meetings, called for the pur- 
pose. In many instances resolutions in writing were 
entered into, solemnly forewarning the officers, and 
many times acconr[)aiiied with threats. Not only so, 
but discoiitimts prevaiu-d to such a height, that even 
tiie Iriends of the iiuV' rmiKiit in that |)art were com- 
pletely su[)pressed ly menacvs against any who 
should assist those olHcers in their duty ; repeated 
declarations were nuaio, both at public as well as at 
private meetings, that if any ])erson should be arrested 
by the civil audurrily, such arrest would be followed 
by the rising of the puople, in opposition to that au- 
thority, for the purpose of rescuing such prisoners ; 
indefatigable pains were taken, by those charged 
with the execution ol' the laws, to calm the fears and 
remove the misapprel tensions of the infatuated peo- 
ple ; for this purpose they read and explained the 
law to them, and informed them that they were mis- 
led into the idea that the law was no!, actually in 
force, for that ii urUially was; at the same time 
warning them ufUie '/oiisfipiences which would tlow 
from opposiiion ; and this was accompanied with 
promises thai even their most capricious wishes would 
be .: aified on their oDedience. The favor was ic 



many instances granted, that where any opposKiuu 
was made )o any certain person executing the otlice 
of assessor, another should be substituted. In some 
townshij'S ])roposals were made lor people to choose i 
for themselves; but, notwithstanding this accommo- | 
dating oli'or, the opposition continued. The conse- ' 
quences were, actual opposition and resistance ; in j 
some parts violence was actually used, and the asses- 
sors were taken and imprisoned by armed parties, 1 
and in olher parts mobs assembled to compel rli-m' ! 
either to deliver up their papers or to resign (heir \ 
commissions ; ihiit in some instances ihuy u^erc j 
tlireatened with bodily harm, so that in those parts | 
the obnoxious law remained unexecuted in conse- ' 
(pience. The state of insurrection and rebellion hod 1 
arisen to such a lieight, it bec.tme necessary to com- 1 
pel the execution of the laws, and warrants were in j 
consequence issued against certain persons and served j 
upon them; in some instances, during the execution < 
of that duty, the marshal met with insult and almost 1 
with violence; having, however, got nearly the whole j 
of the warrants served, he appointed head-quarters | 
for these prisoners to rendezvous at IJethlehem, j 
where some of them were to enter bail for their ap-* 1 
pearance in the city, and others were to come to the l 
city in custody for trial. f 
" On the day thus appointed for the prisoners to 1 
meet, and when a number ot them had actually as- j 
sembled, agreeably to appointment, a number of p-ir- « 
ties in arms, both horse and foot, more than a huii- > 
dred men, accoutered willi all their military apparatus, } 
commanded in s^nne inslances by their proper oilicers,' » 
marched to Bethlehem, collected before the house iri J 
which were the maishal and prisoners, whom they | 
demanded to be delivered up to them, and in cense- \ 
quence of refusaf they proceeded to act very little i 
short ol acti!a( hostility ; so that the marslial dt.-med ^ 

It prudent to accede 10 their demands,and the prisonei^ ■ 

were liberat-MJ. j 

" This, genllciuen, l^ the general history of th^ iv - \ 

HiSTORiT ov li:l;higu county. 121 

isurrection. I shall now state to you the part which 
the unfortunate prisoner at the har took in those hos- 
: I tile transactions. ']'hf; prisoner is an inhabitant of 
i f Lower Millbrd, Bucks county. Some time in Feb- 
ruary last, a pu])lic meeting was held at the house of 
one John Kline, in that township, to consider tiiis 
house tax ; at tlial meeting certain resolutions were 
entered into and a paper signed ; (we have endeavored 
to trace this paper so as to produce it to the court and 
jury, but have failed.) This paper was signed by 
fifty-two persons, and committed to the hands of one 
of their number, .lohn Fries was piescnt at thi.H 
meeting, and assisted in drawing up the paper, at 
which time his expressions against this law were ex- 
tremely violent, and he threalened to shoot one of the 
assessors, Mr, Foulke, through the legs, il' he proceed- 
ed to assess the houses ; again the prisoner at a ven- 
due threatened another of the assessors, Mr. S. Clarke, 
that it' he attemi)ied to go on with the assessment, he 
should be committed to an old stable and there fed 
on rotten corn. The assessor in Lower Millbrd was 
intimidated so as to (U dine making the assessments, 
and the principal assessors, together wjth three other 
assessors, were obliged to go into that township lo 
execute the law. At the house of Mr. Jacob Fries, ^ 
on the 5th March, Mr. Chapman, the assessor, met 
with the prisoner, who declared his determination 
not to submit, but to oppose the law, and that by 
next morning he could raise seven hundred men in 
o])position to it." 

[Fries and his partisans continued to follow and 
persecute several of tlic assessors, chasing them from 
town.ship to township, in parties of fifty or sixty, most 
of whom were in arms, with drum and file. Fries 
was armed with a large pistol, and accompanied 
by one Kuyder, who assislcd him in command. 'I'hus 
equipped they went to Quakertown, seized two as- 
sessors, and attempted to tire at another who ran 
away, but tiio fire-arm did not go oil". They ex 
amin-:! the papers of ihe assessors, and exacted ix 


promise that they slioald not proceed in the valuatioiT % 
of the houses in Lower Millbrd. They ahusad a 1 
traveller who had the iudepeudeiice to stand up for ^' 
the governiue.U. At Quakertown, learning that (he g 
marshal had fallen a mnnher of prisoners, they re- | 
solved t<i oli'ect dieir rescue, and the people of Miliord |' 
were inviuul to assist in this business, and a paper | 
setting loiih iheir design, was drawn up by Frius, ?.i | 
his own liuuse, find signed by the party.] t 

" On tiio morning of the next day, twenty or more | 
of them met at tlic house of Conrad Marks, in arms, | 
John Flies wus armed with a sword, and hud a | 
feather in his hat. On the road as they went for- | 
ward they were met by young Marks, who told f lieni i 
they might 4s ui;!! tmn about, for that the Northamp- j 
ton ])eople were stiong enough to do the husmess ! 
without those fiom Jhicks county. Some were so 
inclined to do, Imt at the instance of Fries and soine 
others, they did go forward, and actually proceeded 
to liethlchem. Before the arrival of these troops, a 
])arly going on die yaine business had stopped at ff e 
bridge near lieihlehem, where they were met l:y 1 
deputation from the marshal, to advise them to riuin 
home ; they agreed to hault there, and send thr.'O of 
their nutnber to declare to the marshal their demaiid, 
During this period Fries and his party. came uj>. but 
it appeals wlu^n thry came, Fries took tlie party 
actually over the bridge,and he arranged the toll, and 
ordered them h) j)roceed. With respect to the proof 
of the ]noccediug3 at J3ethlehem, it cannot be mis- 
taken; he was then the leading man, and he a])j)eared 
to enjoy the command. With the consent of bib i)co- 
ple he demanded tlie prisoners of the marshal, and 
when that oflicer told him that he could not surrender 
them, except they were taken from him by force, and 
produced his warrant lor taking them,thr; prisom r ihen 
liarrangued his p;nty of the iiouse, and explaine 1 to 
them the necessity of using force; and that you should 
not nustake his d:isign, we will prove to you (hat he 
declared ' that was the Unrd day which he liuJ b. en 



out on this expedition, that he had had a skirmish the 
day before, and if the prisoners were not released he 
should have an<nher that day.' ' Now you observe,' 
resumed he, Mhat force is necessary, but you must 
obey my orders. We will not go without taking the 
prisoners. Bat take my orders — you must not fire 
first; you miist be liist fired upon, and when I am 
gone you must do as well as you can, as I expect to 
be the first nuin that falls.' He further declared to 
the marshal tliat tlii;y would fire till a cloud of smoke 
prevented them Irom seeing each other, and exe- 
cuting the ollice of coiamand of the troops, which at 
that time overawed tlie marshal and his attendants. 
He harangued the troojjs to obey his orders, which 
they did. , TIk; marhlial was really intimidated to 
liberate the prisoners ; and tlien the object was ac- 
complished, and the ]):irty dispersed amid the huzzas 
of the insurgents. A fter this atTair at Hethleliem, the 
prisoner frequ(MUly avowed his oi)position to the law, 
and justified that outrage; and when a meeting was 
afterwards held at Ltjwer JNlilford to choose assessors, 
the prisoner ri't'us(Mi his assent, and appeared as violeiU 
as ever." 

Most of the above statements were proved, includ- 
ing a variety of other details. Fries, al^ter two trials, 
in both of which he was found guilty of treason, was 
sentenced to be hung, but was subsequently pardoned 
by John Adams. 

Several others from the same vicinity were trieil, 
and generally found guilty of the subordinate 
crimes of sedition, insurrection, and riot; they were 
imprisoned for a time, and heavily fined, and held to 
bail for good behavior. George Gittman and Fred- 
erick Hainey were olso condemned lor high treason. 
x\mong the disaffected who had been taken prisoners 
by the marsha], -.nd who were rescued by tlie iiisur 
gents, was one Ji.cob Eyerman, a German mimster, 
recently arrived from Germany. He seems to liavr 
exerted nearly as much iutluenceas Fries, in stirring 
up ihe peojdo in Chestnut Hill and Hamilton towi. 

124 n.\:,rohY op LEiiran countt. 1 

sliips, 10 oppositioii. History does not state to wimi \ 
sect he nelongod, but tlie testimony would seem to 
show that lie strongly favored the "church militant " 

One of the assessors testified that while on hu \ 
round oi duty ni Chestnut Hill township, " the prison-r 

(Eyennan) came in and began to rip out in a violent ' 

manner agamsi this taxation, saying timt Con-reas I 

Had made laiv^s which were unjust, and the people 1 

need not take up with them ; if they did, all kinds o[ \ 

laws woaid follow ; but if they would not put up with i 
this, ihey need not with those that would come after 
bocanso u was a free country ; but in case the peoplJ 
admittedof those laws, they would certainly b.- pat 

under great burdens. He said be knew perfect I 

what laws were made, and that the President nor . 

Congress had no right to make them. That Coiiorcss 1 

and the government only made snch laws to rob tlie i 

peophi, and th.t they were nothing but a parcel of \ 
daimied rogues or ^spilz bitbe,^ (iiighwaymen or 

tbieves.J i o / ^ 

"Were the people of the township much opposed 1 

to the law.-'" " Yps. iIhm, ,„,.,... .„ ,,;,.!„.,. ... , \ 

Yes, they were so violent that I , 
knew but one man on the same side as myself." 

*' Would this have been so if it had not been for the '' 

parson r"' ''I am fully convhiced it would not." ^ 

' Did Lyerma!! appear to be a simple sort of mar ^ 

easily to be led astray or deluded ?" " No, li- wos ; 

not thought so : he was always a very good preaebcv '{ \ 

Frtsoner.-.- Did I not pray for the Government 
I resident and V ice President .>" " Yes, you did when 

III the pulpit 5 but when you were out, you praved i 

the other way/* w r 7 | 

^ JohnSneider deposed, that he lived in Hannltou 1 
township and knew the prisoner_as much as he 
understood the privoner meant to take arms against I 
It. _ He said if we let that go forward, it would go on ? 
as m the o.d country, but that he [Eyerman] would \ 
ruiher lay his black coat on a nail, and l^ the 
he whole weeic, and preacli lor them Sundays, tlum 
(hat siiould be so, ' ' . 


« About 18 nior.ths." 

"The townbhip was always peaceable, I suppose, 
before he caiuc among you ?'* " Yes, and believe if 
he had not conic, nothing would have happened of 
the kind." 

Anotlier witness said that the prisoner came to his 
house, where conversation ijegan about the house tax, 
whereupon he s;iid he did not care whether they put 
up with it or not, for he had no house to tax. A 
person present answered: But you have a great 
quantity of books to tax. The prisoner answered 
that " if anybody would ofler to tax his books, he 
would take a French, a J.atin, an Hebrew, and a 
Greek book down to thoni,and if they could not read 
them, he would slap tlieni about their ears till tliey 
would fall to pieces." The prisoner continued 
preacher to that congregation until he was taken up. 

After the rescue, he tied to New York state, but 
was apprehended and brought back, and found guilty 
ofconspiracy,&:c.,&c., was sentenced to be imprisoned 
one year, pay iifiy dollars fnie, and give security lor 
his good behavior one year. About tliirty others were 
convicted, and fined and imprisoned according to the 
( 'j degree of crime. — Day''s Historical Colltciioru 



Hanoocr luivyiship is the only township in liii? 
county, easi of the Leliigh river. It is bounded on 
the norlh, by Allen township; east, by Hanovc; urid 
Bethleh'Mn, ii;i't soMtli, by Lehigh township — all of 
Northampton county; and soutii-west by the Lebigh 
river. The form of this township is very irregular. 
Tlie surfaee is level ; limestone soil, of an execil.nit 
quality, well cultivated, and very productive, r<:-pay- 
ing the labor of the farmer richly. The Caladaqnc 
creek, which rises in Allen township, Northampfon 
county, and running south-westwardly, running along 
the south-westcni bomidary, through the nortls east 
angle of this township, and following into the Li-higli 
river, about two miles below llockendoipie, alfords 
some waler-pou er, having several mills upon it. Tlie 
Lehigh river affords an abundance of mill seats ; diore 
are several grist and saw-mills, two woolen factoricb', 
and a paper-mill, in this township. 

Tlie Allentown bridge, across Lehigh river, con- 
nects this township with the borough of Allentown. 
Formerly, thera was an elegant chain bridge over 
the Lehigh, consibiing of two loops and two luilr 
loops, and suspended by four chams. That bridge 
was two hundred and thirty feet long and tlurty 

The population, hi 1820, was 8GG ; in 1830, 1.102; 
in 1640, 1,343. The county tax, levied in 18-14, 
amounted to ^^708 83 ; the state tax, $'^Q1 28. 

Bieri/'s Fori, a post village, consisting of yeveriil 
dwellings, two taveriis, one store, a grist mill, a Pres- 
byterian churcli.and the Crane iron works, are hi this 




The ironworks are owiied by Messrs, White, Ilaz- 
zard, Mitchel, Erb, iM'Callister & Co.; are of u kir^e 
size, and couttrucled expressly to smelt iron, wiUi 
anthracite coal, by means ol' the hot blast The water 
power IS supplied lioni the Lehigh canal of the Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company, and tlie lurnaces, 
with the bio wing and airdieatmg apparatus, are con- 
structed m a superior manner. The works have 
been in successlal o],eration since 1840, producincr 
at present, weekly, from one hundred and ninety Xo 
two hundred tons of castings of various kinds. The 
works are about three milus north of Allentown, and 
five Irom Bethlehem. 

Rittersville is a post village, consisting of five 
dwellings, one tavern, one store— a church, near it is 
located m a poor part of the township. ' 

Heidelberg lowmhlp is bounded on the north-east 
by Carbon county; south-east, by North Whitehall 
township; south, by J.ow IIiU township, and west" 
by Lmn township. The figure of it is very irregular' 
1 he surlace is very hilly, being partly crossed by the 
Jllue moiiulam; the sod is white gravel, produchi- 
It well cultivated, an abundant crop of rye. In the 
north-west corner of the n^wnship is a shigular knob, 
called « Bake Oven Knob:' The township contains 
nme grist mills, seven saw mills, one furnace, owned 
by Stephen Balliet; one fulling mill, two woolen 
lactones, one gun and riile manufactory, several tan- 
fienes, and ten lor filteen distilleries in operation 

The township is drained by Trout creek, wliich 
rises at the foot of tlie Blue mountain, and running 
eastwardly, tails with the Lehigh river, about two 
mi es below the Water Gap, turning several mills, 
but not sutficiently large to he navigable. It is also 
dramed by Jordan, rising at the loot of the Blue 
mountain, m this township, and running a very 
crooked course, towards the soutli-east, falling into 
me Little Lehigh creek, not more than one hundred 
P( r. 1. .b irum Us uiouth. The Jordan,and its varioii.3, 

128 Kisroif/ OF LEHIGH COUNTY. 

branches, .urn u great number of mills, but is not 
navigable. Tiie waters of tlie Jordan are much 
affected by wot antl dry seasons. Crowner's run is f 
also one of (lie smull streams that drains the town- ^ 
ship; it risi.s ..boul the centre of it, and flov/ing 
southwardly, iiniles with the Jordan creek, on the 
line betv/euii Lo.v Hill and Whitehall townships 

The pni.ulaiion, in 1820, was 1,900; in Ib'^JO, 
2,208; in I.SIO, x;,35 1. Amonnt of county tax levied 
in 1844, wiusii770 Sti; state tax, iS 1,067 59. In]S43, 
^20 52 wns ])nl[ fos the education of the poor. 

Segersvillc, a pu;,t village, about seventeen miles 
north-west from Allentown, near the line of the 
township, com liiis ahoiu twenty dwellings, one .siore 
and one taverii. 'I~he only churci^. in the towiiship 
is about two in.les Ironi the village, 'i'he couuiry 
around the vilhii^e is rough and broken. Agricniiiiro 
needs some consideral^le attention being paid to il^ 
before the fiiniK r can count on ample and certain 
returns for his labor. 

Oertncinstuil , u small phice, one store, owned by 
Nathan (bnni lu. Dining the French and Indian 
war, in 1755 and 175(), the greater part of the in- 
habitants of ihit." townshi]) had lied to Bethlehem and 
other places, lor re:nge, and to csciipe being inhu- 
manly biitehend by the savage hordes who wes-^ 
marauding tliis region of country in search of huniati 
victims to glut (heir vengeance. In October, 170.], 
tlie inhabitants were again alarmed by the Indians 
committing cru. 1 murders in an adjoining township. 
(See North IVhitchull towm/iip.J 

North JVhilchaU foionship is bounded on the 
north-east, by the Lehigh river, which seperutos it 
from Northamplon C(juniy; on the south, by Souih 
Whitelu'.ll fnvnohip ; (mi the west, by Low Ilill 'own- 
fihip, and norlli-weti, by Heidelberg townshij). Tne 
surface h level ; limestone soil, rich, and geiiu.aily 
pretty well cullivatr-d. This township is tiin^;.i],u-!y 


intersected by numerous roads, wliicli centre in the 
main road, leading to Allcntown. The Jordan creek 
s,n(l Coply creek, or Baliiet's creek, are the principal 
streams draiiiing the township. Coply creek rises in 
this townslii]) — ranning south-easterly, talis into the 
Lehigh river, alicuU live miles above Allentown. In 
its cuurse, it turns several milts. In dry seasons it 
fails much. 'I'his township contains seven grist mills, 
four saw mills, and a number of tanneries. There 
are two Glerni.u; J.'oji>rnii;d and Lutlieian cluirchcs 
in this town^hi]) , one naiv the north-western boun- 
dary, and the odier, on the south, near Coply creek. 
The population of 1820, was 1,807 ; in 1830,2,008; 
in 1840, 2,321. Thf county tax, assessed for 18 1 1, 
\vasS89t) 25; state tax, $1,3-10 83. In 1S43, $1 19 78 
were paid for the education of the poor. 
■ Slegersvilk is a small i)ost village, consisting of 
five or six dwellings, one store, and one tavern. It 
is situated in a fertile and highly improved i;ountry. 

SnydersvUie, owiird by (Jeorge Snyder, who is 
proverbially known ;i the -KeeiKM' of the/Drovers' 
Inn." The ])lace consists of a small cluster of houses 
and several shops. Its situation, it is said, is peculiar 
— it is in and between, like '<C5eorge," the village 
being both in North Whitohall and Upper Macnnjy, 
having the boundary line pastsing through it. 

Kernes Mill.s. Here is a post othce, a grist mill, 
one store, and several dwelling houses. 

Slate Bum. Here is a store and dwellings, owned 
by Reuben Sager. 

Before this township was separated, or divided into 
North and South Whitehall, the Indians committed 
depredations within its borders; even at a time wh(in 
it had been supposed all hostilities had ceased, a })aity 
of savages appeared] on a sudden, in this township, 
and did some work, "On the eighth of Octo- 
ber, 1763, a party of fifteen or twenty Indians, attack- 
ed the house of Nicholas :\[arks', of WhitehaU town- 
slii]). Marku, his wife, and an apprentice boy, made 

Pntud'o History of J'u. Appendix, p. C'-'A. 

1;U) Hisn)iiv or r.EiiiGH county. j 

their escapt-, ihuugli twice fired upon by the Indians, | 

and proceeded lo liw house of one Adam Fasiilei;, ^• 

wdiere tliere w^ere twenty men under arms. These i 

immediately went in pursuit of the enemy. In tlieir | 

proyre:)^, ihcy visitetl the farms of Jacob JNl cold y, ' 

where tiiey jouud a boy and a girl lying dead, tlu; \ 

girl scalpt;d ; of Hans Schneider, where they discover- ! 

ed the owner, his wife, and three children dead iutI)o i 

field, and tiirec girls, one dead, the other wounded. l 

and OIK,' i)i thuiu scali)ed. On their return to AsViler's. ; 

they ftniiid ihe wifi- of Jaeob Aliening, with a cldld, ^ 

dead in the road, and scalped. The houses oi' rdnik.': | 

and Schneider, were both burnt."* y 

South IMiiicluiU township is bounded on the nuvtL \ 

by North Wiiiichall townshi]); east, by the Lcliiudi \ 

river, winch separates it frojn Hanover township, and j 

by Northumpioa township; south, by Upper JNXacnii- i 

jy township. The surface is level; limestone soil, < 

very well cuhivatud, and abimdantly prodncdve, I 
amply repayiui; the husbandman for the «iare bestow 

ed upon it in a jndicions course of cidtm-e. I 

This township is watered by Jordan creek, ane. \ 

Cedar creek. The latter rises from a large spriug i;i ] 

Upper iMacnnj^- township, and turns a large lloaij [ 

mill, about six perdies below the foimtain, and ut'ter i 

a course of tlir 'c miles, falls into the Little Leiugh, | 

The volnme of this singular stream appears mvari- j 

able in wci or ihy weather. The long conliiiued jj 

drought this simuner, ( IS-M) though alfeeting all odier 1 

streams, did nut any the least diminish this stican.. ) 

It never freezes, and the grass, winch grows to tlif ; 

water's edge, appears green all seasons, and is a Iw ."lys I 

uncover(;d, the water dissolving the snow as it lulls. ^ 

Sinking Run is ai-other remarkable stream ; it risct , 

in JNIacuiijy township, and tiows easterly, tirougli j 

tliis towi'iship; it sinks into the ground about five j 
luiley /illni.Mwn. It is supjjosed to iuive t;. 


Hl^TOUY (..* IKHUni COUNTY. 131 

subterraneous course ot' more than a mile southward, 
ami to rise at the fouutuii. c-l" Cedar creek, in Upper 

Cavern Spriuy riaj ; ne;ir the mouth of a Umestone 
cavern, within uvo miles of the borough of Allentown; 
on the north-west is a large fountain, and pours its 
waters into tlie To'\l;<n creek. This cavern lias an 
entrance of ten cr el' veii feet higli, and has been 
penetrated about one hundred feet, into the hill, to a 
stream of water. 

'I'liis township eoiitams five grist mills, two saw mills, 
sicveral tarmeries, and a Cerrnan Reformed and Lu- 
theran church, about four miles from Allen township. 
Ibach's forge is in tlii.s township. 

The population of this township, in 1820, was 
1,623; in 1830, 1,952: in 1810, 2,290. The amount 
of county tax, assessed in 1811, was «1,230 70; state 
tax, ji^l,757 19. In 18 iJ, ^'244 42 were paid for the 
education of the poor. 

It appears tluit tlii- township, and others, were 
overrun by the Indians, in 17t>3 ; for we find *' that 
Octobtir 15th, I7ti3, Covernor Hamilton called the 
attention of the Assembly to the sad condition of the 
settlers of Linn, Heidelberg, Whitehall, Macunjy, 
Salisbury and Upper Millord townships, of the coimty 
^ of Northampton, (now Lehigli.) Their houses were 
* destroyed, their fanny laid waste, barns, grain, fences^ 
^c. burnt to ashes — eighteen persons murdered." 

The persons who had been massacred, were unof- 
fending German immigrants, who had never molested 
un Indian. This excited tlie suspicion of the inhabi- 
tants, generally. 'I'he Iruhans W(;re traced, by scout, t<» 
wigwams of the christian Indians, at Conestoga, and 
10 tliose in Northampton county, which eventuated 
in the total extermination of the Indians, in Lancas- 
ter coiaity, in Deci inber 17ii3. 

Linn townsUip is bounded on the north, by Carbon 
county; cast, by Heidelberg township; south, by 
We/ , ubevg; ioiub-wesi, by Berks county, and on 


the north-wesr,, by Scliuylkill county. The Wiuc 

mountain crossing the noitlierii part ot' the township, ^ 

the surface along it is liiiiy or greatly roUing ; a por- 1 

tion of the surface of this township is pretty l-jvei ; \ 

the soil is gravelly — agriculture may still be nincli j 

improved, though many of the farms yield well. The | 

free use of lime, as a stimulating manure, '.v.mld I 

greatly iiid in improving the soil, and well rrpay a * 

largep.rrv;,.t:;ge. ' | 

This tuwni^hip is drained by tlie Antelauuy, or * 

Maiden cav:\:, wliich rises here and flows into ih'> \ 

Schuylk'!! iiv^i, thKuigh Jierks county. Linn rui., i 

which rises in this township, near the south-wesi | 

boundary, is n tributary of the Jordan creek. Tin'. ] 

sources of tli>', /intclauny and Linn run, almos. i,ucr- | 

mingle. Tli;->t; streams allbrd an abundance of ruAl ' 

seats; there an;, it; this township, ten grist mills, llvo ' 

saw mills, one woolen factory, one powder mill, and | 

tliree German Kefurmed and Lutheran chnivlh^s; « 

also several small villages. This township, and Alba- | 

ny, in liurks roimly, formed u portion of »,QUc:!]'u:n- \ 

gtl, in d;iys pi si. \ 

LinnviUe is a small post village, about sev. nict;/! > 

miles north-Avcst of Allentown, consisting of a few | 

dwellings, one store and one tavern. \ 

New Ti^ipoll, a post village, about fifteen ,.;ilc - | 

from Allentov/n, consists of several houses. i 

Jack'sonvillc is a post village, in the northern p,u( '. 

of the townsliiji, about eighteen miles from Allc.i- \ 

town. The p 4)nlatioii of this township, in ISiiO, Wus | 

1,6G4; in 1830, 1,7'17; in 1810, 1,895. The count'/ « 

tax, assessed In 1811, was $74! 03; the state Jay. | 

$1,012 85. In 1813, §19 02, were paid for the edn- j 

cation of the j)oor. ^ 

This region oi country, of which this townsbij) ecu- I 
stitutes a pr.rl, was settled at a comparatively early 
period, scttlcrnonts having been made about tlic yc^: 
1735. in Febuiary, 1756, the Indians commilied ,i 
nmnbcr of cruel rmnder.s upon the German .•■etti':'.; 

nrsi'oi!.'/ 01 i.EniGH county. lii'd 

On the 14th of Febiuaiy, 175G,the Indians surprized 
the inmates ol' tl;e liouse ol' Frederick Reichelsdert'er, 
shot two of hi.s chiidrcu, set his liouse and barn on 
iire, and burnt I'p ;d! hi.s grain and cattle. Thence, 
they proceeded lo the house of Jacob Gerhart, where 
they killed one Uirtn, two wonien, and six. children. 
Two of the childrc:n had sli))ped under the bed, one 
of which was burned; tlie odier escaped, and ran a 
mile, to get to die people. 

On the 24th ol March, following, tien wagons went 
to Allemaengel, lo bring a family, with thuir etfects, 
away; and as tlicy w^ere returning, about three miles 
below one George ZcisloiPsjthey were fired upon by 
a number of Indians from both sides of the road 
vipon which the wagoner.^ left tlieir wagons and raii 
into the woods, anil die, frightened at the iiring 
und terrible yelling of tlie In dans, ran down a hill, 
and broke one of the wagons to pieces. The enemy 
killed George Zeisloli and his wife, a young man oi 
twenty, a boy of twelve, also a girl of fourteen years 
old, four of whom tiny scalped.* 

Low Hill lownsliip is bounded on the north, by 
Heidelberg townsliip ; on the east, by North White- 
liall ; on the south, by Macunjy, and on the west, by 
Weissenberg township. The surface is hilly, and in 
some places rolling ; Uie soil is principally wliite 
gravel; the stale of agriculture is improving; many 
of the farms are rendered productive by a judiciou.:. 
•course of crops, amj strict attention to manuring. 
Lime, if judiciously applied, would greatly improve 
this kind of soil. 

This township is ^^^atered by Jordan creek, and 
several of its tributaries — .such as Lhm run, Crowner's 
run, wliich rises in Heidelberg township, near its 
centre, and do vs BOiilhwardly, through this township 
and WUlow run — all these streams alford mill seat.s 

* Letter lioin Vnltrlit.-j t',MjL-.i, to Jacob Levan, Esq., Feb. l" 
ir.OC .'ice histur/ of Bciks county, p. iJS, 123, V2\. 

134 iiisTouv OF i-EniGlft couNxr. 

The township contains ten grist mills, five saiv ujii 
several oil mills, and two clover mills. 

Clansvoilk is quite a neat little post village, ;;. ii- 
sisting of a few dwellings and a store. It is the only 
village ill the townsiiip. 

The pi^Oiilution of the township, in 1820, was /O.i, 
ill 1830, 808 J in 1840, 854. The county tax, for 
1844, aniounted to $238 35; state tax, 8354 71. In. 
1843, $49 Oii were paid for educating the poor. 

Upper Macunjy. This township and Lowei l^vhi- 
eungy, have, >\Miliin the last ten or twelve year;,, Incn 
divided. They were formerly known as Macunjij 

This t(!p i^> bounded on tiie north-ea.-,i, Ly 
South Whitehall ; on the south, by J^ower Ahicuiijy; 
and on the noilji-west, l)y Weissenberg. 'ilie sui- 
I'ace is generally very level; the soil limestone, care- 
fully cultivated and abundantly productive. IJotli 
Upper and Lower ^hlcuugy are densely popiilriicd. 
This townshi)) alone, had, in 1840, a poi)ulaiio;, r.| 
]iearly 1800, niid it may now exceed two lluai-. hhI 
It is drained by the Little l^ehigh creek and il-, mi- 
jnerous tributaries. Sliaiitz's Spring, the iiead oi 
Cedar creek, is in this township. Cedar Sprini. is 
remarkable fur its strength and uniformity, c^ h' 
quantity i»f waKr. (July a few rods below its foun- 
tain, it turns a large llouring mill. In its course, uhicl, 
is only three nnles, il propels three mills, viz: Ihiti'd, 
Knaus' and ^hu•lz's — these fall into Mr. Edlemaii's 
mill dam, on the Little Lehigh. North-west IVim! 
Schantz's Spring, is a stream, which, after a cnn'.., 
of three miles, tinks into the earth. It is conjeiiaix-d 
by many, that this slreaui forms the Cedar crook 
fountain. 'I'be vohiUK! of water of Sbanrz's Spriiig 
is invari.ible iu wci and dry, and it never f:i.'i^>:cs 

There are two grist mills and two saw millb .n llii- 
town^hip; also se\'t:ral taimeries. 

The pojMilalioii, iu 18 10, was l,7(i!». The aiui'iu.i 


ofcouiitytax, ill IS 14, ,f 1,03;> 4S; state tax, $1,616 3^ 
111 1843, $Go 3,5 AV'cre luiid towards educating tli.' 

Foglesvlilcj a j)ost village, at the junction of tlic 
AllcnttDwn and iMLllert;town road, nine miles ifoi;i 
Allentown, consists of sixteen dwellings, one store, 
one tavern, a scliool house, a German Reformed ainl 
Lutheran church, siUiatcd in a rich and fertile country. 

7\ca:lc7'sIown. a neaf j>ost village, eight miles from 
Allcmown, on the road to Kiitztown, Jierks couniy. 
It coiitain^i sixti'Cii or t.'ighteen dwellings, two taverns, 
one store, a LmJicjuii and (icnnan Ueformed churcl:, 
'J'he country around it is well improv^ed. 

Lower Mamnij. 'J'his, and Upper Macunjy town- 
ships, were, until liu; last ten or twelve years, kno\»/n 
as MacKfiJi/ luiunship. It is hounded on the nordi, 
hy Upper Macungy; north-east, hy Salishury, (Sal.^- 
berg ; ) on the south-east, by Up])er Milford townshi}) : 
south-west, by Berks c(junly. The surface of il^^ 
township is lev el, a; id (»f (he best limestone soil ; wci! 
improved, and \\'\\ piitdnctive ; yields a rich recom- 
pense to the mdu:5iric)us I'armer, lor labor bestowed iu 
tilling the soil. This part of Lehigh county is densely 
settled. Small as the territory of this county is, the 
population, in 1840, exceeded two thousand, and may 
now reach twenty-five hundred. The township js 
drained by the Liule Lehigh creek. It has six grist 
mills, three saw mills, one oil mill, and live or six 

The population, in Ls 10, wa^ 2,156. Tiie couniy 
tax, for 1844, amounted to $1,257 47; state tax, 
$1,761 89. In 1843, there were $194 66 paid towards 
educating the cfildrci, of poor persons, besides a. 
quota of *2 1 99, jninily paid by thi.s and Upper Mil- 
ford lownshij*. 

MillerstQiLui, or S\lil!e)\svUk, is a post village, at 
the foot of the i.eiiiuh Hills, or South mountain, on 
a small brio:.'!), of the Leingh, nine miles from Alf /i- 


town. The villi'gc consists of about forty dwell iii,'- . 
three taverns, i'uir stores, a Lutheran and fn'mia!! 
Reformed churcii ; also a " Freu Ilall," for all reli- 
gious deuoniinr.tions. i 

This village is reiuarkable as one of the places ■//? 

tingui&hed I'or opposition t(j collecting a direct t:;x, | 

by the govennaent, in 17!i8, 'ao — '-In dcv. j 

Schreckens Ziilen.'" Here INlr. Daniel Schwartz. ] 

and others, made resistance.* | 

Jh-einlgsuilie, \:-i ii \>a^t village, on the road iii.n, j 

Allentown to ll/'ading, consisting of some half dw/r-u « 

of houses, (nui st.iri:, one tavc^rn. Near it is a)i ixicn- | 

sive iron ore naue. The ore is S(v highly chuiged i 

whh sulphuret of iron, as to be advantageously used 3 

for the mauufaclure of copperas. Considerable ipiai!- | 

-tities of it are transported to Philadelp-hia, by c:uial, * 

for this pur|)0se. | 

' Upper Miljord is bounded on the nor1h-ea^L \:\ \ 
Salisbury township and lJ])per Saucon, soulh-casi by | 
Bucks county, on the west by JNIontgomery • iid | 
Berks counties, >.ud iiorlh-wesl by Lower Macunjy 
townshi}). It lornis almost a square. Thesurjaji; ol ; 
this township is considerably diversified, but geiiCia.l- j 
ly liilly, and in some ]jlaces very rugged or broken, | 
being crossed by the South iNIountain, s^inding lordi I 
spurs, especi;dly towards the south. Ii'on oru \ 
abounds on the mountain. The soil is princii'ally 
gravel and red shale, and upon the wiiole, pretty wAX 
cultivated, and more than ordinarily productive : it 
is watered by a branch of the Perkiomen and Upper 
Saucon creeks. The north branch of the Perkiomen 
rising in this t^jwiishi)), llows by a southren coiii'se, 
(uniting with the east branch in Perkiomen township, 
Montgomeiy coanty) lor about thirty miles, througl: 
Montgomery county, and falls into die river Scliuyl- 
kill, above Pawling's Ford, six miles al)ove jNorris- 
lown. Upper Saiic«,n creek, rising m this tow iisbip.. 

•- Soe \'^r'.K>iu voii iv\va Fries, &c. p. 283. 


and running ncitli-ea>iiwardly, falls into the Lehigh 
river on the soutli side, about two miles below Free- 
mansburg, in Nordiauipton county. 'J'hese streams 
atford many good mill seals. This township contains 
seven grist millsj six saw mills, one lulling null, one 
oil mill, two ]).)\vder mills, several tanneries, and u 
few distilleries, and one I'urnacc, owned by Messrs. 
Hunter and .IMillor. Thfre are two churches in this 
township, atul :m veral villages.. 

ScheiiJicrsvlUf, is i\ posl village, consisting of five 
dwellings, one (awrn and a store. 

DUrmger's. If ere is a post^olliee, a few dwellings, 
a store and a tavern. 

'I'he population of tliis townshi]) was, hi 1820, 
2,416; in 1830,2,8-20; in 1840,3,071. 'riieamouni 
of county tax levied in 1844, was ^1,548 44; statu 
tax,!f!2,2y3 91. InlS13,$195 97,' were paid for edu- 
cating children of jjoor persons. 

JVeissenburg townsltip is bounded on the north- 
east by L(nv Hill township, on the soutli-east by 
IMacunjy, aial on ilie soudi-west by iMaxatany 
townsbip in IJerks connly, and nortli-west by Linn 
townshiji. The surface is hilly, and in some places 
broken; soil gravelly, 1)ut pretty well improved. 
The assessed value of land ranges from $20 to $25 
per acre. 

This townslnp is drained by Jordan creek and it? 
tributaries. Willow r ui, and Linn run, which allbrd 
considerable water i)Owei. There are here six grist 
mills and tliree saw mills. There are two churchtis 
in this townshi}) ; one ib located in the Forks of Willow 

Mount Pleusant, die only vdlage in the townsliip. 
is six miles from ]• oglesville, consisting of several 
dwellings, one sioio and a tavern. 

The population nf if is townsbip in 1820, wa:-. 

•Besides a quota ol' ^;M Hw, paid by Lower Macunjy and l-'j 
per ^hii'urd. 

138 nisrouy of lehigii county. 1 


1,175 i ill 1S;3U, 1,265; 1840, 1,427. The ainoam j 
of counry [c\x k-vied in 1844, was 6'425 54; staietax, 

$58G 10. Ill lS4:j, ^9.2 94, were paid 10 wards cju- i 

eating die ]um,\\ \ 

The iiiliuiHiaiitb o( this township, with ih.i:.': ot i 

Berks Cijiinty, in tins i'cgion, were repeatedly alarniLMl j 

by tlie iij(:nr.-.:ii us of tlie hostile Indians dm-iiig t!"' I 

French aiid liuliaii war, from 1755 to 1763. Tluir I 

hopes i.iJLl i(';iis wefe alternately excited; for tlj;: | 

Indians conjiintteil several murders through this aiid j 

adjacent louniships, immediately north. * 

In L7f)8 and ]li>'J, when the inhabitants of Norili- j 

amptoncoumy oj)]M)sed the collecting of a dir< ct lav | 

by the general government, the fears of (he people ni i 

Ihis towii'ihi); \i-eri, ag^ain greatly excited. i 

Upper Sctiuon lowns/up is bounded on the niuih ! 

east hy Lower Sancou, JN<K'tliam])ton county,eMst by j 

Ihicks cDUiity, soulh-west by Upper Milford towir \ 

ship, and nurlii-west by Salisbury townsliip. rhe | 

surface is divursilied ; the Lehigh hills or biUiii | 

mountain ocv'i:|)ii;s the northern part, and its ipuc-. ' 

extend ta tlu; sonlliein boundary. The valley;, ;tre | 

limestone, and the uliole under cultivation. 'I'lie | 

farms are highly improved, aiul tiie houses and bnnis, S 

as viewed (fdu. the " Mammoth Rock," in Salisbury | 

townshii', mal:i' an imposing a|)pearance. Iron ore ' 

abounds in iIk' hills and mountains. It isih'aiaedby 1 

the Saucon crei,k, which runs through it in an eastern ^ 

direction, towards the Lehigh river. This stream af- ; 

fords several mill seats. Tliis township contains six ) 

grist mills, eight saw mills, three oil mills, one clover 1 

mill, and several tanneries. ^ 

The Spring House and Bethlehem turnpike road \ 

passes riwrth aiid south lin-ough it. Tliere are sov^rai ' 

churches in Ihis township. Lately a cave has lee.i j 

discoverea (■■lli^d •• fjiilman's Cave." It ha: been ] 

but pai'tiaily e\i;l')rctl. It is said there is j. fiue' \ 

stream of wate;- in il. j 

Freijsl'jioi, v,x Frci/,sburg, consisting of a fe .v 


dwellings and a store, on the turnpike, near tin: 
south-east boundary, is tlie only village in this towp- 

The populiiiionin 1820, was 1,()42 ; in 1830, 1,905 : 
in 1840,2,072. The amount of county tax levied ilr 
184-4, was *{i(i7 GS : state tax, $986 83, In 184 J 
$1G2 14, were paid towards educating paupers. 

Salisbury tuwn.^hip, (Some times written Saltzbery;. 
or Salsherg,) is bourjded on the north by Northamp- 
ton towjiship and tho Lehigh river, on the east by 
Lower Saueon, NorlhaHi[)ton county, south-eaiit by 
Upper Saueon, south-west by Upper Milford and 
Lower Maeunjy, and north-west by WliitehaU 
township. Tlie suilaee of the country is rolling: 
tlie greater part limestone soil of the lirst rate quality. 
and very well cultivated. The Soudi mountain, in 
which iron ore abounds, runs along its south-eastern 
boundary, at the loot <.f which is a small village, 
called Smithsville, about two miles south-east from 
Allentown. This township is drained by the Littl- 
J.ehii^h crcflv, an-l one of lis tnhutaiies, whi<-li 
propel, in the township, three grist mills and two sav 

Niunerous and iiUeresting as the natural curiosities 
in this country are, there is none that so amply repays 
the adventurer as tiie Jiii^, or Ahunmoth liock, on 
the Lehigh hills, or South mountain, in this tow.i- 
ship. It is about tare<; miles south-east from Allen- 
town, and a jaimt to the hills ibrms a ])leasant hour'.s 
walk. The Rock is easily ascended, though elevat< d 
a thousand or twelve jiundred feet idjove the sn - 
rounding country. The spectator, while standing o)i 
this rupic eniinence, has a commanding view of oiu- 
of the most variegated sceneries imaginable. As far 
as the eye can reach, except on the north, where the 
vision is boupijcd by the Blue mountain, are sprt ad 
before the eye, wtli euliivated farms, dotted with 
buildings : ai:d the imn; is greatly enlivened by '» e 
Jin.jad stream of the Lehigh, as it winds its way 



down tin: luhaiui.iy v^alley. On the south, east ai;d |l 

wc^t, he bi'I'ore you as a lawn, Saucon, with its i''h |^ 

hnieslone I; rus.^nage tails to deliniate (he & 

scenery wiili any dei^ree ol' graphie accuracy. j 

'I'iie pMjiuLluiU ol' this t(jwnshi)>, in 1820, v.i.s f 

l,lti5; in 1830, ];jl'i ; in 18-10, 1,438. The anioiiiit 1 

of count/ lax levied lor 1844, was $844 80; hli-Ui | 

lax, $1,31 -i !):. I 

Ejjuuas io a post village at the foot ol" the >M)Uih % 

luountaiii, III lit ou nm^ street, and is ahout five miles | 
south-west from Allcntuwii, I'lie town c(jii tains 
about twenty-fivii dwellings, a store and church. The 
following, lunching this place, is from the ])en of ihe 
Twdve. I'kiLVi t.f the churches, schools, i:c., &:c.^ ol 
the United Jircthren in- America : 

"This settlement (iMuaus,) where a congregaiioii 
of the United Ihetliren was regularly organized iu 
1747, is situated near the Lehigh mountains, eight 

miles from Hethlidicm. | 

• ''The lirsl pl;K;e uf worship was built in 1742; tl.e \ 

second in 17(i(i, Ijoth of wood, and the third, which I 

is the preseui chuieh, in 1833. The present nm:;lt(;i- | 

of souls belonging to this congregation is one luin- | 

dred and thirty, (in 183()) of wliom eighty are loui | 


Nurthainpioit township. This is a small town- 
ship which suDounds the borough of Allentown. 
Portions of the surl'ace is generally undulating, but. tlie 
greater pari is level, the soil is limestone, and ve'-y 
iiighly improved. \\ lien speaking of Allentown,- tiit 
springs &lc., arc^ notic'd. In 1830, the population was 5 
iil3, and IS iO, .' i3. In Ibll, the amount of county ' 
tax levied, was ;i, J 73 u!J, and state tax, ^248 89. 

Allkm'uivn.'' '[his town was laid out pviov lo 
i752, by \Villiant .illen, Esip, Chief Justice of the 

* tiee Alli. iUo\va. 

"The substance of tlii:> article is from the pen of l<.,in:i 
Vi''right, Esq. li ajTpjar'j.! oiijjiually iu lia/sard's i'j, li',:.'.. 'v'cl 
Xllt, p. :iL)(i. 


Province of Pennsylvania. Mr. Allen, it appears, 
was a great fried to the Penn family, from whom 
lie derived his grants of land. Governor John Penn 
niarried his dauyliter. James Allen, son of tlie pro- 
prietor of Alicnlov/n, residing in Pliiladelphia, he- 
came heir to ilu; site of tiiis town. He died abont 
1782, leaving tli'j properly to two sons, James and 
William, and tl;roe daugiiters, viz : Mrs. Greenleaf, 
Mrs. Tilghman ;uid Mrs. Livingston. Several of tht; 
heirs still reside her: . 

. This place ]in,'v- the nanie of Allenfown, till 1811, 
when it was calli. d ilio Uoruugli of Northamptun, tnu 
since changed. It is sitnated at the jnnetion of tiic 
Jordan and J^iitle Lehigh creeks, about hall' a miK 
from the Lehigh river. It is six miles south-w. 'i 
from Petlilchiin, eighteen miles soutli-west fron) 

„, Easton, and fit'ty-f]\'c miles north-west from Phila- 

\ ^ delphia. 

It is one of the oldest settlements on the Lehigh 
river, and in die dillerent M'ars of America, Avas the 
scene of many a /*/•.//■(,' itnti hluody deed. It was 
here that ('oloiicl Jai;ios Ihrd displayed such heroisni 
in the early wars wuh the Indians. It was here, 
during the Ivevolution, that llie bells which "chi//ic 
so merrily" on Christ Church in Philadelphia, were 
concealed by the Americans, and it was here, at a 
later period of our national existence, that the insur- 
rection in which the jiotorious John Fries bore s(- 
conspicuous a part, was fomented, and happily foi 
us all, smothered in its bnlh. 

Inhabited by a lew wealthy and imenterprising 
Germans, and cut off for many years Irom the dil- 
ferent post routes, by the iniluence of the neighboring 
towns, it remamed inactive a long time. Its great 
elevation too, re-nderiiig it diflicidt to procure tin; ne- 
cessary sujjply of water, had the etlect of ]-etardiug 
its progress in the march tjf improvement, and it re- 
mained, as at lirst, "uinioticed and unknown," imti! 
the year lf;il, whcnjjy the division of Norlhatnpt' a 
ciii;.ny, it i;ec.uue the seat of justice of Leiiigh 


county, Wfi.s iuturpor.itod by an act of the Legislainrc. 
])assed 18, J 811, and called Nortfunn^^tnh 
Borough. By a sniilar act in 1838, the name ^illcn,- 
toiun was again resiored. Since it has beconi*; tho 
county seat, the rown has improved rapidly, and hids 
fair to eclipse iis neighbors in trade and wealtli, as it 
has already in point of beauty. 

The form o'tlie tuwn is square. Its streets aic ai 
right angli'S, ai'd the }iublic square in the centre adds 
much to its a]ipcarance. It contauis a large court 
liouse and public houses of hewn limestone, a spacious 
lu-ison of the same material; five churches, German 
Iteformed, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Methodist Epis- 
copal, Evaiig(jli*'al Association, and one lor all de- 
nominations, eall.jd '^ the Free Hall,'''' in which tem- 
perance l(icturcs are occasionally dehvered; an Acade- 
my incorporated March 18, 1814, to which the .state 
gave two Ihousand dollars ; a boarding school, a splen- 
did and spacious building, formerly occupiod as the 
llomoeojiailiic college J^issing, it might be renmrV- 
ed, this iuitilutiou ntivtn" went into full operation, ri^; 
it was designt;d ii shduld, under two eminent prul^v-- 
sors residing in Philadelphia. There is one fouud.iy 
in the borough, owned by Mr. Freeburn ; Mc^s'-.s. 
Ivrause & Probst's is contiguous to the borouidi ; 
several machine '.hoi)s,two appothecaries, twenty-^ix 
iitores, eli'ven taA'crns, and six coach manufactonc... 

A bank, callcii T/ie Norlh(i)nplon Bank, was es- 
tablished liere in 18M, with a ca})ital of !|il23,3'i5. 
It became comjiletely bankrupt in 1813. The tjv. r^ 
is well sn))plied with good, fresh water, from Wor- 
nian's siting, at the foot of the liill on wliich ii is 
built. A ijump, worked by a water wheel turned Ly 
the stream, raises the water into a ivsorvoir in die 
highest part of iiie town, from which it is distribatcd 
by pipes laid tliroiigh the streets. The waior is 
forced up to die lieigbl of one hundred and sixty fe<t. 
Tlie water comi)any was forjned in 1828. 

There are several Newspapers published m iliii 
li-rougli; Bcr Fricrlcn's Jiotc und Lecha, No-ih- 


nmpton, Ihich^ unil Monti^omery Counties J2n-- 
zeiger, by BUiu.'jr & lUisli, is neutral in politics. It 
has reached its lliirty-second vohune. JJer Lecha 
Patriot unci Northcimptou Democrat^ by Reuben 
Guth,a whig ixijier. It has been in existence seven- 
teen years. Der Uiiahhaengi.sche Iiejmblikaner, by 
James \Vilson, Dcinnni-uic. It is the oldest paper 
here. The Lehigh I'lulctin, by John Royer, Demo- 

The pre.sont ]>o|;akuion may exceed 3000 ; in 1830, 
it was 1,54-1; in lc-!0, ;i,4fi;3. 

It is worthy ol'noiicc, \o show the salubrity of the 
air of this place, that durmg the prevalence of the 
yellow fever of 1793 and 'L)9, and. the cholera in 1832 
and '33, there was not a single case of eidier, in this 
place, that in any way resembled those diseases. 

On the mahi road lo liethlehem, hi view of the 
town, is a bridge across tlie Lehigh river, erected in 
1841. The previous one, a chain bridge, was swept 
away by the great freshet of January, 1841. There 
is also a stone bridge across the Jordan creek, con- 
sisting (d" eighteen ar»f -s. It is alx)Ut eight inuidred 
feet long. It was completed in 1837, at a cost of 


Tlie mnnerous springs, namely: Worman's, Mar- 
tin's, Smith's and riellVich's, are all worthy of being 
visited by the traveller. The liig or Mammoth Rock, 
spoken of when describing Salisbury township, should 
by all means be visitrl. Jt is only three miles I'rom 
ihe borough, and will amply repay the adventiu:er 
for his walk. 

Ldcigh Port, contiguous to AUentown, contains 
between fifty and .sixty dwellings, one tavern, one 
store and six sh>rinu I'onscs. Below, is Creenleafs 
Island, owned by Su. liulz of Philadelphia. This 
island, under the earr- </i' a t\ew Jerseyman, su])[>lies 
the goud peo])l(; oi' the b'.Moiigh with melons, sweet 
potatoes, 6:c. 

In is 11, thio pkvje .siiiiained considerable uijuri^ 



from the January iVesliet. The following' is fruiii ihc ! 

Lehigh Bulletin, vva : ' j 

After the intense cold weather we had the bi-^iu- 1 

ning of last week— on Wednesday and Thur.stl;,y\ve ' 

had ram, with a warm southern wmd, that hiou-ht i 

on a suJdcn Uiaw. The rivers and streams, m ijioie ! 

parts, rose ra])idly— rose to an unprecedented IjoJLd'i. I 

The Jordan and Little Lehigh a])])ear not to have 1 

heen as lii.di as at the great freshet in 18;J9. (j\vin<'' ! 

to tlic nmncmQ height of the Big J.ehigh, tlic back | 

water w a:; several feet higher than two year.^j ago. > 

The Lilllc Lclngh was about three feet higher, over j 

Mr. Martz's tan yard, than before. The Jurclr.n ran j 

ou^the large .sionc bridge over it. j 

The hesb-r,. in the 'jJig Lehigh, was trenieMdui's. I 

1 lie water v/.is alxjut twenty feet above low-water { 

mark below the da ;n ; and was about three feet abnve ' 

the highest point on the Ihg Island. Such a iJood is ! 

not recollected by our oldest inhabitants. j 

Our excellent bridge over the liig Lehigh, and lull I 

liouse, arc gon.; ; three frame houses of iMr. I). K I, ck- j 

ner, between ids tavern and the bridge, are gone. • 

The gatedi-eeiier's family have got away, but sr'vetl J 

notlnng out of the house. The other families saved I 

more or less, but sustained lieavy losses. The store : 

houses have been considerably injured at djc basin, j 

and sev.;ral of our merchants, in not havn.y iheir I 

goods removed, liave met with heavy losses. A iar^-e '' 

cpiantuy of hup.ber, and a number of boats and scows 1 

were lost. About iwo thousand tons of coal aiolosr. ^ 

The navigation .lam has but little, if any, injury done j 

to it. Tiie canal has sustained some injury. j 



Tills coynijj v/us eiecled out of Northampton i\m\ 
"Pike counties, by an act of the Legislature, passed 
April I, 183G. Tt was enacted, "that the township 
of Ross, Chcstnuthill, Tohyhanna, Pokono, llamiltuii 
Stroud and Sniilhfield, north of the Blue mountain, 
in Northampton coanty, together with the townships 
of Middle Smithfield, Price and Coolbaugh, in Pike 
'County, shall be, and the same are hereby declared to 
be erected into a separate county, to be called Mon- 


By the same act, Moses W. Coolbaugh, Benjamin 
V. Bush, William Vam Buskirk, Michael Shoemaker 
and Joseph Track, u ere appointed trustees, whose 
duty it (shall be) was to receive written offers of 
donations, in real estate and money, towards defray- 
ing the expenses of the lands and public buildings for 
the use of the county. 

The trustees had several oflers made them of sites 
for the county seat ; among others, was Kellerstown, 
m Hamilton township, on the north and south turn- 
pike. Stroudsburg, however, was considered, by th( 
tirustees, the most favorable location for the county 

Monroe couiny, as ai present limited, is aboui 
twenty-five niilcs in Icngili and the same in breadth^ 
making an area of about six hundred square miles. 

• In 1843, Ca.loa county was erected, when Penn Forest towc 
shiif. i.i Monrue conniy, was ir.cliided in Carbon. ■ 


embracing four hurulred thousand acres of lai.d, ilie | 

greater proportion of whicli is forest, and much of a I 

unseated land. Tliousands of acres were lately sold *^ 

*• to pay the arrears of taxes due thereon and the l osi,. I 

of such s:des." In the majority of townships, l;ituls * 

of this kind were ofilered for sale by the county cum- 1 

mission.ers, in 1844. * 

Monroe is generally very mountainous ; much oi \ 

it is ociuipied by tfie desolate ranges ol" the Poi:o!io I 

mountain, and prominent ridges of a coarse fossilifcr- i 

ous sand-3lo]ic. The geological features of the connU I 

.are varie 1 and rugiied. liegiiming on the sou:li ;;:i(li:, | 

lliero is the lofty Kittatinny mountain, which is rent j 

by the well known Delaware Water Gap, wiih its l 

depressions at ihe Wind Gap and Smith's GajK im- \ 

mediately along llui north side of the ]31ue mouiuain j 

is a narrow bolt of red and variegated shale, sue- ^ 

ceeded on the north by a limestone belt of no great * 

thickness; then follows the coarse fossiliferous sand- i 

.stone, forming a sharp, rocky ridge, nearly par;dk'! | 

with the mountain, forming a line of irregular, sliar}), I 

rugged liills, which range south-westward fropi s 

Stroudshurg. On the north sid(i ol" this is Ibuiid an t 

olive slate Ibrnntion, the lower hods of which aro in | 

some places so calcareous as to form a rough, slaty i 

limestone, containing masses of chert, or black lliiU, ' 

and also shells ;aid other tbssLl remains. A])proaclnnf,' ;*■ 

towards the fool of the Pokono mountain, we nied^ >! 

the red sandstones and shales, next in position, al.ovi.'. ■» 

tlie olive slate; these form the soutiiern trout (jf ijjc % 

mountain, and extend through the country ininu di- ^^■ 

ately south-east of it. Passing over Pokono, we ?; 

meet, in the rocky elevated region beyond its suinmit [' 
the hard coarse sandstone.* 

In the north-wcsiern part of the county, on tiie ; 
head branches of the I.ehigh river, lies an imineiise 
body of wcltish land, covered with a dark, dense 
lorestof lofiypine. 'This region is called the " S/.'td::! 

* C. B. Trego, Esti- 

JllSTOnY 01' ^!0NHOE COUNTY. M7 

of Death,^^ or -'Great Swamp," by the forlorn fugi- 
tives from Wyoming, in 1778. Tins part of the 
county is still eompaiatively a wilderness, and most 
of its lands are classed as '' unseated.'" The opening 
of the Lehigh navigation, however, is attracting many 
lumber-men to diis region, and ere long will become 
a brisk and lively place. This portion is very sparsely 
inhabited; the great bulk of the population is to be 
found along die valley of the Delaware and Ikoad- 
head''s creek, and between the liliie rnoimtain and a 
beltof some live miles wide, lying between the Poke- 
no and Kitlatmny mount^ans. Settlements had be(;i. 
made here a century ago. The Minisink settlements, 
partly within this county, may have been commenced 
two hundred years ago. This settlement is along the 
tluts of the Delaware river, extendmg into this county. 
and were undoubtedly made by the Dutch from Kio- 
jiiis, on the Hudson river, in the state of New 
: j York.* 

',. I The population ol this county, as to origiij or an- 

\A cestry,is mixed. In die soutiiern and western part.s. 

I the peo])le arc tJermii.ii, and still speak that language. 

(About Stroiidsburg, the i'usl settlers were friends, and 
of r'nglish descent ; in the east, Dutch, French, and 
one or two Spanish tamilies. Among these are Van 
1] Etten, Depui, and (iiinsaules; but the Dutch,French 
t^ and Spanish are not now spoken by any of their de- 
Jj .scendents. 

' I'his county is pretty well supplied with water 
power for mills, and other manufacturing purposes. 
The Delaware river waslies a portion of the soutli- 
eastern boundary, and drains tha,t part of the county 
by its tributaries: such as Marshall creek, Broadhead 
creek, or Jlnalomlnk. Mill creek, Bushkill, M'lUi- 
chael's creek, Cherry creek, and other small oner;. 
On the west it is drained by tlie Lehigh, witli itt 
tributaries, such as Tobyhanna, which rises in a smai: 
lake called Long Po/k/. and running a south-westerly 

i^ifiUhfield lo'vnship 

148 msroflF op monroe countt. 

course, receives the waters of Big and Little Tuni, 
hanna <irce]{, and falls into the Lehigh, abcuii iw( 

miles below Sioddartsville ; the Big creek, formed by \ 

the junction of the Pohopoko and lloeth's or llead'f. | 

creek, at the foot of the Pohopoko mountani, froin t 

which rafts descend to its mouth. It flows south- ^ 

westpi ly., thrciigh a cultivated valley, to which it giv<s l 

name, and falls into the Lehigh at Parrysvillc, four f. 

miles above the Lehigh Water Gap; and the Aqiiaii- .| 

fihioola, which rises about a mile east of the Wiiui ! 

(iap, in Ross township, and running along its ba.sf;. \ 

falls into th*^^, at its entrance into the ''vVutrr I 

Gap. I 

This county contained, in 1840, according !o iIk « 

statistici. of that y*:;ir, <J,519 head of neat cattle, DJ22 | 

sheep, 10,G4i swine; and produced 10,961 buLhel' ". 

of wheat, 8bi-93 of rye, 5ti,391 of Indian corn, 50,56i> | 

of buckwheai, 57,513 of oats, f>9,237 of potatoes. It • 

had nineteeii stores, one flouring mill, twenty-fivt \ 

grist nijlls, oin; hundred and seven saw mills, nintteeii ] 

tanneries, two printing offices, two weekly ne\v'spa- \ 

pers,two academies, thirty-one schools, seven bioKlrcil j 

and ninety-io;ir scholars, and a population of iiinr | 

thousand eiglit hundred and seventy-nine. \ 

There is but one furnace in the county — tb<; cm | 

owned by Mr. Jordan. I 

The following extracts are taken from the ii ct-rd.- , 

of the court of Quarter Sessions, viz : | 

At a court of Quarter Sessions of the peace, la l.-i ' 

at Stroudsbuijj, in and for the county of Monroe, or; I 

the nineteenth day of December, A. D. 1836, befovf 1 
the Hon. David Scott, President, Jacob Brov/n 

John /r. Bell, Esquires, associates of the same co\!r(, j 

Joseph S. 'f\;el, Esq., High Sheriff of the said coun- 
ty, came into court and made return of the .several | 
writs and pveeepts, to him directed, and made return | 
ed here tlie same day; and also produced a '.;CTtair 
venire /acias, juratores, with a pannel there to an- 
nexed, which beir.g called over, the followmg peT.-or,. 
appeared, to v/U- 

mSTOriY OF f.'OffRQE COUNTY. 149 

I. Sroud J. IlollenslieaJ, foreman. 
- 2. John Boys, Philip S, Brown, Frederick Knecht, 
Joseph Felker, Samuel Rees, James Van Buskirk, 
Andrew Learn, George Rouse, Jolin Yetter, Jacob 
Shatter, George Buskirk, Joseph Vanaken, Samuel 
Myer, James Murgan, Phihp Krasge, George Flyde, 
Peter Lander v.nd Madison Decker, who were seve- 
rally sworn o: alfirnied, well and truly to enquire for 
tiie conimonwealth of Pennsylvania, in and for the 
body of the county of Motn-oe. 

(P^Ia 1837, There were thirty-two licensed public 

{■ ).).. 




Stroud toionship, so called after one of iio {iir-v | 
settlers, c/t/coi S/rcmd, is bounded on the noitli l)y j 
Middle Smithfield township ; on the east by Siniili- \ 
iield; on tlui south by Northanijiton county ; on lb''- ^ 
south-west by Mainilton township ; and on the nMit!) ', 
west by Pokouv* township. The surface of this rown- i| 
ship is partly Lilly and partly level ; a portion of the ! 
township is liuK^stone soil ; nnich of it gravel. Con- 
siderable attention is paid to agriculture ; many oi tli. 
larms are well improved ami abundantly prodiiciivo 

The U)wnslup is well watered by Smithfield rrcik 
and its tributaiies, Sambo, Broadhead, Sullivan, unci 
by M'Michaers cre<d{s, and Cherry creek. Srnidi- "; 
field creek is formed by Fokono, Broadhead'-i; and y 
M'Michael's cr.!eks, near Stroudsburg. It is navigu- ! 
ble a short distance above the river Delaware, inti^ 
•which it enters. Sambo creek rises in Pike county, '■ 
and dowing south-westerly through the north-v/G;-i 
course of SmitldieKl township, falls into liroadiioad's \ 
creek, in this township. Sullivan's creek risos iii 
Tobyhanna tov/nship, and tlowing an eastern anil 
southern course, falls into Smithfield creek, near 
Stroudsburg. M'lMichael's creek rises in Pokoiio 
township, and ai'ter a devious course of twelve or ihir- 
teen miles, falls into Smithfield creek, at Stroutiobuig. 
It is a rapid stream, serpentine in its course, nnd af- 
lords several excellent mill seats. Several nuiis ar-' 
turned by it. Cherry creek rises at the foot of d;. l^l)ii: 
iuount;:iii; near the Wind Gap, and running along the 



foot of thenioiintahi, falls into the Delaware river, at 
its enterance into the Wuter Gap. It is a very rapid, 
stream, and has several mill seats upon it. 

There are two newspapers published here, viz . 
The Jeffersonian liepublican, printed and published 
hy Messrs. Schoch & Spearing ; and The Monnn 
Democrat, by RallVrty If annum. This paper was 
eonnuenced in 183G, 

Near Stroudsl)U.ry is an extensive forge for tiv; 
maiuifactory of bar iron, where a nurpber of fires, 
hariuners, and sonic thirty hands are at work. The 
forjjc. is owned by John Jordan, Esq., of Philadelphia, 
suecessfully .managed hy Mr. Morris Evans. 

The population of Stroud township was, in 182c). 
1,143; in 1830, laiSl ; in 1840, 1,206, exclusive «\ 
the borough, which nmiibered 407. The tax valua- 
tion of real and personal property, in 1844, was $248.- 
816 00; trades and occupations, $50,420 00; money 
at interest, S26,485 v)o ; i)leasure carriages valued ai 

STKOunsjimu;, tlu; couiUy scat, is situated in a very 
fnie coiuUry, on tliu K'tt bank of the M'Michael';: 
creek, some distance below where the Pokono empties 
into it, and innnedJately above the junction of the 
^rlnaiomink, or Broadhead creek, with M'Michael'' 
creek. The town is pleasantly situated ; the strecis 
are wide; many ot the houses are handsome, and 
generally staml irom the streets, with neat 
small yards before them, ad<hng much in heightenina 
the fine appearance of the place. The yards arc 
adorned with slntdjbery of various kinds. Tie., 
houses are prhicipally frame, and, it appears, as i; 
were by general consent, are painted white; with 
windows and doors of green and yellow, as fancy 
may have direcled. Description fails in presenting 
the beauty of the ])lace, the romantic scenery of tlie 
Eurrounding viciinty. . 

The to;-/n is three miles north-west from the Di;la- 
waie Wati:i' Gap: thirty from Easton. It was ii'- 


corporated as a borough, by an act of Assembly, 

passed February 6, 1615. It contains two academies ; j 

the one was incorporated, March 28, 1814 ; the other I 

was erected in 183S. There are within its precincts I 

five churclies ; one for the EngUsh Presbyterians, one ^ 

for the Orthodox Friends, and the other for the 3 

Friends, or Quakers ; one for the Methodist Episco- | 

pal, and a free church. Besides these denominulions, ! 

Baptists ai7.d German Relbrmed preach occasit-iudly ■ 

in the sionc- acadesijy. There are four taverns and | 

eiglit stores ii; the town ; also a giist and saw iiiill, an ^ 

extensivo tannery. Population about 700. ' 

The town and township maybe called "a Qimker 
settlement.'' The inhabitants are enterprising, frank, 
temperate, moral, always ready toextend thehr.ud oi 

friendship to strangers and visitors. * 

Stroudsburg Avas first settled by Colonel incoli \ 

Stroud, oi the fievolutionary army, who had cor)i- 1 

mand here, of Furt Petin, and owned about four I 

thousand acres of iand in tiie vicinity. Five licusos \ 

had been erettcd before his death, 180G. Daniei * 

Stroud, after the di;ath of his father, widened tlio j 

main street, sold lots as occasion otfered. In 1335 * 

the town was selected as the county seat. It is said f 

by Daniel Strou;!, an aged and venerable citizen of ' 
the place, that Fort Hamilton, one of the forts that 

iiic i^iauc, luuL ^ (>ri jiumiicon, one oi ine torts Uiat j 

formed a line of frontier posts, extending froui tl^.e | 

Delaware, along the Kittatinny mountain, to the Pcv j 

tomac river, eruted during the old French and In- ] 

dian war of 1755-60, stood at the west end of the * 

town. It is said that two soldiers of the garnsoii, \ 

walking among the scrub oaks on the brow of the ; 

hill, where the i cadcmy now stands, were killed by j 

a party of Indians iu ambuscade. > 

James Young, Cormnissary General, states in his | 

jour)ial ot Jmie 2 1, 1750 : " At four, A. M., set out j 

from Bosart's ; ai six came to fort Hamilton, af out \ 
-seven miles from Bosart's— a good wagon road, and ; 

die bind i)etler tlian any I had seen on the north iidc 

of the mountain. f 

Hisrouy OF monroe county. 153 

^ " Fort Hamiltoti slands in a com field, by a farm 
house, in a plain and clear country; it is a square 
with four hale hastjons, all very ill contrived and 
finished ; the sioccadis arc six inches open in many 
places, and not lirm in the ground, and may be easily 
pulled down. Before the gate are some stoccades 
driven in the ground to cover it, which I think might 
be a great shelter to an enemy. I therefore ordered 
them to pull them dovv^n. I also ordered to fill up 
the otiier stoccades where they were open. 

^'Provincial stores. — One wall piece, 14 good 
muskets, 4 waiit repairing ; 16 cartouch boxes filled 
with powder and lead, 28 pounds of powder, 13 
pounds of lead, 10 axes, one broad axe, 26 toma- 
liawks, 28 blankets, 3 drawing knives, 3 splitting 
knives, 2 adzes, 2 sav.'S, and one brass kettle." 

Colanel James Hard states in his journal of March 
2, 1758 : " Timrsday 2d, 1 marched from here, (Fort 
Hyndshaw) at nine, A . M., for Samuel Depue's; went 
by way of Fort Hamilton, to view that place. Ar- 
rived at Fort Hamilton at two P. M. — viewed it, and 
found it a very poor .^loccade, with one large house 
in the middle of it, and some families living in it." 

In December, 1755, the Indians made an attack 
upon the inhabitants in the neighborhood of this 
place, as appears from the following depositions — one 
taken at Philipsburg, the other at Easton : 

Colonel Joseph Stout received one express this 
morning, by a young man from that place where 
John Carmeckk' and Hroadliead live, back of Samuel 
Depue's, wheru they wi;ii' attacked yesterday about 
eleven o'clock, where the barn and barracks were on 
fire, and heard the guns afiring, far Broadhead had 
barricaded his Jiouse, and tiiere were several people 
killed, and I fled to Jchii Anderson for help, and as 
near as I could estimate, there were one hundred of 
the enemy that appeared lo me, and were in white 
people's clothing, only a few match coats. 

Sworn before me, this li;lh Dec, 1755. 



Col. Stout, I desire you would com<5 up djiecily 
with your regiment, till you and I see if we ciuinui 
save our country. Your compliance will oblige your 
real i'lietid. 


Tlie Ijifi (ii(y of Deceuiber, 1755, personally 'ip- j 
poared bclbic me, William Parsons, one ot" his in;;- 
justy's jusliccs of tlui peace, for tlie county of Ncitli- ] 
amplon, John ]\l'i\i ichael, lletuy Dysert, 
Tidd and ,\v.h Jiak^^born, jr., who being duly ■v/oru 
on the Holy Evangcb.sis of Almighiy ^Ood, did d.-- 
pose and dechjc tbat yesterday about tbreo cf tin- 
clock, in tluj itMcnoon, two Indian men came licin I 
towards liroadbead's bouse, wbo fired at tbesc dcpo- * 
nents and several others, wbo returned the fue uiul I 
wade llie Indians turn o/f/; and tlie said deponents, | 
James 'i'idd i.h.l J..b iJakehorn, further say ijuu as i 
they weic gwing round the stack yard of the ^Jaid ' 
M'Micbael, wbere they all were, they saw, us ll;::;r j 
verily believe, it least four Indiaus on their knee' | 
about twenty purches Irom the stack yard, wbo lived ji 
at these deponents. And tliese de})onents furtber say. j 
that they were engaged in maimer albresaid with tli.; ^ 
Indians at least tbree ([uarters of an hour; and t'lese I 
deponents, John M'Michael and Henry Dyser,, liu'- I 
ther say, tbat they saw the barn of the said iiruad- ^ 
head on lire altout nine of tlie clock in the mt);ijiMi:, I 
which burning till they left the house, be- \ 
ing about Jour in the afiernoon, and tbat ibey heanl i 
shooting and crying at IJroadbead's liouse almost tbe j 
whole day, and tbat when they left M'MicbaePs I 
liOUse, tbe dwelling bouse of the said liroadhead was \ 
yet unbu'-ht, l>emg, as tbey suposed, defended by the J 
people v/ilbiii. .Vud these deponents, James Tidd ! 
and Job lbll^-(loru, iurtbersay, that they did not come \ 
to M'Miclaiel's house till about tbree in the aftcvnoon, i 
wbi^n tbey could see tbe barn and barrack's oi" Ibe 
said nroidiieud ou lire; and these deponenis luMlu.r 


say, that thoy did not see any one killed on either side 
hut James Garland, one of their company, was shot 
through the hand and arm; and further deponent- 
say not. 


Sworn at E<iston, Decemher 12, 1755, before mv 

The Indiaiis .uMiimified many cruel murders in this 
region of cuiiutiy, as will appear in the seciue], 
''l^ebruary 10, 176 J, Lidians, to the number of fifty, 
attacked the larm of James Russel, Northampt<.M 
county, (now Monroe,) near Fort Penn ; burnt his 
barn, killing one of his sons, and carrying oft" anotlu r 
Olhc.^rsat that post pursued, but did not overtake tin- 

j'Eebruary 26, J.lin Russell, brother of the abov,. 
lads, beiore luuiitiornd, was attacked by three Indiana. 
He took a tive, an.! received three iires from each, 
returned as many, ind (hove them olf. One aha 
passed through his hat, another through the sleeve ..I 
his coat, and the third wounded him slightly in th,- 
calf of the leg."- 

Stroudsburg was (he first settlement reached by th. 
lorlorn fugitives from Wyoming, after the battle o. 
July, 177S. Colonel Spalding was liere, at Fort Penn 
at the time, with a auiaolmient, and immediately leii 
to endeavor to (ho people of Wyonnng ; bi;i 
he was too late, and passed on to the West Braiuli, 
aiKl alterwards went up to Sheshequin.t 

Stroudsburg and vicinity suffered nuich from thr 
flood in January, l-j M. 

nisustrous //6,;r/.- -Within the last {ew days Wv' 
have experiniiced the most disastrous ilood ev. r 
known m this seciioi! of the country. On \Vednesd.' / 

•Oordon'H His, Pa., App»iHlix, p. 624. 
il'.ty's Cc.llcctions, p. 478. 


morning last tiie rain commenced falling, and cjn- 
timied without cessation, until late on Thursday night j 
or Friday morning, which of course softened the snow i 
and started it running into the brooks and sniali 5 
streams ar.rand the vicinity. | 

On Thursday afternoon the ice commenced runni/'.g i 
out of th(3 Polcono an.d M'Michael's, and Broadhea.l 's \ 
creeks, Avhich surround the borough, and before eve/- '^. 
ing they, as well as all other streams, were swolli;n ! 
10 a height uavei before known by the oldest iniiabi- | 
lant5. h\ its coursij the dcstructivii element s .vept I 
away bridges, lumttc r, one or two small houseii and I 
barns, and indeed every species of property along the 
creeks, w^s more or less injured. 

On Broadhcad's creek, the saw mills of William 
.Staples, Jasper Cotant, and several others have been 
materiaUy injured, and nearly all kinds of mills have 
been rendered useless for a considerable time. The 
Analomink Iron Works, of Evans, Scranton & Co., 
about a mile behjw the borough, are said to have been 
seriously damaged, though we cannot at pre^jeiit \ 
make any estinii'te nf the loss sustained. 

On Thursday night, families were compelled to qiiil 
their houses and tiee to those of their neighboi's for 
safety. I 

The loss sustained by the county, in bridges, &c.,is | 
immense, as scarcely one-tenth of all the county | 
bridges have escaped the general destruction. The ^ 
clover mill, saw mill, barn and bridge belongimr to j 
James Bell & Brothers, in Sniithfield, have, we uikIoi- ] 
stand, been entirely swept away, together with a part j 
of their grist mill. j 

The extensive tannery of R. T. Dowing & Co., in I 
Pokono, is said to have been much hijured — also that « 
of Jeremy xMackey, at Jiartonsville. ])epue S. Miller, J 
Ksq., we presume, sustained considerable loss at bis \ 
tannery, ut this place, The brick house built by Henry f 
Jordan & Co., on the south side of M'Michael's creek, * 
has been considerably endangered by the caving in 
-..'f the baiiK, and fears were entertained on Friday 


that it would also hecome a prey to the destructive 
element. But fortunalcly, we believe, it still stands. 

(l^ Since the above was in type, we understand 
that the blacksmith ami wheelwright shops, belong- 
ing to John Dietrich, imi-keeper, on the north and 
south turnpike road, was entirely swept ofT — and 
most painful of all, a young man from New Jersey. 
who wasendoavoriiig to save the above property, Avas 
drowned, and the body afterwards found some eiglity 
yards below — his name we liave not learned. 

The dam belonging to Peter Keller's mill, in Cherry 
valley, was taken off, and all the dams and bridges 
on Cherry creek. We also learn that the saw mill 
of Michael Rausbury, on Broadhead's creek, was 
entirely carried oil'. We learn that the roads, bridges, 
&c,, in almost every 'lirection, are more or less injured, 
and many of them rendered impassable. There Is 
scarcely a mill of any description along the streams 
in this county, but has been more or less injured — 
dams in some instances torn away, and some of tlie 
saw mills swe|)t entirely oiT. 

We heard ii runiured ihat several houses, &c., wert, 
■seen floathig down the Delaware, between this place 
and Milford.* 

, Smithfield, or Loiuer Smithjield township, is 
bounded on the north-west by Middle Smithfield 
township ; on the south-east by the Delaware river ; 
and on the west by Stroud township. The township 
forms a triangle, widi a curved base. The surface is 
liilly ; the soil gravel, and in many places well im- 
proved. It is abundantly watered by the Delawai'..- 
river, Mill creek, Marshall's creek, Smithfield creek 
and Cherry creek. 

This township is remarkable for the Delaware 
Water Gap, an openmg, supposed by nrany, to ha\^e 
been forced by the river, through the Kittatinny moun- 
tairj, forming one of the most picturesque scenes ir 

' Mcnrae DoM.oL'at, JariUarv 9, 1841. ■ . 


(he state of Peimsylvania. The Gap has been ck- 
sciibed ill a {.aeccdiu*,' part of this volume. \ 

ill the opening uf this Gap, on terra firma — on 
the rock)- bank of the river is au excellent hotel, kept, 
Ity William A. liroadhead, from which a fine view 
of tlie Water Gap may be had. A gentleman wiio 
visited the Gap, and staid at Broadhead's in 1814, « 
says; •' During our stay we had access to an ln:han | 
burial ground, a iQ.\\' miles above tlie AVater (ia}>, the j 
curiosities of which amply repaid of ilself for oui- visit, i 
The spot is situated upon an elevation, beneath ^v nidi | 
is a beauiilul pi.dti, called by the Indian name, Palia- j 
quara. Here are deposited the mortal remains of | 
those wlio are alike strong in attachment and i jsent- \ 
ment. Who, ' when once having drew the ^word j 
never retarneJ it to the scabbard until it was crim- j 
soned in the blood of its aggressor.' '^liere w»; saw | 
and procured many interesting relics. Two or ihree \ 
of the graves had Loen excavated, and among (hcse j 
obtained were the following : Two guns, one on eacli \ 
side of the hidiaii, whose bones only remain — scerui ! 
hrass plates, widi the cruciiixiou of Christ ou une | 
side, and his ascention on the other — a large quanliiy j 
of beads kA various colors and sizes — a brass tobacco | 
box — a blanket, and a quantuy of small bells attached. j 
with pipes, &c. These articles were all taken fioni | 
the grave Kii one Indian, the others had nothing de- j 
posited with them save their blankets. They are ^ 
now nearly all in possession of the gentleman who ■ j 
showed us the graves." ; 

Dutotsburg, near the river Delaware at its en- \ 
trance into the Water Gap, three miles south-casi \ 
irom Stroudsburg, is a small village, consisting oJ ten ] 
or twelve dwellings, one store and a tavern. This 
place was laid out bome years ago by M. Anloine 
Dutot, a Fjcnchmau. Mr. Dutot died in 1842. 

This village v/as cnce a merry place, especially in 
ihe spring, when tlie himbermen along the Delav/an; 
had occasion to stay " a night, or week" — regaling 
\Am ; but suice the lumber trade has decreased, and 


the main business transacted at Stroiidsburg, the 
Frenchman's toY/n has declined — the glory of Dutots- 
burg has vanished. 

, Crtf/i,'-',9 MeaJoyj, is a small post village, containing 
four d\vellings, dio lavern, one store, and a BajJtisi 
meeting honse. -whijli is also occupied as a schotd 

Branchvillt, hiid o-ut rising twenty years ago, 
by Mr. George Zimmerman. It consists of several 
dwellings, a store, a grist mill and clover mill. 

There are in tins township three grist mills, and six 
or more saw mills. Tlie ])opulalion in 1830, was 
1,080; in 1840, 1,114. Real and personal property 
for taxation, in 1844, §174,329 00; trades and occu- 
])ations, $28,150 00; money on interest, S4,fi50 00. 

It a})pears from liie following extract from a letter 
written by Sanmel Preston, Wayne comity, (taken 
from Ilaz. Reg., Vol. I. p. 439,) tliat this portion of 
country was settled at an early date : 
., In 1787, the writer went o-n his first surv^eying 
lour into Nortiiami)ten county, lie was deputy un- 
der- .luhn Lukms, Siir\H;yor General, and received 
iVom liim, by way oi instructions, the tbllowing nara- 
tive, respecting the settlement of Meenesink, on tlie 
Delaware, above the Kittatinny, or Blue mountains : 
Tliat the settlement was Ibrmed a long time beibre it 
was known tu the government in Philadelphia. That 
when government w^as inlbrmed of the settlement, 
they passed a law, in 1729, ttiat any such purchases 
of the Indians should be void, and the purchasers in- 
dicted lor forcible entry and detainer, according to 
the laws of England. That in 1730 they api)oinied 
an agent to go and investigate the facts ; that the 
agent so appoii;tcd v.^as the famous surveyor, Nicolas 
Scull ; that he, J. Lukens, was then N. Scull's a})- 
))rentice, to carry cliain and learn surveying; that he 
accompanied N. Scull. As they both understood ami 
could talk Indian, they hired Indian guides, and had 
a fatiguing journey, there being then no- white inlud)i- 
taj'.i i.i tlic upper part of Bucks or Northampton 

160 Ki;rroiiY of monroe county. -} 

counties. Tlial they had very great difficuUy to k ad j 

their horses through the Water Gap to Meeiiesink » 

flats, which u^ere all settled with Hollanders; with i 

several they could only he understood in Indian At | 

the; Samuel Depuis', they found great lies- 5 

pitality, and plenty of the necessaries of lil'e. J. ^ 

Lukens said the first thing that struck his admiration } 

was a grove of apple trees, of size far beyond any S 

near Philadelphia. That as N, Scull and himself ex- J 

amined the bDuks, vhey were fully of opinion that all j 

those flats had at some very former age, been a deep • 

lake, before the river broke through the mountain; 5 

and that the best interpretation they could make j 

o( Mee7Uiink was, ^' the ivaier is gone.^' [Doubt- I 

/"/•] 1 

That S. Depuis told them that when the rivers; were \ 

frozen he had a good road to Esopus from the Mine j 

Holes, on the Mine Road, some hundred miles : that | 

he took his wheat and cider there, for salt and iieces- | 

saries; and did not appear to have any knowledge or j 

idea where the river ran — Philadelphia market — or i 

being in the g.iveinment of Pennsylvania. Tl,ey ) 

were of opinion that the first settlements of Hollund- j 

ers, in Rleenesink, were many years older than Wib i 

liam Penn's charter; and as S. Depuis had treated 1 

them so well, liiey concluded to make a survey of his \ 

claim, in order to befriend him, if necessary. When J 

they began to survey, the Indians gathered round : | 

an old Indian laid his hand on N. Scull's sliouldej-, > 

and said, ^^ Put up iron string — go home l''^ Tliat \ 

tiiey quit, and returned. ; 

I had it in cliarge from John Lukens to learn more \ 

particulars resitecting the Mine Road to Esopus, &ic. ij 

I found Nicholas Depuis, Esq., (son of Samuel) livinij j 

in a spactous stone house, in great plenty and alflu- S 

ence. The old Mine Holes were a few miles above, ^ 

on the Jersey side of the river, by the lower ySwA ©f * 
Paaquarry flat ; that the Meenesink settlemetit ex- 
tended forty miles or more, on ])oth sides of the river. 
Tlial ho had well known the Mine Road to E,-op;is, 


, and used, beiore ho opened the boat-channel, Ihroiigli 
Foul Rifts, to drive on it several times every winter, 
with loads of v.'heat and cider, as also (hd his neigh- 

•bors, to purch>is(! their salt and necessaries in Esopus, 
having tlien \h: eiher suark'et, or knowledge where 
the river ran to. That after a navigable channel was 
■opened through Foul Kit'ts, they generally took to 
boating: most i>\ the settlement turned their trad«' 

■ down sireaui. uhd the Jvline Road became less and 
less travelled, 'i'hi-j interview, with tlie anhable 
Niciiolas Depuis, li'sj., was in the month of .Imu'. 
1787. lie ihttii >i to be perlia))s about sixty 
years of agt,'. 1 inteirogiJed him as to the particulars 
of what lie Icnew; as to wluinjand liy whom th;' 

• Mine Road w.:-; what was the ore they ihu; 
and hauled on ii; v,hul was the date, and Iiuni 
whence or how came th*; Jirst settlers of Mcenesinl:, 
in such great iMUuixa's as to take up all the flats, on 
both sides of the I'iv'i;;', lee fcnty nhles. He could only 
give traditional acco'unts ot" wliat lie had heard Iron 
older peo[)le, wilhcjiu date, in substanc(3 as fnllows: 
. "'riiat in s>)uio fii;iiu:r ag(; there eanm a company 
«f miners iVom iloliand — suppost.'d, from the great 
labor that hail l)evjn expended in making that road, 
uboui one hundred nhles long, that they W(;re very 
rich, or great |)et>[)le in working the two nhnes; one 
on the Delaware, 'vlierc the mountain nearly ap- 
proaches the lower point of Paaquarry Hat; the other 
at tiic north foot of tliesame mountain, near half way 
between Delawarf; and l^sopns. That he ever ujider- 
stood abundance of oie had been hauled on that road, 
but nevt;r coiild b^nn whether it was lead or silver. 
That the lust settlers camelVom Midland, to se(;k a 
]5lace of quiet, bring jjcr.rrii/cif thr their religion. I 
i)eliev(' tluiy w rre Aruiinians. 'I'hey followed thi- 
Mine Road to if,' large jlats on the Delaware. That 
smooth cleareil bnul, and such an abundance of largo- 
iipp/' trees, SLUtet] Their views; that they bo7ia ^fiiL- 
bought the inijjrovenicnt-^ of the native Indians, most 
of \v horn then removed to Susquehanna. That with 

li)2 Hi^rcnci of monboe county. 

such as i-eiruiiiK-d, (hero was peace and friei)d^brp, 
until tli(i yanT 17 jTi." 

I thou Avoiii iH view the Paaqiiany Mine liolos 
There ;ippeat'ed to liave been a great abimdaiioe ot 
labor done tliv^^o, at some jbrmer time ; but the nsouih.-* 
of thes'^ li(il('.-, wcJi! caved lull, and overgrowji wiih 
bushes. I oiMiiliMled to myself, if there evoi- Lad 
been a rich niino under that mountain, it mu^t bt 
there yi;), in .;luse conhuement. The other old ni:n 
tjiat [ converged widi, gave tlieir traditio,ns sin. liar to 
Nicholas Dopuis; and they all apjieared to bo the 
grandsfiiii ol' die lii^t sotllers, and generally, very 
illiterate as Uj dates, or any thing relating to ch oiiO 

lu the siUMiior o! 17^9, I began to build ju aas 
place. Thoii' ..auKj two venerable gentlemen m a 
surveying e\pi;(lm(ih. They wej-e the late (jouoral 
James Clintun, ilu' I'allier of the late i)e Witt Clinton, 
and ('liriblopiiir Tappan, l-'sq., the clerk and rrcorder 
of Ulster couuly. for many years before, tla y had 
both been surveyors under General Clinton's fadior, 
when he wa.v Surveyor Ceneral, In order to loam 
some history, iVom gonilonien of their general luio^v- 
lodge, 1 aoooni|)ainod them m the woods. They i)ot)i 
well knew the Mii;<; llob.'s, Mine Uoads, &c. and aa 
there were no kind oi documents or records thcroof. 
united in o|)inijii, ihat it was a work transacted wink 
the stale of N.w York belonged to the governntoiit ot 
New Holland ; ilni it loll to the English in the yop.r 
16G4; and that dio ohange of government siopiic-J 
the mining that the road must have boon 
made many yi.ais, before so much digging coidd \ut 
done; that it uiu.sL undoubtedly have been ttio fi,:i 
good road, of thai extent, ever made in the iJniloil 
States. From ilic b.'.st evidence that 1 have boonaj'le 
to oblam, I am clc; liy of opinion, that the il/o( ;k y/ViA- 
was the oldest I'^uropcoan .settlement, of equal oxtoni, 
jiver ma'lo in the loiiitory, alterwards namo<l Pono 

Hisroiiv or moniioe couktt. 163 

Upper or AJ'jldie Smith^eld t(nvnship,\a\ioxinde(i 
on thu north by Piko county ; on tho east by the De- 
laware river, wf,ich separates this township from the 
state of New Jersey ; on the south by Lower Smith- 
lield, Stroud aiia l\»kono township; on the west by 
Ooolbaugh. Tl'3 surface of tliis township is generally 
hilly, and some of it broken ; the soil is principally 
a gravelly loam, })r( tty heavily timbered with pine, 
hemlock, beech, Tiiaplo and oak ; much of it is classed 
among <* unseated lands." In 1844, rising ten thou- 
sand acres oi' unseated lands were otfered for sale by 
the treasurer of iIk county^ to pay the arrears of taxes 
due on the lands, and the cost of sale. Except tho 
south and eastern part of it, is sparsely inhabited and 
not well cultivaicd. Althnngh a large township, it 
contained, in 1830, only 1,000 of a population; and 
in 1840, 1,144, two grist mills, and four or five saw 
mills. The real and personal property assessed, in 
1844, amounted to J^IGJ, 159 GO. It is, however, im- 
proving, within the last fev/ years, and will, undoubt- 
edly, before many years, bo generally settled. 

It was in this iown?Uip, ami adjoining region, the 
Indians committed many depredations during 1755 to 
1764. It is noted in the Provincial Record, as will 
be seen from the following extracts, that in 1755, the 
Indians overran diis part oi' the county. 

'' Dec. 25th, 1755. — Accounts from Easton, of the 
whole country up the iiver, (Delaware,) being desert- 
ed iVum lirodhead's, who, with his sons, and others, 
delended himself stoutly, till the Indians retired." 

The Ibllowing conunuAication from Mr. Hamilton 
to Governor Morris, exhibits the state of the country 
at the time alluded to above. Ilannlton had been at 
ICaston, on a rne«s;ige from the Governor of the pro- 
vince of Peimsylvani.'i. 

Easiou, Monday roening, Dec. 25, 1755. 

Dear Sir : 

The conunUsionc'ts came to this town on Saturday 
evenii];, where v/e found the cow]ty imder the great- 


est coriKternaiioa, aiid every thing that has been . ^ 

of the (^ijtrcKS ot' tlie inhabitants, more than veviiied ] | 

upon our own viev/. I'he country, along the iiv-.r^ \ .| 

is absolacfth/ doserttd I'rom this place to Broadluvid's ; i I 

nor can th^rq be the least communication! n-- ; ) 
and them hut by large parties of armed men, every 
body being afraid to venture without that security. s<' 

that wc liavc liad no accounts from thence for sev''r:J ^ ^ 

IJroadlioad was stoutly defended by his son; . ^.n't 
otliers, lilj ti!C Indians thought fit to rtitire, wiifu.ui 
being iible \o tiiko it or set it on fire, though lii 'y Ki ■ 

qnently attempted it. Tt is thought several of dwr i 

were killed in tlie aitaf;ks ; butthatisnot known u-iih *■ 

certainty. i\ 

We li;i ve (i',re, upwards of one liundied n.L'n, (< 

ing the companies of C!apt. Aston, Caj)t. Trump ,)th\ U 

Capt. M'Cilarighlin, and are impatiently ex[»P(:titii.' v^ 

more from Ixiiow, for the pcojde liere are not. vor\ ^^■ 

numerous, and are, besides, very backward in t.itpr |^ 

ing into servics;. Tiiough the encouragement is vroa'. ^ 

and ono would tlmdc they woulil gladly embn.'N; tlio S 

opportmnty of rev(^nging themselves on the a'lt[l^,l|^ ^ 

of their ruin ; but the terror that has seized fhciVi i" | 

so great, or thrjir spirits so small, that unless men <'oni | 

from other ])arls of the province, 1 despair of gettini.- | 

such a muiiber here as will be su/iicient to garrisun f 

the l)lock-hous': we propose to build over th(; ITill-. | 

whither we intended to have gone to-morrow, bat ih:; f 

our provision wagons are not come up, and tna't. v, | 

I have not men eifongh for the above mentione i pLi | 

poses. ^ 

. .1 understand that Aaron Dupui is .still at 1lO!i;( , | 

and tlhU it is very unhkcly that he will be able to j 

leave in ; house in this time of distress to carry yc'..: |: 

message lo Wyofning, so that I believe the expect .■ | 

tions oi" (he treaty will fall to the ground; uor (l:y< i 

any body, eitlicr here or there, believe we aavj .i | 

smgle Indian tha.t may be called a friend ; iior do i I 
s<Ki a possibility ol getting that message convT/^'d if 


HIS'lOJvV 01' 


tliem iVoiu hence, even sup])osing they were friends- 
«^very body is aiVaid of stirring a step, withont a 
strong guard. 

J h.iartily wish you Avere at liberty to declare war 
against them and ofler large reward for scalps, which 
apj.ears tijc only way io clear our frontieiy of tho^e 
savages, and will, I am persuaded, be infinitely cheap- 
est in tiie end. For I clearly foresee the oxi)(?nse of 
delendmg oursr.'lves m the way we are in, will ruin 
the province, and be far from ellectual at last, princi- 
pally lor want of a good jnilitia law, by which the 
men mi-ht be subjected to discipline ; for at present 
. diey enter themselves and then leave their Captains 
at their own humor, Avithout a person in the ollicers 
to pumsh them iortfuit or any other misbehavior. 

I have commissioned several captains liere, who 
engage to raise men, but i)rincipally two, who have 
undertaken to range the country between the two 
branches of this river ; for the security of the two 
Irish settlements, in hopes that those wlio have de- 
sierted by the whole of those on the main branch may 
be induced to reimn to (heir plantations, which alter 
all 1 very much question, so very great are their ap- 
prehensions of the Indians. 

I cannot say fur certain when we shall leave this 
place, that depending on the coming of the provi- 
sions, and our getting a sullicient number of men 
Many ot those already here, not being able to march 
Un want of shoes, which has obliged us to send down 
lor a supply to Philadelphia. 

I have but a moment to write, the express being 
ready to depart. I shall from time to time keep you 
lulunned ol any thing that may be worth your notice, 
but at present ihHhhig of that kind olfers. 
I am with great respect. 

Sir, your obedient servant, 


166 KisvoiAir or monroe county. 

In 1757, the Indians again attempted incursior. 

into thi.j pari of tlie country, as will appear from the 1 

following : jj 

It ai'.pears the Indians were doing miscliiei" in | 

Northampton county, as appears from the following I 

letters, from Maj. Parsons to Governor Denny, Apvil ! 

Deposition of Michael Roup. ) 

"The. 24ih day of April, 1757, appeared before, me, \ 

William Parsons, Ksq., «SiC., Michael Roup, of Lower ^ 

Smithtield^. Northampton county, aged lilty two year^i; i 

a person to mo well known, and worthy of credit, and | 

being duly sworn, did depose and decUre : ""fhaihis I 

neighbor, Piiilip l^ozart, being at Fort Noiris hist j 

Saturday woei:, heard a letter read there whu h v/as { 

despatched l>y Major Parsons, to acquaint tho gaui- j 

son that he had received information that somi cne- ' 

my Indians mtended shortly to come and attacl: the, ? 

inhabitants at and about Minisinks, and to dt .=iiic 1 

them to be upon their guard, which was soon made ^ 

known to all tiie neighboring inhabitants. j\\id this \ 

deponent further sailh, that on Friday morning iasi, j 

John Le Fever, passing by the liouses of Philip l]i-'z:rc\ | 

and others, deponent informed them that the iiuliaus j 

' had murdered Casper Cundryman last Monday crew- i 

ing ; ^vdlereupon this deponent went immcdiaieiy to ■• 

the house of Philip liozart, to consult what was best I 

to be done ; their iiouses being about half a mib \ 

apart. That vhey concluded at last ibr the neii;ldioi-s | 

to collect themselves together, as many as they could, » 

in some one house. And this deponent furthfrsuith, | 

that he immediately returned home and loadfd his | 

wagon as fast as he could, with his most valuable e{- : 

fects, which ha carried to Bozart's house; that a<i > 
soon as hs had unloiultid his wagon, he drove to hh 
son-in-law -'s, Peter Soan's house, about two mucn, 
and loaded as inuch of his etfects as the time and 
hurry v/ould admit, and took them also to Uozuri'' 
where nine families were retired; that a great num- 


ber of tlie inhabitants were also retired to the houses 
ol' Conrad Bittenbonder and John M 'Dowel ; that 
liozart's house is seven miles Ironi Fort Ihiniilton, 
and twelve from Fort Norris. And this deponent 
further saith, that yesterday morning, about nine 
o'clock, the said Peter Soan and Christian Klein, with 
his daughter, about ttiirtecn years of age, went from 
Bozart's house, to the Jiouse of the said Klein, and 
thence to Scan's houso, lolook after the cattle, and to 
bring olf more eirnns. And this deponent fnriher 
saith, that about half an hour alter the al)ove three 
persx)ns were gone ironi iJozart's house, a certain 
George Uartlieb, who also lied with his lamily to 
liozarl's, and who had been at his own house, about 
■a mile irom Soan's, to look after his creatures, and 
bring away what he could, returned to Jiozart and 
reported that he had beard three guns fired very 
•quick one after anotber, towards Soan's place, which 
made them all concUab' the above three persons were 
all killed by tlKJ Indians. And this deponent jurther 
«aith, that their little cimipany were ^alVaid to venture 
to go and see what had liappened tbal tbiy, as they 
had many women and cbildren ta care for, who, if 
they had been left, miglit have fallen an easy prey to 
the enemy. And this deponent further saith, that 
this morning nine men of llieir neighborhood armed 
tliemselves as well as they could, and went towards 
Peter Soan's place in order to discover what was be- 
come of the above throe ])ersons ; that when they 
came within about three hundred yards of tbe house, 
they found the bodies of the said Soan and Klein, lying 
about twenty feet Irom « a'ch other, killed and scalped ; 
but dill not iind Klein's daughter. Soan was killed 
by a bullet which enUxod tbe upper part of his back, 
and came out at his breast. Klein was killed with 
their tomahav.'^ki;. 

The nine men ncv/ inmiL-iiuitely returned to Bozart's 
and reported as above. this dei)onent was not 
one of the nine, but that he ;emained at J^ozart's with 
the H\t uen at)d children: that the rest of the peo})lu 


desired this depoiieiu ro come to Easton,andacqii.vnH 
tlie justice with v/liat had liappened ; that the Tiini- 
Juen did not think it sate to stay to huiy the dea.i, kr 

Swrorn at Easton, before Wilhaia Parsons. 

•• . [Prou.Rcc.yp. 2\[i:\ 

Letter iiuMi .Major Parsons to Governor Deiu'- 
June ;;!'J^ 1757, v/ith deposition of Ceo^ge Ehert : '^ ' 

The depusiii,,]. of (leorgc Ehert, taken before Wa- 
ham Parsons, Y^ni 

On the 20th of June, 1757, personally appc.rnl 
n^ifore nio, AVilhain ]^arsons, justice of tlie iM-aco ;,» 
iNortlian.pion county, George Ebcrt, (son of J',, In 
Ebcrt,) lah; of i>lainlicia township, in said counts"'' 
yeojiian, but nov/ o( Easton, in the same roi-ntv' 
ageci sixteen years, and being- duly sworn ^,' 
&c., deposeth and deelareth, lliat on or ab^jut vj 
second day of May lust, lie, this deponent, m.h' 
about eighteen aimed in«n, went with two wa- )■ 
Horn Plamiield iownslnp, to assist the inhabit-nii s 
ot Lower Smiili field, who hivd a few days b-- 
lore been attack, d by the enemy Indians, and soni, 
ot the nei-hborliotAl murdered by the sava<>e^ U^ 
hrmg oifsoiue ef their best etfeets; that about'' i oon 
01 the same day, they came to the house of Co' IctI 
-Hittenbender, to which divevs of the neighbors 
lied— here one of the wagons, with about ten men 
with this deponent-, halted to load their wagon v-»h 
the poor people's effects; and the rest of the compi, - 
ny, wiUi the other wagon, went forward about a mil, 
to the house of Philip Pozart, to which place oI'mts 
of the ne.glibrus h,'.d also lied, with such of ili.-u 
ortects as Uicy could, in their conjusion, .a.rv 
len; that tins deponent and Conrad Pittenb. ndcr 
leter Sliaeifer, Johi, Nolf, Jacob Roth, Mi, lu,oi 
is^iersler, a certain Keins, and one man more, v i^cs^ 
lu'ime this deponent has forgotten, went aboiu f.'.: 




miles into the woodsj to seek the neighbors' horsei^ 
whcreot'they foand six, and were returning with them 
to within half a mile of Bittenbender's house, when 
they were atiacked by fifteen French Indians, who 
fired upon tliem, and killed Bittenbender, Jacob Roth 
and John Nolf, as ]ie behcves, for that lie saw thent 
fall, one dead, and took Peter Shaetfer, who receivetl 
two flesh sliots, one in his arm and the other in the 
shoulder, and thi,': deponent, prisoner; this deponent 
received a shot. 

And this depoiient farther saith, tliat the Indian.* 
frequently talked French together; that they set od' 
immediately with tlieir j^risoners ; that on the evening 
of the next day, they fell in with another com])any of 
about twenty-four Indians, wh(i had Abraham Miilerj 
with his mother, and Adam Snell's daughter, prison- 
ers. The Indians, with their prisoners, marched in 
parties as far as Diahoga ; that at this ])lace the In- 
dians separated, and about eight, the foremost, took 
this deponent and Abraham Miller, with them, and 
ihey never .saw any of the other ])risoners alter- 
wards; that on tluir way on this side of Dialujg;),, 
they saw Klein's daughter, who had been taken pri^1- 
oner about a week before this deponent was taken : 
that a day's journey beyond Dialioga, they come to 
some French Indian cabins, where they saw anothei 
prisoner, a girl about eighteen or nineteen years old. 
who told this deponent that her name was Katharine 
Yeager ; that her father was a locksmith, and lived 
at Allemengle, and that she liad been i)risoner ever 
since Christmas ; that at this place the Indians loosed 
the prisoners, this deponent and Abraham Miller, 
whom they had bound every night belbre ; that find- 
ing themselves at lilierty, they, tliis dej)onent anrl 
Abraham Miller, made llieir escape in the night, and 
the next day afternoon they came to French Afarg,'.- 
rett's, at Diahoga, having Ijeeii prisoners nine days; 
that they stayed about four weeks with her, during 
all which t'mo she concealed them and supporied 
tl'.i e.i. ; that some French Indians came in search of 

170 lUilTOlW 0)P MONROE COUNTY. 1 

the prisoners, wlicreupon Margaret told tliem it v.'as | 

not safe for Ih^nn to stay any longer, and advised tiicm j 

to make the best of their way homewards ; that all 1 

the Indians at, and on this side of Diahoga, were vory i 

Ivind to thcin, and helped and directed them on tiieir j 

way, John Cook was particularly helpful to them; | 

that while ihcy were at J)iahoga, they were informed • 

that the Indians had killed Abraham Miller's nuitlier, | 

who was not able to travel fnither, and Snell's j 

danghtcr, who had received a wound in her leg by | 

a fall, wl'cit they lirst took her prisoner; but they | 

heard noil, ii.g ot i^'ler Sheafter; lliat in three days j 

they arrived at Wyoming by water, as Margarei had i 

advised ihcm ; ilial at Wyoming the Indians directed ♦ 

them the way to f-'urt Allen, bnt they missed ihoir l 

way, and came die road to Fort Hamilton, where j 

they arrived lasi Saturday a week. { 

And tliis deponent further saith, that the fri(^iuliy s 

Indians told them that the enemy had killed Mar- « 

shall's wile, at the First moui-Uain. And further this ] 

doj)onent saith not. j 


Sworn at Ea^ion, before W. Parsons. | 

This d(-']>onent saith, that they nnderstood by die I 

French Indians, that they had three days farther to | 
go, from die place whence they escaped. ' 

Letter whh ilic al)Ove deposition was also read | 
from Major Farsuns. on the 2(Jth June, 1757, givin? > 
an account that a large body of Indians had attacked i 
and burned Broadhead's honse, whicli is about a mile i 
from, and in sight of. Fort Hamilton, and that th-y • 
liad killed and scalped one Tidd, besides killing a \ 
^Tcat mnnber of creatures. — Prov. lice, p. '329-'J[, \ 


Letter from Conrad Weiser to William Parsons. 

Reading, April 21th, 1757. 

I am from good aiUhoriiy informed, that tlie ene- 
my Indians iuive attackeil the frontiers in Northamp- 
ton county, and that intelhi^ence has heen given to an 
oilicer of credit i:y a iriend Indian, that a considerable 
body of French \w\ their Indians design again to 
invade the proviiKic, r.nd a number are on their way 
to fall afresh ou t!u' Minnisinks, or posts adjacent. 

The particular view of the Ohio Indians at this 
time, as it is reasonafiy supposed, is to obstruct thu 
Susquehanna Indians mtlieir treaty with the ICnglish, 
and to prevent therdvy a well establisjied ])eace be- 
tween tlienr. How the forces within the battalion I 
have the honor to command, may be disposed oC upon 
the expecttul incursion of the savages ami the French, 
who ])ronipt thinii wilh a cruelly tupial to that of the 
barbarians, I cannot -ay, hut you uiay dejiend upon 
it, that I siiall cndeavitr tit serve tlie couiUry by do- 
ing all in my power i) succor every distressed part, as 
soon as })ossible. 

But, gentlemen, you must know tlialthe number of 
forts which are on the east side ol' the Susquehanna, 
will require a very l;)rge part of the lirst Ijattalion to 
garrison them, and to allow of scouting ])arties, to 
watch the motion of the barl)arians. It will theretore 
be necessary, that tlie inhai)itants should do all in 
their power to defend themselves and neighbors 
against an enemy, whom we know by experience to 
strike terror wlierever they commit their ravages. 

I reconnnend it to you, to persuade; your neighbors 
to associate themselves innncdiately into companies 
under discreet oificcrs of their own choice, that we 
may be able to preserve urn- own, and the lives of 
our tend(;r v/ives and children. Great nnist be the 
advantage \v<i shall give the enemy, if we are mipre- 
p<'ir.,.l upon tlieir sudden invasion. It needs nci 

172 CiiiiJlvi; OF MONKOE COCNTY. 

much rellcctiutij upon what happened about sixteen 
iiioiilhs ago, to bring to our minds the amazement and 
confusion witli v/hicli the spirits of our people M^ere 
affected upon a sudden incursion of Indians, of whose 
number wo were never well inlbrmed. It would up ■ 
pear as if I liud an ill opinion of the dispositions 
of my countrymen, to susggest any special motives 
upon this occasion. 

I only pray that divine providence may direct you 
to propose measures, and then you cannot fail of suc- 
cess in an endeavor to serve yourcouiUry — inutiicli 
service you may d'jpend on my promise, that you will 
be ever joiiicd. 


Your most humble servant, 

• • ' • Lieut. Culontl 

Price township is one of the north-eastern tc v/n- 
ships of Monroe county, and is bounded on the north 
and east by Pike county; on the south by Middlt- 
Smithlield lownsinp; on the west by Coolbangh. 
The greater part ol this township is hilly and broken, 
and a dense fore.-:,!, with a si)arse population, not e:c- 
ceeding four hundred. It is emphatically a lumber 
township; there are ten or fifteen saw mills, and one. 
grist mill in it. Agriculture has received but little 
attention; ihough parts of it, if properly cultivated, 
would yield a sutliciency to repay the husbandnian 
for his labor. JNlueh of the land is classed among 
unseated lands. J:]jghteen thousand acres of this khid 
of land, in this township, were ollered for sale by the 
county treasurer, in 18-11, to pay tlie arrears of taxes- 
due thereon, and die costs of sucli sale. 

The real and (jcrsonal estate, exclusive of unseated 
lands, assessed in iSl-1, amounted to ^25,523 25; 
trades and occupat'ons, ^511,700 00. 

Coolbaush township, a northern townshiiJ, ^^ 
bounded on the north-west by Luzerne comity; L^n 


the north by "vVayne and Pike counties; on the easi 
by Price and Middle Smithfield townships; and on 
the soutli by Tobyhaniia township. The siirtacc; 
of this townslsip is liilly, and much of it rocky. 
Through tlvis region there are several lakes or 
ponds; the T-jbyhiinnu creek and several of its 
branches, ris(^ here in the rnidst of a wilderness : 
it runs wcst^vard, :u"id falls into tlie Lehigh, be- 
low Stoddaiisv^iUe. Tiie streams, through here, 
are generally rapid, and do afford an incalculable 
amount of v/atcr power for useful purposes, some i.i 
which is empl'iyf.d by saw mills and grist mills. l>y 
far the great(n- part of this township is thinly inhabii- 
ed. In 1840, there were only one hundred and fifty- 
nine inhabitanis in the township. Much, or the greater 
portion, is unseated land. In 18-14, about twenty- 
three thousand acres of land, in this townslii}), was 
otTered for sale Ijy the treasurer of the county, to pay 
the arrears of taxes due thereon, and to defray ihf 
expenses of sales. 

This to\vnshi|), i'.ad region of country, generalK , 
present altraclions lo the sportsman; deer and bear.-* 
are common, and all the streams abound with trout ; 
the hnny race is abundant. 

Nagleville is a post village, laid out about twenty 
years ago, by George Nagle ; it is on tlie Drinkci 
turnpike road, consisting of six or seven dwellings, 
one store, a tavern, and two saw mills. 

Spruce Grove, a post village, laid out by Jasp( i 
Vliet, some iilteen or twenty years ago, contains eight 
dwelhngs, a tavern, and a blacksrhitli shop. 

Saxville, a post village, laid out at least thirty yean< 
ago, by George Sax, consisting of ten dwellings and 
one tavern. Tins place is well known as the ShcuL:! 
of Death. 

T'obj/kanna township, a north-western townsinf.', 
is bounded on tiie north-west hy Luzerne comity ; 
ufi 1 on the north-enst by Coolhaugh township ; c i 


the souih by roia;no ; and on the west by C;l. l,;;n 
county. Tiic .jurlace of this township is hilly ; the 
soil gra vol, anJ rather barren. It is watered by the j 
Tobyhanna crock, and several smaller streams. The i 
country, here, i.s a euinj)arative desert, and very ihinly | 
inhabited. Mach of the land is unseated. In IS-M, ! 
more than thirty tlionsiuid aereswere oliered for sole 
by the treasurer oJ' the county, to pay the arrears of 
taxes there DH. 

This tov/n-jliip,it is said, contains nearly thirty i^uw I 
mills. It is a great township lor tind^er. IK'r.i are 
the Shade:-; of ikvah, or the Gnat Swamp, C'-vcrcd 
with dense forests of jnne, and, until lately, littlj in- 
habited; but since the improvement from AT; uch i 
Chimk to Stoddart.jvillo has been completed, settle- ' 
ments have been nuide, and suw mills erected. It is \ 
well tind.<ered; besides the pine, there is an abnn- | 
.dance of henxlock, double spruce,oak, chestnut aiid 
wild cherry. The turni)ike, from Philudeli)h!:L lo | 
Wilkesbarre, passes throUii;h liere. i 

The i)opLitation of 1830, was 279 •» in 1840, 6';5j j 
at present, 18 15, it may exceed 900. The assessment^- | 
of real and personal property, exclusive of unsi'uted \ 
lands, amounted to .:?5l;!,(J50; trades and occupations. j 
g950 00. , 

In the year 1779, Ceneral Sullivan, with an army j 
ol two thousand fivu hundred men, on his way to drive I 
the lirili-sli and Indians irom Wyoming, ! 
through here, in August, the 20th, he encamped all j 
night at what was then known as Chouder (;amp. 
On his return hom Wyoming to Easton, he again \ 
encamped her(;. In his journal, it is recorded that j 
on the lOlh of October, 1779, the army began iheir ' 
march from Wyomiiig to Easton, but on account of 1 
the badiit; ,s of ihc riiud, they were obliged to}) ' 
four miKs frouj\Vy(jming. 5 

October 1 lih — Continued our march to the clgc of j 
the OreaL Swamp, and encamped. ^ 

October 12th — Continued the march throui^t. ;1:l^ I 
Oreat Swr'nip, tt'o road being bad. The ]nick hiji^^eb; ' 

HisroaY OP aLoNROE GouNTr. 175 

took a wrong ro:id, and the troops were obliged to 
■ lie without their tents, or covering, during a very- 
stormy night. Encamped at Chouder Camp, 

October 13tli— Marche(i to Bruiker's nnll, whero 
the Pack horses cunio up/ 

Pokono tow'/u'h'p is bounded on the north-west and 
riorth-cast by ToI)ylKxnha township and Middle 
Smithfield; souiii cast and south by Stroud, Hamil- 
ton and ChestnathiU township ; on the west by Carbon 
county. Tlie surface ol' this township is mountainous; 
the soil, gr.ivel, and nuuually barren. It has its name 
from the Pokono mountain, which extends across it. 
The Pokono is the second range of mountains run- 
ning parallel widi the Kittatining, and is distant from 
it from seven to ten mdes. It is very much broken, 
and irregular, more so than the Plue moniuain or 
Kittatining. This mountain bears several local names. 
In this township ii is called Pokono', near the Lehigh 
river, Pokopoko or Pocko-Pocklo; west of the Lehigh, 
for several miles, Mahonuig and Pokono townshij) 
is drained by the wesi branch of Ihodliead's creek, 
and by Sullivan's, Pokono and JVI 'Michael's creeks. 
Sullivan's creek, which rises in Tobyhanna township, 
and llowing an eastern and southern course, falls into 
Smithlleld creek, was named after General Sullivan, 
who marched ihrougii this regionof country, with an 
army uf 2,500 men, to Wyoming, in 1774. 

Much of the land, in this township, is classed among 
unseated lands. In 1S44, tlie treasurer of the county 
otlered to sell about twelve thousand acres, to pay the 
arrears of taxes due thereon. The population of this 
township was, in 1830, 564; m KS40, 973; there were 
in it, two grist mills an<l twelve saw mills. The 
valuation of real aiui pcfi-jiial property, in 1844, was 

Bartojisiill, a post village, was laid out by JosepL 

* Ha.'. Wcj. ■i.w. lii. 


Barton, tv/elyc or iifteen years ago; it consists ofpiphl 
cr nine d^velllngs, one store, a tavern, a grist nnli up 
extensi.^e tannery, a blacksmith shop, and a coopw' 

Tann^rsv;//e, a post village, laid out by Josepi. 
Mmgor e.glucen or twenty years ago. It consi i. 
o about twenty houses, two stores, one tavern, . 
blacksnmii .hop, a tannery, a school house, a /,vitb- 
ran and (rernian llelornied cliurch. 'i'his i>l-ice '■• 
rcrnarlc,-,),],: l[,r th,.nnn-der of the Larners, by ri„- 1,;: 
dians, r.l,.,.UL iJ.e ) .ur 17<S0.* The iacts tourbin-'tbi- 
murder, iwe,. in ;i i,,w words, as follows : 

Some time in tbe month of June, 1780^0 tbr I • ■ 
ners were surprised by several Indians, who .shut^du. 
(atlier andn.Mber of tiie family; the sons made tiu-i. 
escapep)ne ot tbein was hotly pursued by uu hi- 
Chan ; he, however succeeded to get mto a siandin^ 

Wdtehi ig tbe movements of the savage, whom bV 
soon discovered and, as he tbought, Unknown hi 
yomig l.arncr, also concealed himself, some loriy or 
lilty yards ollj.ebmd a stump, Moating till las mnAed 
victim snould nune, when he would speed a bnll-t 
f rougli hnn. Ycunig J.arner took oif Ins hat,plac.,I 
It on a loose root, with which he lifted llie hat a fen- 
inches to one side of the stump, the Indian i.-rcciv- 
ing the hat, tbwnghi that he was about lookim^ irjr, 
behmd the stmnp to see where liis pursuer was-^ 
tbis instant tbe Indian fired; no sooner had be dis- 
charged his rnie (ban J.arner rose up and shot di. 
^ Indian dead on the spot. 

General Sullivan, on his way from Easton to Wvo- 
mmg, in 177!., encamped here on tbe imh of hL 
On the 18th he bad encamped at llelliard's tavern 
eleven miles irom fJas.on. June VJ, rnareh.d tJ j 
l.arney s ;]..arner->;} tavern, or Pokanose (Pocono) 

Tu sL'- T,, ■? ''"'V''" P-^"^'^^ lime wheri u..c.n«a. 

out saiJ ,lua u « ai about the lime of the Kcvolutio,,. 


point — 20tli, to Choiidcr camp. — Sullivan's Jour- 
nal — Haz. Ilcg-. xw.jj. 12. 

Chestnuthill iowiuhlj) is bounded on the north by 
Pocoiio tuwnsliij* ; on the north-east by Pocono and 
Hamilton; oii the south by Ross; on tlie west by 
Carbon coviiUy. The surface of this township is 
partly hilly and partly level ; tiie soil gravel, it is in 
some places being improved, and amply repays tlie 
labor of the fanaers; thongh some considerable por- 
tion of the land is classed among unseated lands — 
about one sixtli of llie lowiisihp. There are two promi- 
nent hills ; a lofty siuu', called Chestnut hill, givmg 
name to thetownsliip, and Prospect hill, in the north- 
west part of tlie township. The township is watered 
by rioeth's, or Head's creek, which rises in this lown- 
ship, and by a &oiith-v/estern course, flows into <• Big 
creek," in Towamensing townshi]), Carbon county. 

It was on this creek that the Indians committed 
several murders, in Decendjer, 1755, as appears from 
the following deposition : 

'I'lie 12lh day of l)ccend)cr, 1755, personally •d\\- 
peared before me, William Parsons, one of his majes- 
ty's justices of tlie peace, for the county of North- 
ampton, Michael Ilute, aged twenty-one years, who 
being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists of 
Almighty God, did depose and declare, that last 
Wednesday, about six o'clock, afternoon, a company 
<)f Indians, about five in numl)er, attacked the house of 
Frederick Ho(;(h about twelve miles eastv/ard from 
Gnadcn Hutten,ou Poclio J^ochtocreek; that the fami- 
ly being at supper, the Indians shot into the house 
and wounded a woman ; at tbe next shot they killed 
Trederick Ihjelh him:-:!!]', and shot several times more, 
whereu])on all lati eul of ll.e house that could. I'lie 
Indians hnined lately set lire to the house, mill and 
iitables. lleetli'.^ wife ran into the bake house, which 
was also set on fire. Tlie poor \yoman ran out 
Ihrough tlie lianie.s, and being very much burned. 
■*hc , '.'j iiito die water, and there died ! The fndiuii.s 

ns irisTOiir OF monuoe coxjstt. 

cut the belly op(3n, and used her otherwise inhiiuKui 
ly. Tliey killed and scalped a daughter; and he 
thinks diat three other children, who were o[ [he 
family, were burnt. Three oflloeth's daughters Mf 
missing, willi another woman, who are supposofl Ic 
be carried (J ir. In the action, one Indian was kiil"d 
and another woandud. And further saith not.'' 


Svvoin ai Ejston, ihe day and year above said, be- 
fore me. 


This township cuntains five grist mills, niiieteiu, 
saw mills, a I jithern and German Reformed chinch 
The popiilatioi, in 1830, was 940 ; in 1840, lins, TliC 
assessment ol' leal and personal estate in 184 1, was 
$129,730 00; trades and occupations, ^34,780 00. | 
About lour thousand acres ol" unseated land \v:\i, of I 
fered for sale by the county treasunjr, to pay tlio ai * 
rears of taxes due thereon. I 

7?o^.5 ioui)i--,/i.'p is bounded on tlie north by, ( in s( 

nuthill town.ship ; on the east by Hamilton ; o!^ th:-, t 

south by Northampton county; on the west by (';n- i 

bon county. The surface of this townsiiip in the i 

south, is mountainous ; on the north pretty level ; soil s 

gravel and some hmestone. Mucli of the land n j 

pretty well iuijiroved and yields abundantly. Ii is | 

drained by the head waters of the Aquanshicola ' 

creek, which rises about a nnle east of the Wind Oap. \ 

and rumiing lln'ough this township a south-westerly 1 

course along the Bine mountain, falls into tlie Lchigb ) 

river at ita entrance into the \Valt:r Gap. ([ is ti ^ 

rapid stream, and drives several mills. | 

The JVind Gap is a shigular o])ening througli tlio ' 

mountiuHj tlirough which, no stream passes; but (lie ! 
almost level crest hue of the mountain is here de- 
pressed nearly as low as the country on each side ; foi 

'IS. t'iov, Kec. p, n-l 


a notch iu the mouhiain, of peculiar convenience foi 
the passage of liuvellers and teams, and towardj< 
whicli the leaciiug roads on botli sides converge, and 
pass tlu-ough it hi one great tiioroughfare. 

Tiie nortliciu iurnpiko from Easton to Berwick, 
passes through tiiis township. A considerable por- 
tion of the land is classed among unseated lands; 
several thousand acres were offered for sale by the 
county treasurer in 1844, to pay the arrears of taxes 
due thereon. 

It contains eigiit grist mills and nineteen saw- 
mills. The population ui 1840, was 987 ; at preseni 
rising 1,100. Assessment of real estate in 1844, was 
.$11:3,599 00. 

Kun/clesviile, bearing the name of its proprietor^ 
was started about fifteen years ago, consisting of 
seven or eight dwellings, one tavern, one store, a. 
school house, a (jerni,:in Reformed chiurchand a grist 

Hamilton townshi;) is bounded on the north by 
Pocono township ; lu the south by Northampton 
county ; west by Ross ; and north-west by Chestmit- 
hill township. The surface of this township is diver- 
sified, mountainous, hilly and level ; soil gravel ; tlie 
east end of it is pretty well improved. It is drained 
by M 'Michael's creek, Pocono and Cherry creeks. 
Thehefidsof Aquhischieola and Cherry creeks sprhig 
not very far I'rom eacli other. These might be con- 
nected, and following tliem by a canal, would open a 
new outlet for coal fie. ni the Lehigh to the Delaware. 

The populationof 1830, was 1,428; in 1840, 1,508. 
The assessed valuation of real and personal property 
in 1844, was !3'lJ9,7.jO 0<»; trades and occupations, 
$34,780 00. 

Snydersvillt, a post village, laid out by able Pat- 
terge, souie tliiriy years ago, consists of eight dwell 
ings, one store, one tavern, and a school liouse. 

Kc'krsvillc, a i>c;-i village, laid out by George 


Keller, more than thirty years ago, consists of 

dwellings, one store, one tavern, a school house, a ] 

grist mill, a clover mill, and a German Reformed aiui | 

Lutheran chinch near it. When the comity si-ai tor j 

Monroe was .'^olectcd, there were strong hopes Kfi- \ 

lersvillo would ])CC()me the site. Mighty eflbrts v/eic j 

made to eilVc: this — all failed — Stroudsburg wns | 

chosen. \ 

Fe7i7iev6viile, a post village, laid out by He.iiv I 

Fenner. about tlie lime Kellersville was comnu'uci (i, S 

consists .'i'tv/olvc o: thirteen dwellings, on(i store, via- i 

tavern, two gri^t mill?,, a carding machine, iuid ilic I 

usual number of haiidicrafis in villages thus sitiial^'d. 1 

Saylurwilh , a pdst village, laid out by (,'liarli'.« 1 

Saylor, about t^vcnty years ago, consists of er' oi- « 

twelve dwellings, one tavern, one store, a v ji^i.du \ 

maker sho{> ahd coo[)i'f shoj). | 

The inhabit;. nts of this township, as well as ;!;.• \ 

early setilersoii the Delaware and 15roadliead ti\ (^1:, | 

were much exposed to the incursions of the savagi >, J 

who committed many murders, under circumstain . ^ i 

of great cnielt)-. j 

In a letter dated December 18, 1755, it is sini.d. | 

"tliat a ])arty of Indiuns had gathered behind ili:- \ 

Blue mountaiiKS, to th(! number of two hundred, und 5 

had burned tlio greater part of the buildings, and \ 

killed upwards of" a hundred of" the inhabitii/ii:>,"' j 

Another letter dated the 20tli December, says ; '-'Wx | 

barbarous and bloody scene which is now open in dir -' 

upper parts of Northampton county, is the most la- ,| 
mentable thai perhaps ever a])peared. There \v.w\ ; 

be seen horror ;\nd desolation; populous settlemei;tf | 

deserted; villages laid in ashes; men, women ami | 
children massacsed, some Ibund in the woods ver^ | 

nauseous, ibr want of uiiermcnt, some just reckins s 
from the hands of their savage slaughterer^-:, and } 
some Iiacked and covered all over with wounds !'' | 
To this letter was annexed a list of sevenfy-aigh. | 

per5:ons killed, and more than forty settb nieiu' % 
I'urned. % 

^ -—s 

/ CHAPTER XIII. ./,..,.■ 


Caebon CouNry u'as erected out of Northampion 
:uid Monroe counties, agreeably to llie following act 
ol' Assembly : 

lie it enacied by ibe Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives ol'tlie Cominonwealtli of Pennsylvania, in 
General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by 
tjie authority of the s:unu, 'Jliat all those parts of the 
iroumies of Northam|iton and Monroe, lying withm 
the following bounds;, viz : Beginning at the north- 
west corner of Noriiianipton county ; thence, south- 
wardly along the said line, till it intersects the north- 
orn line of Lehigh county; thence, eastwardly along 
the top of tiie Blue niouiitaiii, to the south-west cor- 
ner of Monroe county; thence, nortliwardly along 
the Monroe county line, and continue the same poiitt 
of compass in a direct line through Tobyhanna town- 
ship, in Moin-oe county, to such point as may strike tiie 
Luzerne county line; thence, westwardly along the 
Luzerne county line, to the place of beginning, shall 
be, and the same is, according to the Ibregoing lines> 
declared to be erectrd into a separate coujity, to be 
called Carbon: Provided, That territory from INfon- 
roe county, sh.dl oiJy embrace the township of Pc/u/. 
Forest, and tiiut ilie said tov/n.'^hip shall con.^tilute tlic 
wliole of the icnitory taken from Monroe county, by 
the provisions of this act. 

John D. Bowman, Thomas Weiss, John Fatzingci, 
AbiMni Shortz and Samuel Wolf, were appointed 
u .A^jCs, to receive written olfers of donations in re;d 


estate and moneyj towards defraying the expense.^ ol 
the lands rnd public buildings, for the use of the 
county of Carbon. 

Passed ;^iid approved March 13, 1843. — Law.^ of 
Pa., for 1813,/'. 85. 

Carbon vuuntij. — Extracts from records of court, 
First — December term, 1843. 

Hon. N. B, Eldred, President, Asa Packer and 
Jacob Dinkey, Associates. The grand jurors were 
Charles J. Eallioi, Abraham Beer, William leaker, 
Jonas IkiuiuaU; Andrew Coo])er, John Dcnulcr, 
Henry Ebert, Jacob Fitzinger, Abner Huston,. h;seph 
Hahn, Peter Haberman, Abraham Harris, Daniel 
Kister, George Kissner, John Lomison, Barnard M'- 
Clane, James M. P.Iarsh, Abraliam JNIayer, N. M. 
Penrose, William Reng, Reuben Peters, John Frainei , 
Daniel Wentz, W. H. Wilson. 
, . Attorneys at llie iirst court — W. H. Butler, Janie-', \ 
R. Strulhcrs, 0. W. Wheeler, Pros. Jit., F. J., 
W. Davis, Jobu D. Morns, Silas E. liuzzard, Jolif 1 
W. Hornbeck, d. W. 'i'ates, J. Clancy Jones, I (din I 
Sliouse, Christopher Looser. Others have since bLon 1 
admitted. | 

Carbon couniy is bounded on the north-we.^1 by I 
Luzerne couniy ; east by Monroe ; south by Nortii- ] 
ampton and L> high ; and soutli-west by SchuylkiU | 
county. The couniy is about twenty miles long and I 
nineteen broad ; comprising an area of about tinoe f 
hundred and ninety square miles. j 

The county is generally mountainous, and there is- \ 
not much arablu land in the northern portion of ii ; \ 
Mahoning valley, in the south-west, is well adapted to | 
agriculture, and if carefully cultivated, is abundandy | 
productive. The south-eastern portion contains some j 
land tolerably well adapted to cultivation. Tliongli, I 
in an agricid'tnral point ol" view, it is not, and never \ 
will be, a farming country; still it is rich in niinoini 
wcjiddi, and valuable for its forests of pine. 

Tbe hllnc m.ountain forms the southern boiiu.kj'y 

nieTOnf OF C.1RB0N COtJNTr. 183 

Noilli of tliis iH a succesyion of small ridges, called by 
various iianics, such as Firc-Line-hilt, Mahoiihu] 
lidge, Muurh Chunk mom\[ix\n,oa the west of the 
Lehigh rivei. Bi-yond this is the Broad moiintaht, 
extending to ilio easiward of the river, and still far- 
ther east, is the Fohohupo, or Poko)io. JNorth of tho 
Broad 7)1011)1 la hi are Spr'uig moimtam and Bald 
ridge. Tliesc nioniitauis rise from six hundred to ;i 
thousand feet above the Lehigh river. 

This county is v.'eil supplied with water. Besides 
the Lehigh, iheie ai'c many other streams, yielding a. 
vast amount of waicr jiower ; but little of whicli, 
Jiowever, has heen a]}plied in that way, except to 
saw mills. The piinci|'al streams are the Lehigh 
river, Aquanshicola creek, liig creek, Lizard creek, 
ALahoning creek, .Nesquihoning creek, Quakakc 
creek. Hay's creek, IJickory creek, or Griffith's ruii> 
Muddy run, and several others — all of which will be 
noticed in tlio sequel. 

The Lehigh river is a brancliof the Delaware, and 
receives its name Ikjui the (ibor)gi)ics of this country, 
who called it /.cc/ia.or Lcchaw, which, it is said, tt; 
signify West Bra)ivfi. It rises in the Great Sivantp^ 
or Shades of Death, and in its course divides 
the county into two equal parts. The foUowiiiij: 
graphic descrijition. from the peu of a gentleman 
,who visited this county in September, 18-14, is lierL-. 
introduced as a description of a part of the county 
and the river. 


Bending uiy course southward, I left Wilkesbane 
in the morning for Mauch Chunk : — This route passes 
over the railKjLuJ from the ibrnier village, to ^\''hite- 
haven, owned by the Lehigb Navigation Compmiy, 
and intended \:> tjunect dieir improvement with ibe 
valley of the Sus([uehamia. 

The \v<:uji is heavy, and although not complete, 
iim t have boon ah'eady enormously expensive. A. 

181 fttsTotii' OP t.v.iuau cousrr. M 

number oi inchucd ijUmes are finished, and a tujin-ji k 

of one tliOLisand eight hundred feel in leugtli is in f: 

progress. "We uaversed the line hy horse pov/cr: \ 

ascending ilie ]jlane.s at a snail pace, and descend- t;} 

ing theui hy the force of gravity, with fearful | 

rapidity, A her dashing through excavations and y 

over enibjuikments, in the descent ol" a hi avy | 

grade, for several nnies, we reached Whitehaven at i. 

noon. I 


Whitehaven is snuated at the head of the Lenigh , 

Navigation, and some eight or ten miles above iho | 

commencernenL of the coal formation. Its t.ade | 

is therefore confmed to the running of lumber; i 

and this, judging from the number of saw mills \ 

in the place, and its vicinity, and the imni'^tise I 

quantity of board piles that, for several miles al.'ove | 

it, literally line the banks of the river, must be ex- i 

tensive. i 

We here tool-; passage in a packet for iVIai.'Ji | 

Chunk. \'ou will excuse a somewhat detailed accrniiit | 

of my passage down this tair stream. The det;r.'iit I 

of the Lehigh is interesting, both on account of iho || 

almost gigantic construction of the canal and the inag- ^ 

nificent wildnesa of the natural scenery, Thef^illin i 

the river, between Whitehaven and Maiich Chuuk, a | 

distance of but iwenty-live miles, is 642 feet and is ? 

overcome by 29 locks, varying i'rom filteen to upwards | 

of tliirty feet in depth. These locks, even before the | 

destructive fresli^t of 1841, were substantially con- I 

structed, but thifse diat were then destroyed, liuve | 

been since rebuiU on a larger and still more maf-sive I 

scale. They have been widened so as t* admit two *■ 

boats at once, and irom the inspection of an unprnr;- j 

tised r^ye, I judged their walls to be five feet in iliicii- | 

ness and tlieir abulments ol" solid mason work tu iheii { 
"wickois, arc uUod and emptied as exi>editiou^l'v as 
tho (;ighi feet iock.j cjIi our state canals, lkl^vt.u^ 

niSTony op cahbon countt. 185 

Whitehaven and Mauch Chunk, tlie navigation is 
4hnost entirely Ly slackwator. 
|. The scenery, inimrdiately upon leaving Whiteha- 
ven, is striking, but inrjroves gradually, a.s you de- 
scend the Lehigh, iitifil. soiiui miles above Mauch 
Chunk, it heconics wild and picturesque in the high- 
est degree. The dads w-aters ot' tlie river, dyed almost 
to a hlack, hy t!i(3 sa]5 ot" tlie hemlock soaking in it, 
every where enclos>;d by mountains of from 300 to 
700 feet in height, and confined to a channel, scarcely 
.'300 feci ivide, trace a circuiious course through, per- 
liaps, the wildest ar.d most rugged mountain region 
of the State. Determined to enjoy it to the utmost, I 
furnished myself with a prime principe, and taking 
my seat upon the deck, fairly drank in the varied 
magnificence of the ever ciiaiiging scene. Beneath 
me, the Lehigh either reposed in a hlack, glittering 
sheet, or hounded over its rocky channel in wreaths 
of snow-white foam; ; bout me, on every side, for 
hundreds of feet, rose the pine-caj)ped mountains, 
iiore, dark, jagged and precipitous, iutersjxnsed oidy 
with occasional forest iiees, growing in the ravines, 
or amongst tlie clel'fs and crevices of the rocks; now, 
covered with rolling stones nearly to their summits, 
bald and desolate; and again, sloping to the river's 
bank, evenly clad with bright green foliage, and af- 
fording the eye a gratefid relief from the almost pain- 
ful grandeur of the ruder scenes; above me, was the 
deep blue sky of a summer's eve, enhancing the elfeci 
of every view, by the contrast of its serene expanse 
with the wild contusion of the mountain scenery 
around. Every where the mountain sides were spot- 
ted witii tall, gaunt, lealless trunks of withered pines, 
blasted by lightmng, or scorched by the hand of man, 
and reqinring but slight aid from the excited imagi- 
nation, to seem tlie gigantic guards ol' these Satanic 
fortresses. Along the course of the river, nut a single 
rod ol arable iaml is to be ))erceived; the mountains 
sink sheer to the water's edge. In wild magnilicence 
of :::":ry. 1 liave seen notlung on the Hudson, thu 


Susqiiclianna, or the Juniata, to compare with th*. 
banks of the I.ehigh. 

Whilst seated, as described above, I felt a roniantic 
ardour gia dually creep along my nerves, and being, 
irem reason and experience, most liorribly prejudiced 
against the sentimental,! sought refuge Irom my feel- 
ings by diving to tliat most common-jilace of all 
places, the cabin of the canal boat; but I was not 
destined to escape so easily. Instead of the relief I I 
anticipated, my ears were greeted with an aiix(/rou& ^ 
passage between the cabin boy and our pretty-cook '^ 
maid — "iiah! I stcetched myself upon a settee, aii.l | 
amid pleasmg reflections upon the omnipoteu'\3 ef | 
love, tliat is able to convert the steerage of a ear. a! I 
boat into a paradise, composed myself to slecj), and | 
awoke at Mauch Chunk. — Lancaster Examiner (tnd \ 
Herald Sept. 18, lS-i4. 

Tliere are, btisidts J\Iauch Chimk, the county town, 
and a number of small villages, which will be noticed 
below. There are several grist mills, and a mini];er 
of saw mills ia this coimty; also several I'urii^i /rv 
tbrges aiu] Ibundrics, 

The county i^ divided into the following town:.l,i;i:.-: 
viz: East Peim, Ahuich Chunk, l^ausanne. Upper 
Towamensing, Lower Towamensing, Penn FoiCit, 
Mahoning and Banks, having an aggregate popula- 
tion of about eight tliousand. 

The early history of Carbon county is merged -vilh 
that of Northampton, The iirst settlement was ,iiadu 
in Mahoning township, on the north side of Mahoning 
creek, about half a mile above its junction with {\\\i. 
Lehigh river. 


1^!,! . TOPO(;nAI'llY OF TOWNSHIPS, Ac. 

Mauch Chunk lo ton ship is named from Mauch 
Vhtink mountain, in ihis township. The name of 
the mountain is oi' Indian origin, and in the language 
•of the Lcnni Lcnupi, dj- Delaware Indians, is said to 
\ \ signify /?ear //KJiiulai)!. 

This townshi]) is hounded on the north-west by 
Lausanne; north-east l^y Upper Towamensiiig; south 
by Mahoning; and north-west by Schuylkill eouuiy. 
The surface i){ lliis township is niountaiiKAis, includ- 
ing parts ol' Chilli h Cluiuk, Ncsipuhoiiing and Broad 
mouulains, on thi; wc.M ^idc of ihe i.ehigh river; and 
parts of the lircjud nriuntain, ]5ig Creek mountani, 
and Kettle mountain ou the east side of die Lehigh 

Tiic soil is gravel, and naturally, not very produc- 
tive, yet portions of (his townshi]) are arable and 
have been made productive, by proper attention be- 
ing paid to the cultivation of the land. The township 
is drained by Heaver creek, Mauch Chunk creek, 
lloom Uun, N(S(juih()iiiiig creelc, and Kettle creek. 
The i)riiicii)al of these are Mauch Chunk, and Ncs- 
quihoniug creeks. 

Mauch Chunk creek roeeives its name iVoni the 
moiuitaiu, at the fooi oi' which it takes its rise, and 
tracing along the mountain, in a very direct line.', falls 
into the Lehigli, on the west side, about a mile and a 
half below tlie NosquiUoning. It is vtiry rapid, auii 
]ias Several mills erected on it. 

?.' 'adhunintr creek rises at the foot of the Broail 


bctwei^i Jk-.uul inountaiii and Maiicli Chunk moun- 
tain, Avliicli rise like a rampart on each siJ(^ it fulU 
into i)ie Luhigh, at Lausanne. It is very rapi^l (i:r 
about two miles from its mouth, where it becornes 
more gentle, passing througli natural meadows. Seve- 
ral mills are erected on it. 

A large portion of this township belongs tu ihc Le 
high Navigation and Coal Company. Tiny own 
rising of thirteen ihonsand acres. Several ihonsaiid 
acres, in this tou^iship, are classed among unseated' 
lands, ilic gji.;:l r [jortion of whicli was oficrod, ir. 
1844, liy tiie county treasurer for sale, to ))ay the iiT- 
rears of taxes dne tln'reon. 

The population, in 1S30, was 1,3 18; in 18 !u. y,l J'', j 
The county lax, for l&i 1, was $l,5xJl 5(j; for slui..> | 
purposes, i;^1.05(j 29. i 

JSfaudi Hhitnk is tlie princijjal town in this ti;v, u \ 
ship, and in tlie county, and is, at ])resent, ihe seo.; i 
of justice fur the county. It is on the west bank of \ 
the Lehigh riv or, twelve miles above the ^Valei• (i;.p, \ 
(brty-six mil .s i)y the navigation iVom Eastcn, and \ 
nearly thiity iVom Allentovvn. Thu situation i;; ro- | 
mantic and incluiesque, the town, in the gltit^ Ijcing ! 
encircled by sleep mountain acclivities, which vise, in j 
»iome jihice's, in'ccipilously from the river, to a height j 
of eiglil huniivi'il or a thousand feet. \ 

The place was first started about twenty-siivoi. j 
years ago, in connection with the operations uf the '; 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, winch v.'-as j 
Ibrmed, in its ineipiency, lifty years ago, ant! fuliyni- \ 
corporated in 18 Ki. The town was originally their , 
property, and its i)rosperily is wholly owing 1j the \ 
enterj)ri/.e of die ( onipany. 

The (/hic; is nnich resorted to in tlie summer sciir 
%on, on ['jcount of the many stupendous ati .iclions, 
and goiiural o()jccts of interest. The inhahiiafU:; arc 
■jrwraL i/ilclli^:;ent and hospitable. Its improvouieii^ 
iu C:V:;ry respucl, has been considerable, wiihin \\\'^ 



last ten years. Niimeruus are the descriptions given 
of this place by gentlemen who have visited here. A 
IJ3 I writer in the Village Record, says: « It was in July 
1825, when I lasi visited Manch Chunk — alewstejis 
from the landing on the l^ohigli, brought me to 
Mauch Chunk llulcL a large and elegant building, 
\ \ well tinished and fufni-alieil, and crowded with well 
\ dressed, fashion;' ijie ijeopic;, evidently strangers, on a 
visit to the miiu ■:, .'i glance around the tea-table, 
told me tliere v/as luilh beauty and grace among the 
female visitants. Aii c^ainiuation of the book', where 
oaeli person's naiii-; is ji:citrded, informed me that 
some of die first characters and taleut of the stat(- 
S\' were guests at tlu; mansion." 

. Another writer, in the Ihicks County IntelUgen 
cer of 1831, says: "About two miles south of Mauch 
Chunk, wo came upci the lov/er boundary of the 
Company's lands, where the hills on each side of the 
river, acquire a great elevation, and have a very bold 
appearance. The river is confined in a narrow bed, 
and the road on one side, and the canal ami tow-patli 
on the other, are cut al-mg the base of the hill, as far 
from the river as the nature of the ground would ad- 
: J "The irregular course of the river, and the hills 
I mounting up several hundred feet, rendered the view, 
up and down tlie river, rather wild and dreary, until 
we approached near enough to see the neat white 
buildings of JNIauch Chuidc, which presented a beau- 
tiful contrast to the hiiis, covered with deep verdure 
above, and the swift Uowing and dashing current of 
water below. Upon entering the village, tlie first 
objects which presented to the eye, were the exten- 
sive buildings occupied by Mr. Kimball, as a hotel, 
and which is k.^pt in good style, not inferior to many 
of the fasliionable hotels of our Atlantic cities. High- 
er up the jiank' of ihc river, arc several extensive saw 
mills, and a large grist mill, the store house, boat 
liouse, railroad slioot, &c., with here and there a /Vboin the centre of these improvement.':. 


190 uir.TDur of carbon countt. t ' 


there is a break m tlie hill, and a considerable ravine, t ■■ 

down which flows a stream, su/Ficient for turning va- *' 

rious kinds oi machinery. Along this stream, u h«,Te- I 

ever the ground will admit of it, most of the dwelling ■ * 

houses and worivshops are erected." \ . 

There is perhaps not another place m Pennsylva- t " 
nia that surpasses Mauch Chunk, where so much of 

the truly sublime and picturesque is so magnificenily t . 

displayed, as here. This place is well worthy a visit. S ' 
and a journey of hundreds of miles, to make it. To 

describe all tar.i is attractive, would transceni die. j ., 

limits pixscribcd us. '■>' 'I'he coal nunes, the inchaec} ; 

planes, and all tho machinery and appliances nece.ssa- - 

ry for mining, tjansjiorting and shipping coal, may be |< 

seen here on a large and improved scale; while die ■ , 

pure mountain air, gushing I'ountains of the coldest- t- 

and purest water, v.'itli beautiful views of wild and | 

sublime mountain scenery, give additional charms to j 

the place.'' i:, 

The public Liiildings are the court house and jj.ii T 

The court house was presented to the county by ¥< 

tlie LehiLdi N;ivigation and ('oal Company, 'ilu % 

citizens had it ie])aired, and iitted up lor forensic p\iv- |5 

poses, and erected the jail, at an expense of about four f 

thousand dollais. There are three churches here ; | 

Presbyt(;nan, IMeUiodistand Evangelical Association. « 

Tlie O^A/ Fc7/<>;/'6' erected a commodious hall in i8^J4. i' 

There arc three tavc^rns and six stores here : a foim- i 

below the town, owned by Mr. Richards. 

There is a weekly paper published here, trailed 
The Carbon Cnunty- Gazette, edited by A. L. Foj- 
ter, Esq. Some twelve years ago, Mr. Foster cuin- 
menced tlie Mauch Chunk Courier in this place, 
The population, which is an exceedingly industrious 
one, is between eleven and twelve hundred. One of 
the first pMblic school houses that is to be met with in 
the state, out of Philadelphia, is to be foiuul at 
Mnacl! Ciiuak. Tlie schools here are well condncscd 

dery, owned by John Fatziuger, Esq., and a furnact * 


This place sufloicd miicli tEoni the great freshet m 
January, ISll. 

At Munch Chiiiik, tlio town was inundated, and 
considerable damage sustained. The Courier Extra, 
Siiys : '' It is impossible to estimate any thing near 
the truth of the amount of damage our citizens have 
sustained — ^very one has lost more or less, and some 
eighteen or tv/eniy families within three miles of out 
village are left dependant upon the mercies of the 
more fortunate, without house, bed or provisions; 
and three childn^!: of Mr. Adam ]5eer, (the mother 
barely cscupeing with un infaiU hi her arms,) and the 
mother and three children of another, have perished 
in the Hood, as their houses were borne down by its 
dreadful course. The bodies of two of Mr. Eeer's 
children were recovered from the water, and should 
tile other be found, the friends of humanity will re- 
ceive the thanks of the afllicled parents, by commu- 
nicating the information to them," 

As it may be interesting to the general reader, 
place is given here to tlie following article. As this 
township forms a very ilistinguished portion of ihc 
coal formation of the the state: 


" Under this title, it is proposed to give an account 
of the famous coal moinitain,and tlie magnificent im- 
provements of which it has been the cause. The 
name of this mountain is of Indian origin, and in the 
language of the Lenni Lenappi, (Delawares,) is said 
to signify Jieat' mount a'ni. It forms a very distin- 
guished portion ol' the coal formation of the state, and 
we are told that we owe our knowledge of its min- 
eral treasures to sheer accident; that a hunter dis- 
covered the coal bed^ while in search of game, beneath 
the roots of an uptorn pine. The following accouni 
of this importatit event is given l)y the venerable Dr. 
Thomas C. James, of rhil;idel[jhia, who, in the year 
1601. Ill company vv^ith Aiuhony Morris, Esq., duruig 

192 nisroitv of carbon county. 


an excuiiioii lo some lands on tlie Lehigh, their joinl || 

property, visited tlie mountain. |-5i 

''In ihc course of our pilgrimage, we reached ilii' /> 

summit oi tiie Mancli Chunk mountain, the present t^ 

situ of tlie mine, or rather ([uarry, of anthracile coal t^ 

At that time there were only to he seen three or loui M 

small pif => \vlii(jh had nnich the appearance vi tlie ** 

commencement of rude wells, into one of wiiit;h, our ^: 

guide ( r!il(ip (ri)iicrj descended with great case, |^ 

ajid threw up some pieces of coal for our examina- * 

lion. AftL-r whicli. whilst we lingered on ihu spot, fe 

conternplitiiig ilut wildnussoftlie scune,]ionL'st Phili]) ^ 

amused us widi the following narative of Uie ori^mvai '^' 

discovery of this most Vcduahte of minerals, now pro- |^ 

rnising, from ils g(;n(Mal dilfusion, so much of acahh f 

and comfort lo a, great portion of Pennsylvania. |, 

" lie said, wiieji he iirst took up his resid«a:-e i:i | 

that dislrict of country, lie huilt for himself a j-otigh Z 

cahin in the f(nest, and supported his family hy the |- 

proceeds of his rille ; heing literally a hunter (f ilie I? 

hack woods. The game lie shot, including hear .uul | 

deer, lie currien to the nearest store, and exchai g(^d | 

for other necessaries of lite, liut at the parliculai * 

tinie to which ho then alluded, he was witlioiU a siij)- I 

ply of food for his family ; and after heing out ail 'i 

day wiUi ins gun in quest of it, he was retmniny, | 

towards evening, over the IVhiuch Chunk mom:t;dii, V 

entirely unsuccessful and dispirited \ a drizzling rain t 

beginning to fall, and night approaching, he bent hie S 

course homeward, cuusidering himself one of the most f 

forsaken of inunan heings. As he trod slowly <:7er \ 

tiie ground, his loot stumbled against somediing * 

which, by the siroke, was driven Ijcfore him ; ohscrv- j 

ing it to be black, to distinguish which there was just I 

hght enough remaining, he took it up, and as in. hnd * 

often listened to the traditions of the country o\ !l>b J 

existence of coal in die vicinity, U occurred to him, i 

that diis might he a portion of that ''• alone cutL'' of I 

whi. I' lie had henid. lie accordingly carefully i )ok ^ 

■d withiiim to liis cahin, and Uie next day car '.nt it | 


to Col. Jacob Weiss, residing at what was then known 
by the name of Fort Allen. The colonel, who was 
alive to the subject, brought the specimen with him 
to Philadelphia, und submitted it to the inspection ol 
John Nicholson and Michael Ilillegas, Esqrs., and ol' 
Charles Cist, an ii'ielligent printer, who ascertained 
its nature and qualities, and authorized the colonel to 
satisfy G inter lor his discovery, u})on his pointing out 
the precise, spot, where he ibund the coal. This was 
done by acceding to Ginter's proposal, of getting 
through the forms of tlie patent ollice, the title of a 
small tract of iaiid, which he supposed had n«!Vt-i 
been taken up, comprisuig the mill seat, on whicli he 
afterwards built the mill which alforded us the lodg- 
ing of the precc'hng right, and which he afterwards 
was unhappily d(.q)ii\ ed uf by the claim of a i)rioi 

'• Ilillegas, Cist, Weiss, and others, immediately 
after, (about the beginning of the year ll'J2,) formed 
the " Lehigh Cual Mine Company," but without a 
cliartcr of incorpi>ration, imd took up 8 or 10,000 
acres of unloeaied laiul> including the iMauch Chunk 

" The mine now wrought was opened by this com- 
pany ; but the diiticnhies of transporting the coal to 
market were then insurmountable, and their enter- 
prise was abandoned. The mine remained in a ne- 
glected state, Ufc,cd only by the smiths and others ot 
the inmiediate vicinity, until the year 1S06, when 
Wm. I'urnbull, Esq., caused an ark to be constructed 
at Lausanne, which brought to the city two or tlncr 
hundred bushels. A portion was sold to the mana- 
ger of the water works, for tlie use of the Centre 
Square steam engine. Upon trial here it was deemed 
rather an extinguisher than an aliment of hre, wa^ 
rejected as woriTdess, and was broken up and spread 
on tlie walks uL the surrounding garden, in the \)\iur 
of gravel. 

" The !ugi,\,lature, early aware of the importance ol 
{1x2 n.i vigatioji of the Lelngh, passed an act for its im- 




provemcnt in 1 771, and others in 1791, 1794, I7i;b; 
1810, 1814 and I&KJ. Under one of these a compa- 
ny associated, and at^ter expending more than 20,000 
dollars in clearing o\it ehanneis, relinquished their do- 
sign of perfecting the navigation of the river. 

" In the meanwhile the coal mine company, de- ^ 

Birous to render their property available, graritcd M 

leases to several individualy successively ; the last, for |> 

a term of ten years, with the privilege of cuttiiig | 

timber from then- lands, for floating the coal to nrarket, f 

was made to Messr.?. Cist, Miner L Robinson, iipou ^ 

the condition Hint ihey should send to Philad.:lpliia 1 

10,000 bushels of coal per annum, for the beiiefit of | 

the lessees. These gentlemen loaded several mkh | 

■with coal, only three of which reached the city, and I 

they abandoned the busijiess at the close of the v/ar | 

in 1815. I 

" During the war, Virginia coal became very scarce, f 

and Messrs. \Vhite & iM'skine Hazard, then engaged | 

in the manufaciure of iron wire, at the falls oi' thr | 

Schuylkill, havuig learned that Mr. J. Malin had sue- | 

ceeded in the use of the l.ehigh coal at his rclhiiL' | 

mill, procured a cart load of it, which cost tbuni a | 

dollar per bushel. This quantity was entirely wastt '1, I 

without getting up the requisite heat. Another cart f 

load was, however, obtained, and a whole night v/as , 

spent in endeavoring to make a fire in the fmnace, i 

whentlie hands shut the furnace door, and departed | 

from the null iii despair. Fortunately, one of diem. | 

who had left his jacket in the mill, returning for it in I 

about half an hour, observed the door of the lin\iLCc 1 

to be red hot, and upon opening it, was surprised to 1 

find the interior at a glowing white heat. 1'he other i 

hands were sunnnoned, and lour separate parcels o! | 

iron were heated by the isnme lire, and rolled beiore j 

renewal. The furnace was then replenished, and as I 

letting the fire alone had succeeded so well, that \ 

method was tried again with a like result. \ 

"Thenceforth Messrs. White and Hazard coiuncca \ 

die use of anthracite coal, which they procured iVoni | 



Schuylkill county, in wagons, and occasionally in flats 
by freshets, and also from Lehigh, in one of Messrs. 
Miner & Go's arks. Tiius instructed in the invalua- 
ble properties of anthracite, Messrs. While and Ha- 
zard having disposed of their works on the Schuyl- 
kill to the city of Piiiladelphia, turned their attention 
to the mines of ihe Leiiigh, with a resolution of 
creating adequate nieans for transporting their wealth 
to market. 

"In January, ISiS; they jointly, with Mr, Hants, 
obtained the control of the lands of the Lehigh coal 
mine company. In the succeeding March, the legis- 
lature granted to these gentlemen ample power for 
improving the navigation of the river Lehigh, and 
vested in them, their heirs and assigns, the absohu^i 
and exclusive use of the waters of the river, not in- 
compatible with the niivigation, and the right to levy 
tolls upon boats, rat'ts, $ic., descending the river, and 
also upon ascending it, in a slack water naviga- 
tion should be made, upon condition : 1st. That they 
made a descending navigation within six years, from 
the mouth of the i^es(p;ih()ning creek to the Delaware, 
aild from the (ircat fulls to the Nesquihoning, within 
ttventy years. ^. Thit incase the legislature deemed 
such navigation suliicicnt,the graiitees should convert 
the same into a complete slack water navigation, 
erecting one lock or otherdevices, overcoming at least 
six icet fall, yearly, until the whole should be com- 
pleted. 3. That in Case of abuse of the privileges 
gtanted, or negl(;ct t6 comijlete the slack water navi- 
gation, within twenty years after reqilisition made, 
that the state might resume the grant. 4. That the 
state might, after the expiration of thirty-six years 
from the date of the grant, purchase the rights of the 
grantees to tlic navigation. And 5th. That upon 
such purchase, or resumption, in case of forfeiture, that 
the state sliould fulfil ail ilic obligations enjoined by 
this act, upon the aranteos. 

"For the purpose of obtaining funds to carry this 
fact i. i ) alfect, andcor.duct the mining t>perations ad- 



vantagL'iii.sly, Messrs. White, Hants and 11,1/.:;:.. 
formed, v;iih otlicis, two associations in July, ISls; 
the onv.;,denoiniuatod " The Lehigii Navigation Ci:m:- 
pany," ior \v\\o^c use, tliey granted to trustees, Ly 
deed dated I()i!i August, IblS, ail the right vested in 

them by tlie above ineiitioned act, to the benetits oi | 

the river Leliiah, reserving to themselves certain resi- \ 

duary ja'ciits and exclusive privileges in the niaijuge- | 

ment of the company ; the other, denominated *' Tho t 

Lehigh Coal Company," for whoso use they al^o con- j 

veyed to trastoes, cortain estates in sundry tracts oi 1 

coal lands, leserving also to themstdves certai i rt.\;i- | 

duary prolils, and exclusive privileges in the m.' iiage | 

ment of such compan)-. ) 

"The navigation company commenced the. iui- j 

provement 01 t1ie Lehigli in August, 1818. In 1820, . 

coal was senl tj Philadelphia, hy an artificial navi- i 

gation, and ikAd ai ^58 50 per ton, delivered jI iho | 

door of the jnuchascrs. | 

"The following ]dan \vas adopted, to render ih:7 j 

passage oi' the liver niore I'acile. The obstacles i.i th"^. | 

bed ol' tlie \i\:v \\c\\: removed, and thirteen ii,.hi.'. ■; 

with sluices oi various heights, were constru .I' d .m I 

pine logs, at aii average ex})ense of three thoiis>a,i I .) 

dollars each. The gates of the sluices, of a pcriilias J 

construction, 'Acre invented by Mr. White, (to wlioui \ 
the company are ind(d)tGd lor many im- 

})rovemen(s,) and merit particular notice. The gate;; j 

in the sluice or lock were attached to the flooring by i 

hinges, and rose by the force of water admitted from i 

a fioom, constructed parallel with the lock, and when * 

suspended, forming, a section of the dam. When tlie \ 

floom was closed, the water beneath the gates passed -" 

otf, and they fell by their own w-cight, and the pies- *. 
sure of the llu.d f om the dams. The dam ser v'cd a 

double purpose^ forming pools of navigable water. | 

and reservoirs. At fixed periods the arks were passed * 

with great rapidity through the sluices; and tjie sud- * 

deu ciliux of water gave additional depth and v'clociiy | 

to the stream belo\'/ These sluices, admirably adap'; 1 


^(1 to the original plan, iiave proved inefficient for 
canal navigation, and have been, in a great measure;, 
and ])erhaps aUogether, abandoned. From Flaston, 
the arks pursued the natural channel of the river to 
Trenton, whence a steamboat towed them to the city 
in gangs of oiglitecn or twenty together. The arks, 
emptied of their freight, M^ere broken up and sold, at 
a considerable loss to tiie comi)any. These arks were 
rectangular biu'ges, sixteen feet wide by twenty l'et;t 
in length, connected by iron hinges, so that they ac- 
commodated themselves tu the motion of the AVaves. 

" During this amelioration of tlie navigation, l\n- 
coal company erected mills for grinding grain and 
sawing lumber, anti tbe buildings necessary for shel- 
tering their woik j) -ople. A large quantity of coal 
Was nncovered at the mine, by removing from its 
surface a gravelly loam, from a few inches to four 
feet in depth, and disintegrated slate from two to four 
feet. This process h is l)ecn continued, until the ex- 
cavation has a supei-ficial area -of ten acres, and a 
depth varying iVom diirtv' to se\ enty feet. A road 
was made totlh' simmiit of the moumain, distant troui 
die river nine miles, which wiis soon alter paved with 
stone, or tutupiked in the best manner, upon which 
seven tons of coal were conveyed with ease, on t\V(j 
wagons drawn liy I'oar horses. 

''In 18:i0, till? two comi)aiiies were amalgamated 
under the title (»f " T'lC Lc/iii(/i Coal and Navlij^atioi, 
Cotnpanij \^' and Messrs. White & Hazcird, having 
in the interim acquired the interest of Mr. Hants, 
they obtained tor themsehes in the union, the privi- 
leges which liad been reserved in the original organi- 
zation of the separate companies. 

"By. an act ot' assembly passed 13th February, 
1832, the Lehigh Coal m\i[ Navigation Company was 
incorporateil, iiiid the property of the j^rior associa- 
atioii^,. ami tin' i)iivileges created by the act of 181.^, 
were iuv('st(,'d iri rliein. Their capital stock was limi- 
ted to (5-1,000,000, chvKled into shares of $50 each , 
an I ■ f ihi'-. cnpital, their funner proj)erty ft)rmed pan 



They were eaipowered to commence a slack watc 
navigation upon the l.eliigh, within a year iV(,ui tiip 
date ot the act. To this company Messrs. \V ^ II 
became p.iriics, as sim^)le stockliolders meruly. 

"To lucilitate the ascent of liie river, tiie comparr 
?esolved on a lock navigation, on which steam hoai^ 
might be cmj)loycd. Accordingly a was built 

in ] S2-. at IManch Chunk, measuring oik Jm-i- 

dred and (hmy-iive lectin length, and thirty in n-jdil, 
and the canal, ot m,ore than a mile m len-th, annexed 
to It, Avaaexcavatod five feet deep, and its baidv. lined 1 
withstojie. I^ui as tliis mode was very evpm-ivp ) 
and the state had commenced the Delawarr .anal j 
fromEasion h, VmsuA, a change in the plan L came \ 
exppdient; and m \S21, the company haviM^ lu- j 
creased Uiuu" j'unds by the sale of ten thousand sh'a's 
the balance ni then- capital, determined on inakin- a ' 
canal navjgali..n, which should correspond u iih Sic 
Delaware canal This great work, extendin- iVoi,. 
Easion to JNIauch Chmdc.a distance of ibriy-siv u'lU- 
and ihriMi quarters, consisting of tuu nnles of ppol ■' I 
and thiriy-six milts and thn-e cpiartes of canal .. wv^ • 
connnenced m the snmmer of ls-7, and was in ( muH- ! 
tion to auihoii'.c tho ciaupany to exact toll llaiv,;;! I 
m July, 182IJ. The can^l is five Ibet deep, Ibri --fiv,. j 
leet wide at Uie bottom, and sixty feet at U.\i- the 
banks are inn, and lined chiefly with sloj..^ :' the ' 
ocks arc twen!y-two Ibet wide, and one huiuhvd uh t 1 
long, and are adapted to pass boats, suited 10 rlir ) 
JJelaware caiiH, m ].an-s. The ascent of three ban- j 
dred and sixty-lonr fbet, is overcome by fifti-fnu- 
locks and nine dams. The whole of the nvc r im- ' 
provement, Irom its commencement, as a Jn.u , 
navigaluai, to us final cnn.pletion, as above, iiu hidi)ia 
the amonnl paid .0 WJnte & Ila'/ard fbr thoir pro": ! 
perty, rights and privileges, and the extm-ni .binent 
01 Hants claims, cost about $l„558,000. ^ 'I be toll 
houses erected aloi.g the canal, are of the rnnsi sub- 
^tantiPl and comfonabie l^ind ; and in the con^plotio;. 
31 tliiv JiObic ^vork, hi Uu- langua-e of tb- iK'tiii<- 


manager, ' theic has been no money expended for 
oiiianient, lliough no money has been spared to render 
il sound and ])ernianent.' 

"huving thus noticed the operations of tliis enter- 
prising coni])any, in ini[)roving tlie Lehigh from 
Eastoii to ]\I;iU'h Chunk, we proceed to consider 
tlieir labors more immediately connected witii the 
raising and shipment of tlie coal, 

"Maucli Chunk momitain rises precipitately from 
the Lehigh river, wheie il is also the head of the Nes- 
quihoning mouiiiiiii!, v>'hir-.h, at a short distance from 
the river, diverces iVoni M;aieh Chunk proper,towards 
the N. W. The j\Laiich Chunk extends S. W. about 
thirteen miles, to the Little Schuylkill river, which 
divides it Irom the 'J'uscarora mountains. Panthei 
creek separates it on the rKnlh from the radiating liill 
of Nesquihoning, and the Mauch Chunk creek divides 
it from the Malioning on the south. The vallies 
througli which these creeks run, are deep and narrow. 
Exi>loratons have been made in various parts of this 
mountain, and coal bus bten discovered through its 
wlutlti extent. 

'' The geological sti iicture of this coal formation is 
extremely simple. The upper rock is commonly a 
sand stone, or a fragmentary aggregate, of which the 
parts are more or less coarse or fine in dillerent situa- 
tions. In this region there is much pudding stone, or 
conglomerate, and nmch that would be called gray- 
wacke, by most . geologists. In these aggregates 
the parts are of every size, from large pebbles to 
.sand. The pebbles are chieily quartz; and even in, 
the firmest rocks are round, and appear to have been 
worn by attrition. The cement is silicious, and the 
masses frecptently possess great firmness, resembling 
the mill stone grit, and SiUid stones of the English 
coal measur(!s. Oenei'ith this rock there is usually 
some variety of argillaceous slate, which commonly, 
though not aniversolly, forms the roof of the coal; 
iiometimes the sand stone is directly in contact witl.' 


200 inSTOKY '.f CAKnON COUNTV. \ I 

the coals, (ho t-laio being oniitted. The slate aL^t* 
forms tliti jIco;. 

" The groat luiho, as has already been observed, i>: 
at the sumniil of the mountain. The coal is ua- 
■covered, an .1 fairly laid open to view, and lies in stu-- 
pendous maii;sey, wliieh are worked in the open air, ' * , 

as in a stoiic quarry. The excavation is in an anuu- ) 

lar area, and entered at dillerent points by roads cur I ' 

through the coal, in some places quite down to tlic ( 

lowest level. The greatest ascertained thickne.'^.-, oi ■ 

the coc'il is fifty-four feet; in one place, it is sup](0^0(i i . 

to be one hundrcil ; but is connnordy from twi'lve to ) 

Ihirty-five feet. Several banks of tliese dimension^' f i 

are exposed, inUiruplcid only by thin seams of ^liitu, ( 

running i^aialkl v/iib the strata. 'J^ie latter arc in- | 
elined generally ;a angles, from five to fifteeu degri es, 
and folloN\^ with great regularity the external form n( 

the mountain. In some places they are saddle > 

shaped; hi son;-' juLsilions they and the attend;iiit i' 

strata are wondofully contorted and broken ; ami in ', 

one place, b()th 'lie vertiral, yet at a tiluirt disi;ii.!C:: f 
n.'turn to the geiu'ral arrangomont. It is im))o.s.-iij(<.' 

(.0 avoid the hnpiession that some great force has di;-:- 4 

tm-bed the original formation, by elevating or dejues- f ' 

sing the strata." " » 

"The entranous to the nhne are numbered. Ai No I, 

3, is a perpendicular section through all the stiutu, [ 

down to the flooring of slate ; and the graywackc, the I ,; 

slate and the co; 1, ap; all raised on edge. The sivata r. 

are in some plm • b vertical, in others, curved or \'/av- ; 

hig, and they art broken in two at the ui)per ])art, i 

and bent in opposite directions." V 

"•Professor Siiiiman ayks, " Has subterranean ii;-.- ^ 

produced these extmordinary locations? It w^ uld j 

seem," lie adds, -' to lavor tliis view, that the gray- { 

wacke lias, in some places, contiguous to the coal. Hie ' 

appearance of having been baked; it appears i-idii- \ 
rated, is Jiarsh and dry, and is inflated with VL.sicies, 

as if gas, produced :.nd rarified l)y heat, was .iruu- L 

■Jing to escape." This is a lenqiliiig oi»iiorluiMiy tr. * 


indulge in speciilalioii on ihe origin of coal measures 
generally. But the liiniis of our volume hnpc\ us to 
forbearance. Yet Ave will avail ourselves of the oc- 
casion to say, that we adopt the general opinion, that 
coal is a vegetable deposit, composed of masses of 
timber, collected by poweri'ul currents of water ; and, 
that we now behold new coal-beds forming in many 
of the western v/af-rs. v/Ihm'c 5niles of rafts are form- 
ed, sunken to uiilaunA u depths, and covered with 
strata of earth, variously comjxised. How far thesf^ 
immense aggregates of vt-it^iation may, in the course 
of time, become causes of >iil)iurraneau fires, we will 
not attempt to conjecture. ]hn, that extraneous vol- 
canic force may give new forms to the regions in 
which they lie, we dci-m j^robable, and that at some; 
future — ]ierhaps very remote period, these beds of 
timber, convert/.'d into coal, and tlieir intermediate 
and incumbent strata of earth turned into rock, may 
be u[)raised and brolv'i:U into tho various Ibrms which 
distinguish the anthi-;.i'i(e couiUry ot' Pennsylvania. 
Such a process M'l- (.-oi.ceivt; wouUl be but a repetition 
of that, which (.ontiifulinl to the lt)rniation of the 
Maucli Chiudv mounts' in. 

'' There are railroads leading through the mine, for 
the purpose of conveying the coal to the main road; 
and others on which the rel'use coal, rocks, and rut)- 
bish, arc made to descend in cars, by gravity, to dit- 
ferent i)oints, at which such materials are discharged 
down the side of the mountain. These rail ways are 
conlimied over the Vidleys, and the rubljish thrown 
from them has already Ibrmed about a dozen artilicial 
hills, sliaped like a steep root', and terminating almo:>t 
abrupUy in a descent of hundreds of feet. The cars 
are guided, each by mie man, who at a proper place, 
knocks open oiie end. and diseharges the h^ad. In 
some instances cars iiavc rim olf I'rom the end of th.- 
rail way, and the guides h.ive been thrown down the 
moumain ; I.-ut, f Uing r.niong loose rubbish, siuh ac 
cidents hnvo nor proved I'aial 

■ n.-ides die in''oinbustible reluse, there is smai- 

202 nisroRY of cauuon^ countf. 

and inferior coal enough here, to supply the fuel ib: \j 

a large city lor years. It is not now sutficiently valu- f •*, 

able for transportation. Small coal is used sucessl'ully j. 

at Mauch Chunk and elsewhere, in burning lime, and ■■ ; 

at some future day may be advantageously empkA'cd f. 

in other manulaetures. |^ 

"Two niines have been recently opened witltin a ^ 

niile of the laree one; they are portions of the sarue f 

areat ma:->\ and ]>reseni an inexhaustible supply of 1; 

iael. f 

''^Notwiih.-tauding this great abundance of coal up-^ | 

on tlie summit, hopes of procuring it from a pait of ■ 
the mount tin la-arer to navigation, have induced ifie 
•'company" to /.xcavate a tunnel two hundred feet 
below the preripituus ridge, and within two and a 
half miles of Mauch Chunk. This great eiiterpri:^e 
was comn.enced on the 1st JNhirch, 1824, before the 
construction of the rail way to the "great mine," un- 
der the impression that the coal strata here dijwecl 
to the soulh. 'i'liis supposition i)roved erroneous, <;i:d 
the company, I'o; that and oUier reasons, suspei.d'jd 

their labors. 'I'he tunnel is 10 feet wide, 8 feet high, | 

and penetrates the mountain through bard pudding | 

.stone, 790 feet. Three thousand seven hundred and | 

forty-fivo ,)-2T cubic yards of stone have been reniov- | 

ed, at an expense of $i2(J_,81.2, or $1 IG per cidiic ^ 

yard, or $33 Vl the lineal foot. The following state- | 

iuent of the pariiculars of cost, may prove useful to | 

jiersons disposed to a similar undertaking. The v/ork ; 

was suspended on the JUh June, 1827. I 

i}3, 129 3-4 days labor, including two, and • j 

sometimes fuur smiths, making and ~; 

dres.sin- tools, . . - - $18,(i()7 iy j 

Tools and malurials for them, - - 3,785 SfJ s 

5,21 kegs of powd'.T, - - - - 1,831 00 | 

Candles and oil l'(>r light, - - - 81fi71 j 

Liunb(;r (Ihv i'.ir-i.i].es and odier fix- 1 

turos.j fauiing tools and materials, t 

end sno].'lic5 foiiiands, - - -. JOS 5-t I 


968 days, one horse blov/iiig wind, - 160 80 

Sui>ei-iiiteiHlance, _ - _ . (jso 00 

$2 6,8 12 00 
" Shafts wore suuk eiglity feet in the table land, a( 
the base of the narrow- lucky ridge; and good coal 
was found after peiielrating seven feet of earth and 
slate. Coal has beeti struck in the horizontal tunnel, 
and though it is not deemed expedient to work it, the 
expenditure has not been in vain. The tuiuiel will 
serve to drain, and give access to the great coal bed 
above it. 

"When the comj'uny became satisfied of the pre- 
sent inexpediency of making further progress witli 
the tunnel, tjiey resolved to lay a rail way from 
Mauch Chunk to die great mine, which they com- 
menced under the direction of the indefutigable Mr. 
White, their manager, on the 8th of Jamtary, 1827, 
and finished, so as to pass the first load of coal down 
the whole line, in tiiree months and twenty-six days. 
''The raihxKul conunences at the Lehigh river, anii 
ascends at (In: rate m' 1 loot in 3 1-2 of the slant; tlu: 
whole asceiu to the top of the promontory is 215feei, 
and the slant 700. The loaded wagons descend this 
inclined plane to the river. At the top of the hill is a 
building, containing the machinery, by which their 
descent is governed; the most important part oi 
which is a large cylinder, revolving horizontally, and 
serving to wind the rope attached to the ears. The 
latter are rolled by lumd on a circular platform, Avhich., 
revolving horizontally upon a perpendicular axis 
brings the wagon upon a line with the inclined i)laiie 
upon which they are launched. The raj)idity of their 
progress is in a measure checked, by the weight of an 
ascending empty w^agjn. which being fastened at the 
otiier end of the rope, and moving on a parallel niil 
way on the same piaiie,necessarily mounts as rapidly 
as the einply one descends; and wlien it arrives at 
the top, it is transferred to die up]ier rail way by 
iPXiTj!:; of^ the circular platform. But this \nni\dl 


07,02 '6 
'I'otal length of single tracks, 12 (ifi5-1000 miles = 

'J'lic oi' iIk; road was $38,7.'J(i = !lr3,0o0 p'.r 

Cosl ol iKe rL'sorvuH', brake, shute and llxiiirt'ci, 

WiloleCuSl, ----_. $J^^^..;;, 

The saving mucle by diis mode ot' transpoilatiiMi. 
•vei- (l;al on a ^l.Uif; turnpike road, of the [»::. coy^^ 

204 lliSTOUy ')P CARBON COUNTT. % 

(^omilei'poiso is insuiiicient to moderate properly ihf.. M 

i;peed of the doscomling car. Tliis object is etiectu- ^ 

ally gained by an iron band which clasps the drum, 'k 

find which, compressed by a lever,controls its mouon. ^ 

Accidents have been rare in this descent, but the cars k 

have sometiuies deviated, or broken loose, and one * 

man has bucn killed. 'I'hey are now guarded ag;iiiist | 

by a very snnple. yei ingenious contrivance. TIk V'u] l 

way is doablu. iiniil the most rapid ]Ka1 of the de- | 

.•icent is pr.ssed: when both ways ciu've and uniu> in ^ 
<^ne. Shoiikl ;i wagon break loose, its momertuii! 
will be so L"t,;.t U-, It) prevent its following the edjve, 
and as soon as J! reaches this spot, it is thrown out, 
overturned and indged onaclay bank, Ibrmed fortjii,-; 
purpose behnv Faithur do^v'n, a bulwark js ..on- 
structed, overanhing the rail way, to iiUercepl the 

loose coal as it ilies iVorn the wagon. When the car j 

arrives at the foot of the in-clined plane, it ]jil ;hes I 

into a downwaj'l curve in the rail way, and a pro|ci.i- I 

ing bar, which secures the lower end of the ear, | 

wiiic.h, for this purpose, is hung on a horizontal ;.;xi-. \ 

liuock's it opieii. and the coal slides down a .-uep | 

wooden funnel, mlo the boat or ark, which receding i 

from the shore l^y the impulse thus given to it, e. ca- | 

:-5ions the coal to sj)read evenly over its bottom. • 

The length ot' the main railroad, Irom | 

Mauch Ghuiiii. to the west end of the i 

coal mine, is nine miles, or - - 47,5-J'' u ] 

Length of braneli roads to the mine, - S,0(,f) j 

J{oads, and theii braiiehos in the mine, - 11,4:37 ? 


struction, on a portage of in lie miles, is sixty-four cent? 
and three quarters per ton, wliicli, after deducting the 
interesi on the cosi of tire improvement, produced a 
saving in the remainder of the season, after its com- 
pletion, of more diaa iti 15,000, and tiie road, in less 
tJiun three years use, has overpaid its cost. Tlie ac- 
tual cost of transportation on this road, is thus stated 
by Mr. White, in his report of 1st January, 1829, ex- 
clusive of tolls OL' repairs : 

Mules and liorse.i cc;jt 1 1-3 cents per ton, per mile. 
Hands, 1 l-;3 do. 

Hepainng wagons, J 3 do» 

Oil, " 1-5 do. 

" 53-100 cents per ton, per rnilt. 
full load one way, and \\u. whole cost divided into 
the distance one wa/ only. The wear and tear ot 
the road is estimated, upon three years use, at 1 cent 
per ton, i)er mile, making the whole cost of transpor- 
tation, interest excluded, 4 53-100 per nrile. He esti- 
mates the cost of transportation, by canal, in boats of 
forty tons burthen, at one cent per ton, ])er nnle, full 
load one way, and reluming empty. 

The rail way is ot" tiinher, about twenty feet long, 
four inches by five, and set in cross pieces, made oi 
cloven tfees, placed three and a-half . feet distance 
from each other, and secm'cd by Avedges* The rail is 
shod on the up})er and inner edge, with a. flat bar of 
iron, two and a quarter inches wide, five-eighths ot' 
an inch thick. These being bedded on the turnpike 
road, for the greater part of the way, are very firm 
and durable. This excellent stone roadigave the com- 
pany great facility in making the rail way, and en- 
abled them to complete it in the very short time em- 
ployed about it. The beiglit surmounted by the rail- 
road, above the inclined plain, is 7ti7 feet in eight and 
a quarter miles, equal to about one degrx3e of acclivity 
in the mile. Tlicro are two places for- turning out, 
made as usual, by a curved railroad, lying agahist the 
main one, and fnnndng an irregular segment of a 
circIe^ .esthig upon iis cord. If carriages meet on th i 


road, ihc; ligljtcr luust return to the place of tcjiJng 
out, or be removed from the railway track, ^i'liis 
sometimes happens with the pleasure cars. 

Upon fliis road the coal is conveyed from the mine 
to Mauch Chiinlv village, in cars set on four cast iron 
wheels, about two and a-half feet in diameter, each 
containing 0:10 ton and a half of coal. FourtLen. of 
these are CDniieeted together by iron bars, adnjiinng 
a slight ilegree of motion between two contigiioas 
•cars, and arc conducted by a single man on on.; i>f 
them, who regulates their movements by a vlw I 
simple cnnlrivanc',;. A perpendicular lever ca'i-cs a 
piece of wood to jjress against the circumference ol 
each wheel on the sante side of the car, acting both 
ways from tlie central point between them, so tliut by 
increasing the ])rebsure, the I'riction retanls or stopf- 1 
the motion, and as all the levers iire connected by a 4 
rope, they are made to act in concert. The ob:'jjver 1 
is much inleruiicd in beholding the successive groups I 
of wagons moving raj)idly in procession, without ap- j 
parent cause. They are heard at a considerabla flis- i 
tance as ihey i' mic thvuidering along wiili thei.- dark \ 
burdens, and give an impression of irresistable e?iiM- | 
gy. At a t>uita])lu distance follows another train, and | 
thus from 300 lo 310 tons a day are discharged into 1 
the boats. At iirst, the cars descended at the r;ite oi \ 
fifteen or twenty miles an hour; but tlie speed v/as i 
reduced, as ii iiijiu-ed the machines, and by agitatins j 
and wearing th':; coal, involved tlie driver in a cloud j 
of black dust. The empty cars are drawn back by i 
nudes, eight to a gang of Iburteen wagons. Twenty- | 
eight mules druw ujj forty-two coal, and seven nnilo , 
wagons ; and the arrangement is so made, thia the | 
ascending parlios ^liall arrive in due season, at the i 
proper places for hnning out. This is the case v/iih i 
the pleasure cars, and the line of stages which pass \ 
by this route through Tarnaque, and by the Schuyl- 'i 
kill valley railroad "to Pottsville. I 

"The nudes ride down the railway. They .'..e far- | 
iii:5lied '.viih jn-ovcnder, i)laced in proper m.'.;i,;cit:. 



four of them being enclosed in one pen, mounted on 
wheels; and seven of tlicse cars are connected into 
one group, so that twenty-eight mules constitute the 
party which, with their heads directed down the 
momitaiii, and apparently surveying its fine land- 
scapes, move rapidly along the inclined plane, with a 
ludicrous gravity, which when seen for the first time, 
proves too much for tlie severest muscles. 

"The mules rcadiiy perform their duty of drawing 
up the empty cars, bui having experienced tiie com- 
fort of riding down, they seem to regard it- as a right. 
and very reluctantly descend any other way. The 
speed first adopted in travelling the rail way, injured 
the health of the mules and horses employed on it, 
but the moderate rale of six or seven miles the hour, 
at present used, does not alfect them. 

"The pleasure of the traveller on returning in tlie 
I 'f pleasure car, is mingled with a sense of danger. The 
eight miles, from the summit, are frequently run in 
thirty minutes, and some parts of the road are passed 
over at a still greater speed, nor is the danger appa- 
rent only. The axK;s of the coal cars have been 
broken, and like accidents may occur to those of the 
pleasure carriages. In one instance, at least, a carri- 
age has been thrown from the road, and the passen- 
gers iiurt, but fortunately, not very severely. Du(! 
care, however, is taken by the proprietors to keep ihe 
pleasure cars in good repair, and to entrust them to 
careful guides, who cheerfully conform to the wishes 
of the passengers, rehuive to the rale of progress. 

"With the exhanslless mines of the Mauch Chunk, 
and the admirable means of transporting their pro- 
duct, the company might have reposed in lull confi- 
dence of an ultimate and siJcedy and ])rofitable return 
for their great expenditure. But their vigilant prc- 
voyant and energetic acting manager, has tbund 
means to take a bond of faie, and to hasten tliis result 
by the discovtuy and development of new mine:, 
upon the adjacent Nesquih.)ningmountain,four niiles 
near.;; lo the lauding of iVl?.uch Chunk, and extremely 


lucile ui opiT;itii;ii. la a defile ot' the nioiiiiu'.i :, 
through u'hich pusses a sparkhug and boundhig rivii- 
iet, called '' Rnot/i run," a name soon to be as laaious 
as " 3Iaunch C/ntn/c," some twenty veins of coal 
have beenex]jlored, varying in thickness I'rom live to 
■fifty feet, Tiiakiug an aggregate of more than dnee 
hundrcLi feet, nearly live times the thickness i.f the 
grecti mine. This coal field is supposed to be a 'on- 
tiimation of diaL ol Mauch Chunk, from which it i.s 
distant bttv;ecii four and five miles. Some of dicsu 
veins liavu been trnced three and a half miles aloi.g 
the muatitain. .Vli of them are accessible abcvc the 
water level , sjnic of them have great facilili's lea 
drainage, and :ire jtrovitled with most desirable rook 
andfloi))s of slute, which render them siisceiJiib'.e of 
cheap e\<;avatiMii. This is especially the case oi' a 
tweiity-eighl f'el vi-in, into, which three openings at 
dilferent eleva lions have been made, whence oal vX 
tile first quality and highest lustre has been l;d;.;!i. 
Other veins aitproach so near the surface of the moan- 
tain, pariicuhiily Ihe vein of fifty feet, that it may f;.' 
best wrimght l\ uncovering, after the manner of Jm. 
gteat mine. And this labor has accordingly f-jcn 
commencetl. It has been observed that the most 
solid, homogeii>ous and ])erfcct masses of coal 
been found under the thick strata of slate, vidi a 
sharp d'n-. aud diat solt and pliable coal is to h\i ex- 
pected beneath an earthly and porous covering. fl:'- 
cause of this dilference would seem to be, that u. ilic 
first case the atmospheric water is excluded tiom thci 
coal, and is car: led away by the upper surface ol the 
slate strata, whilst in the second, it percolate.^ utul 
softens the coal, dividing it into small particles, V/huh 
adhere feebly to each other. 

Professor SiUima a describes a peculiar formation o; 
the great bed of fifty feet, and its contiguous strraa. 
They rise in form of a iiaif ellipse, placed ou end 
with the curve uppermost; the form, of the moinUaiu 
of which they arc part. There is here, he observes, 
the most striking opperauce, that these strata have 



^een raised by force from beneath ; and it is difficult 
to avoid tiie conviction tliat they were also broken at 
the top ; for at the upp^r end of the stratnm of coal, 
there is a huge rock, twenty feet in two of its dimen- 
sions, and five or six in the other, which has been 
broken olT from the roof reck, a graywacke of which 
it is part, and f.tllen in ; and the coal seems then to 
have closed all aroimd and shut it in on all sides, ex- 
cept, that in one plaoe on the right hand a little below 
the top, the rup'iure is continued to the surface, and 
tJiat place was then filled and concealed ])y the loose 
rubbisli and so;I, as was also the rock above, ^'hese 
•circumstances, lie conceives, confirm strongly the 
truth of the su|)poshioii, that an upheaving torce, ex- 
erted with great energy, has bent, dislocated and 
broken the strata. 

" This vein is broken by the ravine, and worn 
down by tlie stream wiiich passes through it, but re- 
apj)ears on the opposite side, where it assumes a form 
more curious and extraordinary. The strata, as in 
the corresponding part, radiate from the surface, and 
the interior ui)|u;r angle, so fur as it has been un- 
covered, is filled with b.iiid stone, arranged in reversed 
tXJiicentric archer, laid so regularly as to liave the 
appearance of having been placed by art. The 
writer saw three of these arches, and the abutting 
parts of a fouiih; the remainder of the last was 
covered by earvh. The stones of the respective 
arches increase their dimensions with the size of the 
arch. I'lie form of these arches would seem to mili- 
tate against the hypothesis of an eccentric force^ un- 
less we presume, what is probably true, that the 
gravitation of the slraui in opposite angles of about 
forty-five degrees, produce this result. 

"To avail themselve? in the best manner, of these 
new treasures, die company have made a railway of 
five miles. 

" This road follows the curve of the mountain along 
the Lehigh, for about two miles, and then still wijid- 
ing Avith ih'e mountHiU;, tnins easterly and runs parai- 


Id with the Ncoqiiihoiiing creek, to the ravine ci d\i 
mountain, mado by Room run, wiiich it ascends. It 
would be dilTiciilL perhaps to conceive a method of 
making a road iiiore substantially than, has been 
adopted oa this. Tlie rails arc about tweiUy feel 
long, sev Jii inches deep and five in width. They ar'^; 
su])poned on massive blocks of stone, placed ni line 
four ibcL apart, and irnbeded firmly in smaller stone, 
and aie secured to tliese blocks by iron clamps on 
each side of the rail, about six niches wide, but at 
right angles, and nailed to the rail and to the block 
by means oi four holes drilled in each stone, and 
j)lugged with wood. The iron bars are two incliea 
and one-half wide, and five-eighths thick. The whols 
of the road I'roia die coal miues to the landing is de- 
scending. Oil (ho self-acting plaae, the descending 
wagon will bring up an empty one. The interme- 
diate road is graduated from ten tu twelve inelifS do- 
scent, in one hvuidred feet ; tliis being consideied the 
lowest grade on which a leaded wagon will descend ) 
by gravity, and iheretbre the most favorabli; opg, \ 
that can be tlevised, when the freight, as in this ctsc, \ 
is all one way. I 

" Doubts lia;re been expressed as to the contiiii:. \ 
ance of the supply of coal from this region. On this * 
subject we will let Mr. White spealc, observing tliat 5 
the sceptical may at any time, by personalinsp-ction, \ 
have a full confirmation of his statements. In hia i 
otficial report to the company of Ibt January^ IS30, | 
lie says: ' In addition to the extensive exaininatioHLJ { 
which took jilace previous to my last report, explc- .< 
rations have been made which prove w.e can uncovej; ] 
and quarry our coal ui a continuoits open'nig^ about \ 
two miles in extent east and west, having our present \ 
quarrie::> about llu; centre. We have uncovered coal ; 
at the summit cf tlie mouutain,. three liundi'jd ami \ 
twenty feet north and south, across the strata of coal, \ 
which is of a quality similar to that in the gre;»t ijuar- ♦ 
ry ; so that we have, bt'yond all doubts, eiior.gii coal \ 
that, can be iiuarried without mining, to last m pre 



than one generation, even supposing that our ship- 
ments exceeded one niillion of tons a year, and that 
without extending onr quarries more than one mile 
from the siimniit. And when our successors liave 
done quarrying-, Ihey may follow the veins under 
ground eastward lo the river,, about seven miles more, 
and five miles in a western direction.' 

"In his report of ilie 31st December, 1830, Mr. 
White adds : my conviction is, that our great coal 
mine, or quarry, will prove to l)ea vein of coal about 
sixty feet thick between tiie top and bottom slate, and 
(hat its extern will bear out my last annual report. 
Since that report, I have examined our coal field in, 
and about, Room rmr, where that stream breaks 
across the coal formation, and have had the good 
fortune to lay open a series of veins of unparalleled 
extent, of the following dimensions, viz: 28, 5, 5, 10, 
19, 39, 5, 12, 1,5, 15, 50, 20, 11 and G feet,making the 
whole number of veins opened 14, and tlie whole 
thickness, measured at right angles with the vems, 
240 feet. Other veins Jiave since been explored. Tlie 
width of the coal basin at this place, north and south, 
exceeds half a mile ; and the bearing of the strata 
lengthwise, is sc^uth eighty-eight degrees west. If we 
allow sixty cubic feet of these veins to make a ton 
of coal in the market., after leaving enough for piers, 
.waste, &c.,they will give foiu: tons of coal to each su- 
perficial square foot, (coimting the whole as one vein,) 
or 10,560 tons for each foot lengthwise of the coal 
basin, and consequently 55,75(i,800 tons for each 
mile ; and allowing our demand to be one million of 
tons each year from these mines, one mile would last 
more than fifty-five years. The part of the coal basin 
belonging to the company, extends ten or twelve 

" We must not omit to notice here a very important 
and ingenious invention of Mr. White, for the purpose 
ef raising bnrdeus, in winch, more than one oi' oui 
operative classes \vili lake a deep interest. Wt 


212 vii:,ru:tf op carbon county. 

allude to il;c propellers, for which he has IhImi h 

" Tliat thi-j machine is very effective, is made ap- 
parent 1)/ the following minute of one day's' Avork, 
done l>y il at the Mauch Clumk mines. In ten hours 
and three qunrters, three horses drove the machinery, 
and raised t\yo hundred and four wagons, loaded on.; i 
ton an'! a liuli each, up a plane of thirty-live feet mc. I 
and two hunJied and ten feet in length. As tlie pro- | 
pellcrs rupiiro no more attention in passing a wagon. I 
than a piece of common railroad, and there being no | 
gudgeons or in.ul.incry to grease, except the driving: •. 
part, the expense of going up hills is reduced (o ii | 
mere trifle ; being confined pretty much to tluit <A i 
the driving [-..wer. f 

"As farther exemplifying the facility of labor \u,h- f 
sessed l)y the conjpany, we incorporate the following I 
note of one day's work at Mauch Chunk: ' Thr-jf; | 
hundred and forty tons of coal quarried at the \ijines 
loaded and brought on tlie railroad nine miic.-, un- 
loaded from the wagons, down theschute,and iMadr;! 
into boats. 'I'he boats for this coal all built tb<, ^ain. 
day. Forty hundred feet of lumber sawed in r;iif 
day and nigh;.' " 

Since the above was written, great change:, liavc 
taken j)lace, several new mines have been opened 
There i.^; nov/, (iSM,) a "back track,'' constructed 
by which the euipty cars at Mauch Chunk, arc seut 
back to the simiiii mines. [See the article i,'-eo%3/ nj 
Schuylk'ill, Carbon, .Vc, coitnties.] 

Since the loregoing has been wrhten, the rnincs lu 
this region have been much enlarged, and great addi 
tions and improvements made. 

Lansanjie, a post village on the right bank ui the 
Lehigh river, tv,o miles above Mauch C'hunk, at thr 
moulh cf ihe Ncsquihoning creek, consisting of eigl t 
or ten houses, a store and a tavern. 

Nesqicihoning, at the mines of that nanc k)\i. 
miles above Lausanne, situated at the lb. , ft; !lic 


Nesquilioning liiountaia, upon the Nesquilioning 
creek. Tliis village was laid out in 1831,bytVie Lc- 
liigli Navigation Company ; it contains between twen- 
ty-five and thirty houses, a store and tavern. 

■•Lausanne toionsliip is bounded on the north by 
Luzerne county ; on tlie east by PeuLi Forest ; on the 
fcouth by Mauch Chunk •, on tlie west by lianlcs. The 
surface of this townsliip is very mountainous, and the 
soil gravelly ain'l sterile. \ great proportion of this 
township is cfihsed ain')iig unseated lands; rising 
seven diousand acres, wen. olfered at public sale by 
tlie county treasurer, tu pay the arrears of taxes due 
thereon, in lS-t4. Tl).'; po[>uhition of Uiis township 
in 1830, was 508 ; in IS Id, 1,590. The county tax 
for 1844, $27f) 03; for state purposes, i5lG5 82. 

Lawrytown is an ancient looking lumbering vil- 
' iage, consisting of srnne thirty cabins, above the 
: 'mouth of iiaurel run, planted in the forest years ago 
by the Lehigh Coal C.Mniiany. 

liockporty ni;ar the muuth of Laurel run, was 
laid out a few years ago, and bids to be quite a brisk 
and thriving village, ai'd may soon vie with its neigh- 
borhig villages. 

Clifton is a small village of recent origin, three 
miles north-west of ivO',kport. 

Penn Haven, on the mouth of Quakake, at the 
foot of the Broad mountain, upon the west side, is 
a village of moderate growth. 

Beaver Meadow is a post village on the Mauch 
Chunk and lierwick luriipike, twelve miles from 
Mauch Chunk, consi,-iiiig of some twenty-five or 
more framed while houses, several stores, and taverns, 
two churches. Whoiu the village stands, some 
years ugo, it wa^: .t vu^t XiiOuntain morass, liowever 
partly reelaimed to agriculture, which doubtless re- 
ceives its name from tl^e iuh.abilants who once occu- 
pied it, It has risen into distinction by the quantity 
autl .jiuUity of aiitb.racito coal in this place. 

214 nrsTuRY of carbon countf. 

In ihci iinniodiate vicinity of Beaver Meadov/, oic | 
several hamlets occupied by miners, and others labor- | 
ing at the mines, or coal quarries. The nnners hero; | 
are principally W<.'lsh. • I, 

The BcaV'3r INTeadow coal mines, which were f 
opened in 1S13, by Mr. Beach, of Salem, are about a I 
mile and a lialf west of the village. The Stailbid f 
Coal Company have a mine nearer the villagi-. | 

'' This mine, says Professor Silliman, was opejiud in | 
1813. The coal is universally regarded as being of I 
thebcst quality. Vll jiersons whom we heard s])eak * 
of it agjcod in lh;u opinion. The appearance of the J 
coal corresponds with that impression, and its bvQ-n- I 
ing too, as far as \/o could judge by limited (jj.portu- I 
nities of observation. The mine is in the tide of 
hill ; there is no roof, or only a very thin one. It u 
worked oj^cn to tlio day, like a quarry It is already 
fairly disclos(;d, and there is no a])parent inq)edimr.'Ut 
to obtainhig any quantity of coal that may be d(;sired. 
The situation of the mine is not, however, nnich ele- 
vated above the g.meral surface of the country m its 
vicinity; but dieru is descent enough, to carry ..ifiho 

Hazdton'^. a thrifty hamlet, or village, four miles 
north-west of Beaver Meadow, ''which has urown 
lip in ::onnuotion with Hazelton Go's mino/about 
half a mile west of the village. A railroad takf .s tne 
produce of thuse mines, and that of Suger L(,af Hh'] 
mines, also IK ar the village, to the Beaver INIeadow 

Banks towj,s/u'/.}, oi-ganized since tlie erection r,f iIk- 
cotmty, is the nurlh-western township in the con.nty, 
is bounded on the nortii by Luzerne county; east by 
Lausanne township ; south by Mauch Chunk; t)n ihe 
wesr l;y Schayikill county. The surface of this i-jwk- 
sliip is mountainous and hilly; the soil gravelly : much 
of it not arable ; a considerable proportion is claSood 
among Linseated lands. Its population doi::, -ici ex- 
ceed 5Q0. The taxes assessed for county puij)Mt:(. ,:; in 


1844, amounted to ^376 91; for state purposes, 
i5217 OG. 

Penn Forest ijivnship is bounded nortli-west by 
Luzerne county ; nonh-east by Monroe county ; east 
by Upper T(?\vaii;snsing townsliip ; west by Lau- 
sanne. It is a mass of mountains. 'YhaGrcat Sioamp, 
or Shades of Death commences here. The soil of 
the township, especially the momitainous parts, is 
gravel, a ud in many places very well timbered. The 
greater proportion of the township is classed among 
unseated lands ; forty thousand acres of which wa"s 
ollered by the comity treasurer, at public sale, to })ay 
the arrears of taxes due thereon. There are several 
saw mills in this township. 

The township is thinly inhabited ; its population 
does not exceed SOO. The taxes assessed for county 
purposes, in 1844, amounted to ^310 30; for state 
purposes, $187 ()(J. 

Upper TouHimens'n^ township is bounded on the 
north by Penn Forest townshii); norili-east by Chesi- 
nuthill township, hi ^Muiiroe county ; on the south by 
Lower Towamensin- ; on the west by Lehigh river, 
which separates it lidm Mahoning township. Much 
•of this to wnsbip is mountainous and hilly; the soil is 
gravelly, though arable, and when cuUivated tolera- 
bly productive. A small proportion of it is still class- 
ed among unseated lands. 

This township is v.^atered by Hoeth's, ot Head's 
creek, and the Pohopoko creek, and the Big creek, 
which -is formed by the junction of PolK>poko and 
and Mead's creeks, at the .foot of the i^hopoko 
mountain, from wdiich rafis descend to its mouth. If 
riows south-n'esteriy dirough a cultivated valley, to 
which it gives name, and falls into the Lehigh river 
about four miles above iLe Water Gap. It^ is navr- 
gable for ton miU s. Thore are several mills, a fm ■ 
■nace and a iuj'ge on ihis sueam. 

'lids township w:is settled at an early date, dmiv.y 


the Indian and French war; and also during th.; Re. 
volution C)i '7G. (hu huhans committed depredaiionp 
and mnrdois in Pohopoko valley. In the nionili of 
.Decernhor, 1755, "a company ot" Indians, about fiTO 
m nuiTibcr, attacked the liouse of Frederick Iloeih, 
about twelve miles eastward from Guaden Huetten 
(Weissport.) or Focho Pochto creek. The family 
was at supper— clie Inians shot into the house, wound- 
ed a woman, shot at and killed Ilueth himseli", and 
then shot several times more, whereupon all rasi out 
of the fiouse thrii cjald. The Indians immediately 
set fire to the mill and stables. Hoeth'.. wur. 
ran into the bake house, whicli was also set on tire. 
The poor woman ran out through the flames, aii'l be- 
ing very much burned, she ran into the water,, and 
there died ! 'i"he Indians cut the belly open, and 
otherwise inhumanly used her. They killed and 
scalped a dautrliler— three of the children were bmn-t -, 
these children belonged to the lluuily. Several of 
Hoeth's daughn;rs were carried oil". In the action 
one Indian was killed, and another wounded."* 

In the s])riuL, of IT.SO, during the Ivevolutiounry 
war, the Indians were marauding througii here, and.. 
on tlie west side of tlie Lehigh river, took several of 
the inhabitants })risoners at the house of Eenjarniii 
Gilbert, not lar from Fort Allen, (Weissport,) and ) 
abducted ihem.i \ 

Parrjjsvillc, Iwo miles beloAV Weissport, six btlov; \ 
Maucli Chunk, on the left hank of the Lehigh river, a« j 
tlie junction of the Ihg creek with the Lehigli, is a } 
small village, consisting of ten dwellings, one ta\ern^ \ 
two stores, a school house, a grist mill, two saw mills j 
and a latli mill. Opposite this village, on the west i 
side of the Lehigh, was a basin and the hitended | 
depot of the Beaver I\h;adow railroad, which WiS j 

swept away by ihe L:;rcut freshet hi January, IS 11 I 

fVeissport, situated on the leff bank of thg i <'h;r.h, 

♦Pro/. IxLC. Vol. i*^. p. y32. 
jS2t! Mah9i'.i!;g lown.'ihip- 


river, above Tar nu:. (which now empties in the 
lower basin of tlio can:'l,) occupies a broad flat; once 
the site of Nev/ Gnaden llnetten and Fort Allen, 
was laid out by Colonel Jacob Weiss, in 1828. Col. 
_, Weiss purchased this irnct from the Moravians^ 
^ »hortly aflurthc lievoliiiii)n try war. 

.The village is laid out regularly, and is a place of 
considerable business. It contains a storing house, a 
tavern, two stores, some ten or filteen dwellings ; tvn> 
dun-ches, the one belon^^s to the German Reformed, 
and Lutheran, ihe other lo die Evangelical Associa- 
tion. 'I'he building ol' tlu: Ifunier is quite an ornament 
to the village, and occupies the spot, once the site of 
an Indian village, destruy(;d in 1755. 
^ The proprietor, (Joloiiul Jacob Weiss, was a native 

of Philadelphia, and ciuriug the whole of the Revolu- 
tion, in the service of liis country. Sojueiime in 
1784, he purchased seven hundred acres of land from 
the Moravians; in 1785, he removed his family to this 
place. Col. Weiss \v;is an active and enterprising 
citizen. His name is intimately associateil with all 
Uie early elforts to impiove ibis region of countiy. 

Mr. W^eiss died in l>s,ii), and his remains rest in the 
grave yard contiguous to the village on the east side 
of the canal, where a sione marks the spot, with the 
following inscription ; 

" Sacred to the memc/ry of Jacob Weiss, Sen., whi^ 
was born in Philadcli-'hia, September 1st, 1750, aiul 
departed this lite, Janu.ary 9lh, 1839, aged 88 years, 
4 months and 8 days." 

His consort, Ehzabclh Weiss, a daughter of Mr. 
Robinson, is still (September 1814) living, aged ninety 
years — nevertheless, of remarkable memory, especi-- 
aJly when it is considered that she has been confined 
to her room, through iuiirniiiy, caused by I'alsy, fur 
Uie last eight yeais. 

JVthsport^ or Fori .^Illen, the early history ol' 
which is giv^en ij.luv/, has been several times inun- 



5^/>:/^^,V'.s Flood cyv Flood of'SG* On the n,-lu of 
he (ith Oct<.ber, 1780, Mr. Weiss' family was rSnsed 
Ironi :5l-ep, bcuveun ten and twelve of the cIolI' b^ 
thG cry of soim one, « /^;e f/re all surrounded '" ' At 
this cry the first thongiit that struck them, was, cImj 
Indians had sm-prised them; but soon found thnv . 
were surrounded by water, for the Lehii^di had swol 
Icn so sudderdy, and so high, that the Whole dat of ' 
J^ort Allen was inundated. To save themselves thev ' 
had to leave die house. They dr.)Ve the she.j,Mnto ' 
the Jntchan, nnd |.unt them up in tlie loft: th, tatilp I 
were on vlio hills, Old Mrs. Robinson, the mother oi' ^ 
Mrs. Weiss, and the children, were carried in a wa- \ 
gon to the hirher ground; and Mrs. Weiss, bHweon 
two and three in the morning, mounted behind her 
husband to g;. on horseback, but was obliged lo di^.- 
mount, lor the horse could not possibly carry b.nh ' 
(Ml accomit or ihc u;round bemg so completely soaked { 
that he sunk lo tlie lianks; Mrs. Weiss, liu\'M.v-r | 
was carried in an arm chair, by some men, to ilie jiill \ 
east of the canal. 

At die sainj time, a house near the river, ^uluTii 1 
die Lehigh bridge is, was swept away, with its in- 
mates, Tippey, his \\'\(^, and two children. \s (he 
house was tloating, each of the parents had a ^vU < 
by the hand— the iionse struck a tree, tlie i^vr-nta ^ 
caught by the limbs, were saved, but both chiJib-en ^ 
perished, li, dn^ predicament, Mr. Mullen, a sailor I 
at the mstanc J of Mr. Weiss, took a canoe, ai d les- 
cued Tip])ey and his wife, from the angry u-v-^s 
winch had borne off their tender ciiildren. " ^ ! 

In January, Jb-il, there was another floul, Iv \ 
winch \\ was inundated, and -the bridge, ov i ^ 
tlie Lehigh, was partly swept away. The liocd of '> 
1641, was two f(.(.l liighur tlian Tip])ey's flood. .* 

missporL The locality of this place is well knu^ai ii, ^ 
Uie early hisfory of this couutryas Neta Gu,uh . Hwi- 

s-l?",o ?!:''r''f'>'^"'' ^^'''' Mrs. VV^eiss, and her sou !V-c, 
■^<^l. IS; io4t, this n'a.s comuiuuicaied to llie wruer. 



ten, and Fori Alhn. It was once a flourishing Mo- 
ravian missionary station. The Moravians liad com- 
menced a sctll(3nicnt and missionary station, in 1746, 
west of the Leliigii river, in Mahoning valley, (of 

which an account is given when speaking of 

township) but subsequently, left that place and located 
east of the Lehigh river, in 1754. Loskiel, in speak- 
ing of tliat removal, says, "in the removal of the 
buildings, the chapel only excepted, the Indians were 
kindly assisted by the congregations at Bethlehem, 
Nazareth, Chrisiianbruim. and Guadenthal, who fur- 
nished not only workuion and materials, but even 
contributions in money. Unanimity and diligence 
contributed so uaich, towards the progress of this 
work, that the first twenty houses were inhabited by 
tlie4th,and the foundation stone of the new cliapel 
laid on the 11th of June. Hishop Spangenberg otfered 
up a most tervent prayer, and delivered a powerful 
discourse on this solemn occasion. The houses were 
soon after completed, and a regulation made in all the 
families, for the childri'n, of each sex, to be projierly 
taken care of. The dwollings were phiced in such 
order, tiiat the Makikuns lived on one and the Dela- 
} wares on the other side. The brethren at Eethlehem 
took tlie culture of the old land on the il/«/io?/y, upon 
themselves, made a plantation of it for tlie use of thti 
Indian congregation, and converted the old chaj)el 
into a dwelling, both for the use of brethren and 
sisters who had the care of tlie plantations, and for 
missionaries, passing, on their visits to the heathen. 
A synod was held in New Guaden Iluetten, from rhe 
6th to the nth August, (1754,) and the chapel con- 
secrated. Many Indian assistants were invited to tliis 
synod, the chief intention being maturely to consider 
the situation of ihe Indian mission."-' 

Military forces nad been stationed here din'ing 
175(), and afterwards. ••' And,'' says Loskiel, "a^ 
both ilie Indian nn.'^sionarics had left their ell'ects and 


lU:3jOi{y 0" CARBON COUNTY. 

harvest ai ChiaaeiL.vuotten, llie Govemor of the pro- 
vmce kindiy ordered a party of soldiers to niarcl) into 

those pans,, l> defciul the property of the christian ^^ 

liidiaiis, ,u..d d,^; country in general. But on xVcw fl 

Year s day. 17.jU, the savages attacked these trooi s ft 

set iire to (iuad(;)i lliietien and the mill, and destr.)yed fl 

the plantations, by v/hichthe Indian congregation and U 

Its ^missionaries were rechiced to the greatest povcr- U 

In 17-5b, Dr.]5cnj:,nnn Franklin erected a fori here f 

called Fort Allo.i. \ vlnlc here, he addressed th:. fol- h 

lowing io (loveniur Morris: It 

Fort Jllhn,at Cuadim Hue I ten, 
Januarij 25, 17.j6. 
To the Uun. n. IL Morris : 

Bear Sir~\Vc g,A to J fay's the same evening wa i 

^t yon, and reviewed (h'aig's company hy the \s;w. t 

Mijch 01 the next day was spent in exchanging the I 

had arms for the ^.-ood, Wayne's company having I 

joined us. We ioa( hed, liowcver, that night to lip- | 

hnger's, wliere ^v■c got into good tjuarlers. Satiird.iy f 

morning w^^ begun to march towards Guaden Ihiet^ § 

ten, and ])roceeded near two miles; hut it seemiii' to I 

set m lor a rainy day, the men, unprovided with LMeat f 

eoats, and many unable to secure, elfectually, Vheir I 

firms from (he wet, \^^e Ihought it advisahle to fiicc I 

nhont and reliud to our former quarters, where the I 

ineii might dry themselves and lie warm— wheieas f 

had they i)roceeded, they would have come in wet to 1 

Guaden Iluelten, where shelter, and opportunity of f 

drying theniselv.'s, tliat night, was uncertaim Inhun { 

itramed all d;ry, and we were all pleased tliat w« \ 

liad not ])i-oceedeM. 5 

The novr d,iy being Sunday, we marched liKi:er, I 

Where we j.rrip-d about two in the afternoon und f 

helore i,ve had inclosed our camp wiUi a Muniff I 

hreast^ work mn.ket proot; and with the noanja | 

suaugiu liero beiere by my order, from i)unker\ nrM i 


I j>ot ourselves iHiilcf hlioltor from the weather. Mon- 
' day was so dark, with a thick log all day, that wa 
coukl neither look out lor a ]>lace to hiiild, nor sfje 
where materials wen; to he had. Tuesday morning 

[ we looked round i^s, pitched on a jjlace, marked out 

our lort on the grout id, and by ten o'clock began k) 

I ! cut lindjer for stockades, ;uid to dig the ground ; by 
three in die alternoon the logs were all cut, and many 
of them hauled t,) the spot, the ditch dug to set them 
in, three feet diep, and many were jiointed and set 
up. The nexi day wo were hindered by rain most 
of the day. '1 iai,'-j1ay ue ri;sinned our work, and 
before night were perfectly well enclosed ; and on 
Friday morning the stockade was finished, and part 

) of the platform, within, erected, which was completed 

next morning, when wo dismissed Foulk's and Wei- 
lerholl's companies, and sent Hay's down for a con- 
voy of provisions. Tins day we hoisted the ilag, 

I ^ made a general discliarge of our pieces, which had 
been long loaded, and of our two swivels, and named 
the place Fori t'///cn, in honor of our old friend. Ic 
is one hundred and twenty-live feet long, and fifty 
wide; the stockades, most of them a loot thick; they are 
tliree feet in the ground, and twelve feet out, pointed 
at the top. 

Tliis is an account of our week's work, which 1 
thought might give you some satisfaction. Foulk ia 
gone to build another fori, between this and Schuyl- 
kill fort, which I Iio}j(j will be finished (as Trexler is 
to join him) in a we.k or ten days. 

As soon as I fays returns, I shall detach anotlier 
party to erect another at Surfas's, whicli I hoi)e may 
be finished in the same time, and then, I purpose to 
end my campaign, God wilhng, and do myself thv 
pleasure of seeing you on my retin-n. 1 can now add 
no more than that I am, v/ilh great esteem and afiet 

Dear Inend, youra, affectionately, 



Fort ,/IIlen, at Gnadon Ilntilm, 
January 2(), J 75(1 
To the lion. Iiobvrt H. Morris: 

Sir~'\v.. left Jjethlehem l(Jth hist, with Koiilk's 
compnny, Inity-six men; the detachment o\ Mr. 
LaughhiTs t\ronty, and seven wagons laden wiih 
stores c'lul provisions. We got that night to Hay's 
quarters, where Wayne's company joined \v< i'rom 

The next day we marched cautiously through ihc 
gap of die mountain, a very dangerous pass, r.ud got 
to Uplingcr's. rjut twenty-one miles from lietlilcliem, 
tJie roads beiiig bad, and the Avagoiis moving slowly. 
At present, \v'c arc erecting a third house in the Yon 
(Allen) to acrouiinodate the garrison.. 

As soon as Mr. Hays returns with the convoys oi' 
stores and provisions, which I hoi)e may he to-mor- 
row, I i-urpoor: to send Oriidt and Hays to Hoeds, to 
join Cainuin 'i\ami) in erecting the middle fort thcie, 
purposing to ri;niain here between them and J'oulk, 
ready to assist and sup]jly both, as occasion nu^y re- 
quire, and hope, in a week or ten days, weather fa- 
voring, those I wo torts may be fmished, and the line 
efforts eoinpluiL'd and garrisoned, the rangers in mo- 
tion, and the internal guards and watches disbanded. 
a.s well a^i soui other companies, unless they are per- 
mitted and cnrouraged to go after the enemy to Sus- 

At present, ihe expense in this country is prodi- 
gious. We ha/e on foot, and in pay, tlie following 
companies : 

Trump, 50 men; Aston, 50 ; Wayne, 55. 

Foulk, -16; I'rcxler, 48; Wettherhold, 44— ?f;/.7io?i^ 
t/ie. Fork":. 

Orndt, 50, 

Craig, 30; fttartin, 30— m the Irish settlements. 

VanEtten, 30— ;,t IMinnisinks ;. Hays, 45. 

Deiaehmoni of i^rLaughlin, 20 ; Parson, 24- -in ail 
522 Yours, 





'. James Yoiniu;. Commissary General, visited Fort 
Allen in ITSG. In his jonrjial of Jnne 21st, 1756, he 
says, '-at 8, A. M. wo s(;t mit (from the fort above 
Allemenengcl) for fort Alien, at Gnaden ITnetten; it is 
about fifteen niile.s from Allemengel. The first seven 
miles of this road iy very hilly, barren and s\vam})y — 
no plantations. The other part of the road, is, for the 
most part, through, a rich valley, ehielly meadow 
gronndi— ^ev>3ral set dements; but all the houses burnt 
and deserted. At noon, we came to the foot. For 
tJie last half hoia before \vc came there, we had a 
very severe gust of thuiider, ligiitning, and a prodi- 
gious heavy nan. 

"This fort stands on ihe river Leah, (Lehigh) in 
the pass, through very high hills, is, in my opinion, a. 
very important ])lace, and may be of great service, if 
the oiiicer does liis duty. Ii was very well stoccaded 
with four good bastions. On one of them is a swivel 
gun. Tlio woods are clear all around it for a con- 
siderable way, and is very defensible. Within, are 
three good barracks and a guard-room. I found haru 
fifteen men wiilioul .my >»Ilieer, or connnander. Tiu-y 
told me that lieutenant Jac(tb INIiles, and two men 
from the fort, were gone this morning with two gen- 
tlemen from Belhlehera, and four Indians, fifteen miles 
up the country, to bring down some friendly Indians; 
and that the sergeant, with three men, were gone t^) 
Captain Foulli's, late connnander here, to receive the 
pay that was due diem; and one Avas gone to Beth- 
lehem, with the sergeant's watch to mend, which was 
the reason I could noi muster those present, nor havt 
any account of the iirovisions, but saw a large quan- 
tity of beef very badly cured. 

I was informed that a <,a})tain, v/ith a new compa- 
ny, was expected therein a day cr two, to take post 
at this fort. Being very uncertain when the lien- 
tenant would return, or the new company come, I ru- 
solvidto proceed to Lehigh Gap^wiiere a detachment, 
of a con^pimy is po-^led. 

224'Ciu'- Of cakuon countt. 

'' Proviuc/ai stcres.—^l muskets, 50 cartoucli 00:5: ri 

cs, 10 pciiiiJs of powder, 60 poaiulsuf lead, 20 I'oiuidd ♦! 

filled lor 9.0 iiuiii, 19 axes, 4 broad-axes, 20 liaiehets, \'\ 

43 toninli uvl<s, ;] iron wedges, aud one swivel. I^ 

The Joilov/iiig- letters are irom the conniianding ^'^ 

oflicer at Jmj:L Alien, to Major Parsons, at Easion : % 

Fort Alhn, Feb. 18, 1757. 

Honored Sir: — This morning arrived an Jmlian 
here fioi'i l>i.iho;^;i, and seven women andthrci eiiil- 
drenare tn <;.tn.ii: in to-morrow or next day. liisnamu 
is Zacliarias. lie inlbrms me that Icing Teedyuscnng 
has sent hini \v ith ihe following orders, that llu, same 
might |j( shown t() his honor tlu; Governor. King 
Teedyuscuiig intended to come in with a great nuni' 
ber of Indians, tlu next month, to Easton, to hold 
a treaty lh(ue, and desires that the Governor miy b 
ready, at Ihat ihne, to meet him at I'^aston. 'J'hi.' In 
dian informs me, that the three nu'ssengers, Joseph 
Poppy, Lewis rvlontour, and Nathaniel, arrived well 
at Dialinga, aud wi-nt from thence to the Mohav/k 
country, with s weral others ; and as soon as they ^Jiall 
come hack to Diahoga, king Teedyuscung will be 
ready to march from thence to come down. 
Honored Sir, 

1 am your very humhle servani, 

Fort Alleuj March 31, 1757. 

Honored &.r: — The bearer hereof, an Lidiaii, 
named Samuel Evans, desires to have an order iroiii 
your worship, lu g, i a new stock made for his gun, in 
Bethlehem, and ilut the same might be charged to 
the province. 

Since my hM lelier, which I have written fo you, 
arrived here, king Teedyuscung's two sons, Cr.piain 
Harrison, and rfcverul oilier Indians, in nuini'Cr rftj 


men, squaws and children. They behave very civil 
here — lliey have made cabins about sixty perches 
from the fort, wiiere they live, and intend to tarry 
here till the kiiio: comes. 
I am, 

Your very liumble servant, 
[Prov. Ecc. p. 203-4.] 

Fort Allen, Jlpril 5, 1757. 

\ Honored Sir : 

Tliisisto acquaint your worship, that the day before 
yesterday, arrived here, four Indians from Susque- 
hanna, above J)ia}ioga, and have brought one white 
i prisoner, wliose name is Nicholas Ramston. lie was 
taken at the same time that Christian Pember was 
killed. The same Indians inform me, that king Tee- 
dyuscung can hardly come down here till the latter 
end of this monih, for the Mohawk Indians were not 
quite ready lo march. 

Those four Indians will Come with the bearer here- 
of, one of my soldiers, whom I have sent to escort 
them to Easton, and I have also ordered the white 
prisoner with them. I desire your worship would be 
pleased to send an order to Mr. Warner, who is or- 
dered to entertain the Indians, that he shall not give 
tliem too much ram, as he has done to those who 
were at Easton last week ; for some of them were so 
drunk that they staid all night in the woods, and tlie 
remainder went to Bethlehem, and by so doing there 
might easily happen any nrisbehavior, 

m * * f» -tr if * 

y'y^' '_ I ;un, Sii', 

■ Your very humble servant, 


[Prnv. I2cc. p. 204.] 

Colonel James Biird visited this place in 1758. Iri 
his j(iu.' jnl of February 27, 1758, he says, " I march-= 

ed Ironi I'noiice (Mr. Everitt's) to P'ort Allen, ;..l li 
o'clock P. M.; got at the top of the ]ilue iiioi!;'taiii, 

226 luiToiiir UP CARitoN county. m 


at 2 P. I\[. ; from hence saw Alleniengel ; it is a firo | 
country; liiit lue country on the north side jf tliu f' 
inountaia is an entire barren wilderness, not cipablo 
of imjirovcmeni. I arrived at Fort Allen at hall" after 
two P. IM,, a prodigious hilly place, and poor land, 
fifieen miles from Mr. Everitt's. 1 ordered a ic-.vhiw 
of this garrison to-joorrow, at A. M. 

Tuesday, 28dL — xVt A. M. I reviewed this garri 
son. Doing dnty, Captain Orndt, lieiUenant Ih.ys aiul 
Laugherry, and ensign Meixill and seventy-live nu'n. 
Tiiis is a very good garrison. In tlie stores, two 
months i)rovisions, two hundred and five })(^mids ol 
powder, three hurjdred pounds of lead, five hLnicired 
ilints, two sv/ivcls, twenty-six provincial arms, (bad 
ones) no drirm, no kettle, no blankets, one s])ade,Gnc 
shovel, one grnbl)ing hoe, and foiuleun bad ax(ib'. 

Tfiis is a very poor stoccade,surr(nuided with hills, 
situated on a l)arren plain, through which tli.i river 
I^echy, (Lehigh) iims, at a distance of seventy ynris 
from the foi t. 'Tiiere is scarce room here iVa fcaty 
men. I ordered Captain Orndt to regidate his r;.'!^. 
ing by his intelligence, from lime to time, as I..; U: 
formed me that tive Indians, from liethlelien\, iuvi; 
promised faithfully lo Captain Orndt, to come here 
and reconnoitre the woods constantly aromid. 
furnish him v/ith intelligence. 1 also directed ihat a 
target, six inches thick, should be put up, to teach the 
Sioldiers to shoot. 

Lower Toioamensing township is bounded oulhe 
north by Upper 'I'owamensing ; on the east by Mon- 
roe coun.ty; on the south by Northampton county, 
and the west by the Lehigii river, winch se]>arater> it 
from Perm township. The surtace of tliis township 
is (hvtrsified, mountainous, hilly, and paitly level, 
coutainhig a considerable portion of arable ii'.nd, an/1 
well miprovecl. Its principal stream, besides ih^ Le 


>:■ liigh river, is the Aquan&kicola * creek, wliich rises 
ia Rossi towiisliip, JNToiiroe county, about a mile east 
of the Wind G;i]);ruRniiig along the base of the lilue 
mountain, it falls into the Lehigh river, at its entrance 
into the \V\ater Gap. It is a very rapid stream, and 
drives several mills. Tiie Clarissa iron works, consist- 
ing of a forge, furaaee, and several dweUings, are on 
this stream. 

'' The 0(i]i,^'' lit the Lchi^^h Water Gap § is a small 
village, on the luft hank oi the Lehigh, and at the 
mouth of the Aijuaiichicolu creek, which is crossed 

j. by a substantial ;i;:d niriiiy built bridge. The village 
consists of some six or Light houses, a store and a ta- 
vern. A hundred aiiU fifty yards below the bridge 
the Aquanchicola is crossed by the canal in an aque- 
duct. This place sust;\uiud considerable injury from 
the flood in 1S41. 

At an early date, a Mr. Lplinger, or Oplinger, lived 
near, or at the Clajj. In. a letter from Benj. Fraidclin 
to Governor Moiris, dated Fort Allen, January 2(i, 
175ti, he says, '-AVc m irchrd cautiously through the 
Gap of the momnain, a very dangerous pass, and got 
to Uplinger's, but twenty miles from IJethlehem.t 
Alluding to their mar>"li on that day, Franklin says, 
'•'that on leaving 15etblehem, we had not marched 
many miles, before it licgan to rain, and it continued 
raining all day. There w,ere no habitations on the 
road to shelter us, until we arrived near at the house 
of a German, wiiere, and in his barn, wewere all 
huddled together as well as water coidd make us. It 
was well we were not attacked in our rnareli, for our 
arms were of the most orilinary sort, and our men, 
could not keep the locks of their guns dry. The next 
day being fair, avij continued our march, and arrived 
at liie desolate G-iaden JIueticn (Weissport)." 

• Aquanbhicola — va.'iuus are ih-j orthographies of this stream, 
Aquaubcliicola, Aquanchicola. In iliu record of Iiidiau deeds ii. 
is writlen ^7i(«a.«Ac/Vi/5. — Records, iSic. p 128. 

^ For ;t dcscriptior) of ihe V/alcr (lap, see Lehigh couniy. 

{ P; Js-.r-ciai Kccords, vol. 0, jj. 17. 


Kasl I'cnn tow,',ship is bounded on the nonli bv |l 

Malioning township; east by Lower 'J'owanieitsii.g'j r\ 

south by Lehigh county; and south-west ])y SciuiyU || 

killcouniy. 'J1iis township lias tiie lihie inoui,t;mi fl 

on the south, and tlie Mahoning mountain on tbe '| 

north of jr. The surface is diversified, mountainous, p. 

Ihlly, and level ; tlie soil, shale, or variegated red U 

shale, gravel and hmestone. Itiswatered by Lizard |,j 

creek, -u'hich rises at the foot of the ]ilue niouiitain.. p 

aud following along its base, easterly, tails int't die M 
Lehigh, about a niile above the Water Gap. (t is a 
very rapid cixck. and has several mills on it. 'fbe 
creek gives naiiic lo a cultivated valley, tlirotudi 
which it flows. St.phen Ballict's furnace and forge 
are in this township. 

Aa excellent road passes through this valley, froni 
the Lehigh to M'Keansburg and Orvvigsbur::, in 

Schuylkill couiuy. " f^. 

One of the iorts, in the chain of forts between !he % 

Delaware and Potornack rivers, was located in lids S 

township. See /ipjKndlx, Young's, Van Eiten'.^and | 

Hurd's Journal, ^ 1 


Mahunins; (.wnship is bounded on the noriii i.y fe 

Mauch Chunk ; east by the Lelngh river, which sepa^ | 

rates it Irom Upper and lower Tovvaniensing ; on the 4 

south by East Penu; and on the south-west hy ScliuyU | 
kill CO. A considerable portion of land is very good, 
and remarkable for abundant crops of rye and i-M^ \ 
wheat does very wull, loo. It is watered ])rin(,iiial]y 
by Mahoning creek, which rises at the loot of Midio- 
ning mountain, ;ind running castwardly through a 
cultivated and bcaatil'ul valley, to whicli it givus, 

name, falls uito the Leliigli river, a short distance be- \ 

low LelughtcUj ;,nd nearly opposite old Fort Aden, % 

orWeissnort. Ruiis descend this creek abuuf lour | 

miles, above whicli distance are several mills. | 

Owl crt.ek is in the western part of the townslupj | 

ilows between the Mahoning and Mauch Clnud.' I 

uioi^ntrdns. into tlie Taniaqua, or Little Scjinvikil) f 


river. There are fjcveral .sinail villages in this town- 
ship. 'J'axables in 18 11, L'53; state tax, iS-lOS 9'A \ 
coinitjr tax, $6.57 0;j. 

Burrins;tony two miles north of Lehighton, on the 
road to Mancli Cliunli, coiitahis tive dwellings and a 
store. Tliis phico huiieied some by tlie freshet ol' 

Lehighton, ^L post viihige, laid out some forty years 
ago, by Colonel Jic!!) Weiss and William Henry. 
Tlie gruniid plot uf tli*; town is laid out u[)on an ele- 
vated piece of i'lblijland; the lots are large, afford- 
ing an extensive garden and yard to eaeh dwelling. 
The view from the town,, though not extensive, is 
beautiful. It CoMnu.itids a, ))ros|Ject of tlie river anti 
canal, the valluy in which Weissjiort is located, die 
Blue monntain in llu; distance, and a nearer view of 
tlie Mahoning niouiitnin an'd Lehigh hills. Within 
lialf a mile of the village, tliere has been discoveretl a 
mineral spring, the waters of which have proved 
beneiicial in many ca.i,os of disease and debility. The 
town contains thirty dwcllnigs, three tavernsaiid two 
stores. Tliis village ^vonld prove un eligible situa- 
tion for the Shiretown of Carbon county. May it not 
yet become the scat (f Justice ? 

South Lehighton, contiguous to Lehighton and tlu; 
old Mahoning churcli, consists of seven or eight 
ancient looking buildings. A place that has attained 
its zeniUi. Near Uiis is the Moravian grave yard of 

In Mahoning township the Moravians had a mis- 
sionary establishment;, or station, nearly one htindred 
years ago. They conmienced settlements here in 
17'IG. The slaiion is ihns described by Loskiel : 
" Gnaden Ilueitt.ii \\r,\v ( l / Ki) became a veiy regular 
and pleasant Uj'\'\\. Tiie church stood in the valley, 
oil one side the Inuiau honsis fornnng a crescent, upon 
a rising ground , ;uid l'Ii (!ii3 other, stood tlie house o( 
the missiOiiary aiid tiio burying ground. The mi.': 
siuiiMijs tilled tlicir own grounds, and every Indian. 

230 hijToky op carbon county. I, 

family their ]»lantatioii, and on the 18lh of Aiigust, f 

they liad the satisfaction to partake of the first liuit::, I 

of the hind, at a love feast." J 

" The land on the T>hd)oning heing impoverished, * 

and other circiinislances requiring a change, the in- J 

hahitanis of Onuflcn Huetten removed to the nidlh I 

side of the 1^( hndi. ']'he dwellings were removed, | 

and a new tIi.'4)ol was huilt, in June, 175-1. 'i'he * 

place wa.s LMlled New (Jnaden Iluetten. [ll sti-od f, 

where Weisspuii iiov/ is. J Tiie dwelling.s were so f 

placed that the MJiicans liv^d on one, and the J)eia- i 

wareson die otlioi til ie [of the street.] The hrelhrcii I ■ 

at 13ethleheni toi.l: tlu' culture of the old land on \\w: ,*, .; 

Mahoning ii|)uu iheniseUxs, made a plantation of it \ ' 

lor the use i.itLc linlum congregation, and convened | | 

/he old chiipid iwto a dwelling, hoth for the use of \ \ 

those hrediren aiid sisters who had the care of die ;- 

jdantalions, and for missionaries jnissing on tiieir \ . 

visits to the iieail'en. * • 

"The Indians ni the Fnmch interest were niLi.di | 

inccnsetl that any ff die IMoravian Indians chose n, | \ 

remain at (Inadc,i lluelten, and determined to cut oif | ' 

the settlenient. Alter Ihaddoek's defeat, in 1755, ihe | 

whole frontier was oj»en to the inroads of the savage * , 

foe. Every day disclosed new scenes of barhaiily I 

committc'l by die Indians. The whole country was ', 

in terror; die neighhors of tlie brethren in Clnaden | 

Iluetten forsook their dwellings ami lied; but da; I 

brethren made a covenant together to remain und.Mnit - \t 

ed in the place alluted them by Providence. liow- \^ 

ever, no caution was onutted; and because the ■ivliilc k 

people considered cvrry Indian as an enemy, the In- ^ 

dian brethren in (Inadeii Huetten were advised, as f^ 

nmch as possible, ti» lM'e|» out of their Avay — to buy no % 

powder nor shot, hi a strive to maintain tiiemsrdres ^ 
without hinaing, wiiirh diey willingly comi»lieii with 
* "" " " Ihit God had othr wise 
ordained. Ou a sudden the tuission lioiise ( u 'An: 
IMalioning was, late in the evening- of the 'Jltli Nev., 


uisrouY or cahhon county. 231 

attacked by the French Indians, burnt, and eleven of 
the inhabitants uiurdered. 
f', " The family, being at s\ipper, heard an unconunoii 

I' barking of dogs, upon which brother Senseman went 
?! out at the back door to see Avhat was the matter. 
On the report of a gun, several ran togetlier to open 
the house door. Here th>3 Indians stood with tiieir 
pieces pointed towards the door, and firing innne- 
diately upon its being opened, Martin Nitchnian was 
instantly killed. His wife and some others were 
wounded, bat lied with the rest up stairs into the gar- 
ret, and barncoiled the door with bedsteads. Brother 
Partsch escaped by jumping out of a back window. 
Brother Worbas, who was ill in bed in a liouse ad- 
joining, jumped likewise out of a back window and 
escaped, though the e)ienues had placed a guard be- 
fore his door. Meanwhile the savages pursued those 
who had taken refuge in the garret, and strove hard 
to burst the door open ; but finding it too well secured, 
they set fire to the he use, which was soon in tlames. 
A boy called Sturgeons, standing upon the darning 
roof, ventured to lent) oil", and escaped; though at 
first, upon opening the back door, a ball had gnizeil 
his cheek, and one side of his head was much burnt. 
Sister Partsch seeing this, took courage, and leaped 
hkewise from the burning roof. She came down un- 
hurt, and unobiscrved by die enemies; and thus the 
fervent ])rayer of her husband was fulfilled, who, in 
jumping out of tlie back window, cried aloud to God 
to save his wife. Brother Fabricius then leaped also 
otr the roof, but before he could escape was i)erceived 
by the Indians, and instantly wounded by two balls. 
He was the only one whom they seized upon alive, 
and having dispatched hbn with their liatchets, took 
his scalp, and left him dead on the ground. The rest 
were all burni aiivo. and Brother Senseman, who first 
went out at the back door, had the inexpressible griei 
to sec liis wife consumed by the fiames. Sister 
Partsch could not run far for fear and trembling, hvi 
hid hei'seif behind a tree, upon a hill near the hou^i. 


From 1'cijCu she saw sister Sensemaii, already suc- 
lomided by the iUuncs, standing with folded hands, 
and heard h.;i calUag out: " 'Tis all well, dear Sa- 
viour — I expected notlnng else I" The honse being 
consumed, tlio nnndorers set fire to the barns and 
stables, by wbich all the corn, hay, and cattle were 
destroyed. Then they divided the spoil, soaked some 
bread in miik, made a hearty meal, and departetl — 
sister Partsch looking on unperceived. 

"This melancholy event proved the deliverer of 
the Indian congregation at Gnaden Iluetten; f(;r up- 
on hearing the lopcrt of the guns, seeing the ihunes, 
and soon lcarn;ng the dreadful cause from tlajsi. wlio 
had escaped, tlio Indian brethren innnediately wunt to 
the missionary, and oJfered to attack the enemy widi- 
out delay. BiU being advised to the contrary', ihdy 
all fled into the woods, and Gnaden Iluetten was 
cleared in a few moments; some who already v/ore 
mbed,liaving scarce time to dress themselves. Iboilicv || 
Zeisberger, who had just arrived in (i naden Iluructi f 
from, Belhlehera, hastened back ta give notice ol ilu.s I 
event to a body of l^nglish militia, who had muiv lird ? 
within iive miius ot the spot; but tliey did not venture \ 
to pursue the enemy in tlie dark.* 1 

After the enemy liad retired, the remains of diose I 
killed at Mahoning, weie collected from the ashes j 
and ruins, and interred. A marble slab, in the grave | 
yard, about on.j,-half mile' south of Lehighton, marks j 
the place. The conipiler visited this place, Sept. ly. | 
1844, when he copied the folio whig hiscription : | 

To the memory of 
: - ; Gotdieb and Christina Anders, 

. > wiih their children, Johanna, 

Martin and Snsanna Nitshman ; 
Arm Catliarina Senscman, 

Leonliard Gattermyer, 
Christian Fabricius, cieikj 


i George Schv/cigcrl, John Frederick Lesly, 

I . ;i^''- and Martin Presser ; 

-■••^ Who lived at Gnaden Huetten, 

unto the Lord, 
and lost their hves in a surprize 
^•■.'■': from Indian Av^-arriori;, 

• ''' ■ '■ November the 24th, 

Precious in ihc &ight of the Lord, is the 
death of his saints. — Fsahns cxvi. 15. 

[e/.?. Bower, Phi/a., 1788.] 

This chapter is closed hy a narrative of the captivity 
of Gilbert and othei-s. The compiler is indebted to 
Mt. Day for it. The narrative is given hi detail in 
Loudon's Narrative, Vol. II : 

" Benjamin Gilbeit, n Quaker from Byberry, near 
Philadelph.ia, in 1 775, removed with his iamily to a 
farm on Mahoning creel:, five or six miles from Fort 
Allen. His second wife was a widow Peart. lie 
'was soon comfortably situated with a good log 
dwelling house, barn, and s;.AV and grist mill. For 
five years this peaceable family went on industrious- 
ly and prosperously ; but on the 25tii April, 1780, the 
very year after Sullivan's expedition, they were sur- 
prised about sunrise, by a party of eleven Indians, 
who took them all jjrisoners. 

'*■ At the Gilbert farm they made captives of Ben- 
jamin Gilbert, senior, aged (i9 years; EUzabeth his 
wife, 55; Joseph Gilbert, his son, 41 ; Jesse Gilbert, 
another son, li); Sarah Gilbert, wife to Jesse, 19; 
Rebecca Gilbert, a daughter, IG; Abner Gilbert, a 
son, 14; Elizabeth Gilbert, a daughter, 12; Thomas 
Peart, son to Benjamin Gilbert's wife, 23 ; Benjamin 
Gilbert, a son of Jolm Giibea of Philadelphia, 11 ; 
Andrew Ilarrigar, of Gcniian descent, 20 ; a hireling 
of Benjamin Gilbori's; and Abigail Dodson, who 
lived on a Ibrni, about one mile from Gilbert's mill. 
The whole uumbei lakcii at Gilbert's, was 12. Tii'. 

234 HISTOliy OF cabbon countt. 

Indians ihen proceeded about half a mile to IJonja- 
niin Peart's dwelling, and there captured liirnself, 
Jiged 27. Elizabeth his wile, 20, and their child, nine 
mondiy old. 

"' The. last look the poor captives had of their once 
conilbrtuble home, was to see the tiames and t'rdling 
.in of tlio roofs, fn'ni Sunnner hill. Tlie Indians ied 
their captives on a toilsome road over Mauch Clmnk 
and Broad mount;dns, into the Nescopeck path, and 
tlien across Quakake creek, and the JMoraviau Pine 
Swamp to IMaiiOniog mountain, where they lodged 
ihc first night. On the way they had prepared inoc- 
f^dsins lor some oi the children. Indians genoraily 
secure then- prisoners by cutting down a sapling as 
large as a man's thigh, and therein cut notciics, in 
which they fix ih^^'ir legs, and over this they jjlace a 
pole, crossing it with stalces drove in tlie ground, and 
on the crotches ol the stuk'cs they })lace other pules, or 
riders, edecturJly conliniiig the ])risoners uii iheii 
Lacks; and bcoides all this they put a strap roun/l their 
necks, which they fasten t4> a tree. In this nu:nner 
the night j)ussi-d with the Clilbert lamily. Their Iv'.l.s 
were Ilendoclr. branches strewed on the ground, and 
bhuikets for a eiJVTiiiig. Andrew Montour v.'as th-: 
leader of tlie Indian party. | 

'•' The forhjrn band were dragged on over the w ikl ^ 
and rugged region between the Lehigh and the Clie- 
numg branch of tlie Susquehanna. Tliey were oftui! 
n3iidy to faint liy the way, but the cruel threat of im- 
mediate death, urged them again to the march. The 
old man, I^enjainin Gilbert, indeed had begun to fail, 
tiiid had been painted black — a fatal omen among die 
Indians; but \\ hen his cruel captors had put ;., rop-i 
around his neck, and apjjcared about to kill him, the 
intercessions of iiis wife, softened their hearts, mui he 
was saved. Sid-stipiently, in Canada, the old man, 
cojiver^jing -wixh ll:e chief observed, that he might 
Sidy what none of the other Indians could, '• iiiai he 
had brought in (he oldest man and the youngest 
child. '^ d'i.e chier'-j reply was impreesive : ' it wa:j 



not I, but the (Jicui (iod, who brought you through ; 
lor we wore detffrininefl t.> kill you, but were pre- 

" On the 54th day of iheh- captivity, the Gilbert 
familly had to encounter the ieariul ordeal of the 
gauntlet. 'The prisoners,' says the anther of tlie 
narrative, ' were released from the heavy loads they 
Jiad heretofore been compelled to carry, and were it 
not for the the treatment they expected oti their ap- 
proaching llie Indian towns, and the hardshsp of 
separation, iheir siin;itiun would have been tolerable; 
but the horror of their minds, arising from the dread- 
ful yells of the Iridians as lliey approached th(i ham- 
lets, is easier conceived ihan described — for they were 
no strangers to the cnstiMnary cruelty exercised ii[n)U 
tiic captives on enterhig their towns. The Iiidiant>— 
men, women and children — collect together,* bring- 
hig clubs and stones in order to beat them, which 
they usually do with great severity, by way of re- 
venge for their relations who have been slain. Thia; 
is perf(U-med innnediatcly on their entering the village 
where the wairiors juside, antl cannot be avoided. 
The ])lo\vs, however cruel, must be borne witlKUit 
complaint. The prisoners are sorely beaten until tlieir 
enemies are weary with the cruel sport. Their suf- 
ferings were in this case very great ; they receivcxl 
several woimds, and two of tlie women, who were on 
horseback, were much bruised by falling from their 
horses, which were frightened by the Indians. Eliza- 
beth, the mother, took iheller by the side of one of 
them, (a warrior,) but upon his observing that she 
met with some favor u,)on his account, he sent her 
away; she then received several violent blows, so 
lliat she was almost disabled. The blood trickled 
from their heads in a si ream, their hair being croju 
close, and the clolhot, tliey had on in rags, made their 
situation truly- iulcous. Whilst the Indians were in- 

• The waniurs l)ui sokloui louk part, t.jccepl by looking ou arid 
oiicour. ;'iijj the ilemoiiiac sport. 

236 msi'(;i{Y OP CAKBON cou^KrY. 


lliclingiliis leven^H; upon the captives, thecliiel'caiiic f'| 

juul pui It .stMji lo any liirthcr cruelty, by telling tlif^m ,' * 

^it was .Millicicm/ whicii they ininiediatcly alti'iuleil ^ 

to." II 

'• Soon alter tins a severe trial awaited them, 'i'hey ■ • 

were sc'inaateii I'runi each otlier. Some were inveii 4.; 

over to Indicnis to be adopted, others were hiri'd out ;3 

by their Jiulian owners to service, in while tamilics, I'' 

and otiMMS wore sent down the lake to Mo'ilreal. |1 

Among- tliM hnter was the old patriarcli, Benjamin |f 

(Gilbert. ]h(t llic tld man, accustomed to tlu.' com- $ 

forts oi' civili'/,ed lifo, broken in body and mind, froiii 1 

such unexpected calamities, sunk under thecomplica- ^ 

tion of wo and haidshif). His remains repose ar the | 

foot of an oak, nea^- the old fort of Cantr da, on | 

tlie St. Lawrmice, below Ogalensburg. Some of" ili; f 

family met widi kind treatment from the iiands oi" the | 

British (Wlieers at Montreal, who were interested n\ I 

their story, and exerted themselves to release tiv3in I 

from captivity. | 

"Sarah (jilh^^rt, the wife of Jesse, becoming ix luu- | 

ther, Klizabeili left the service she was engagi, 1 in — | 

Jesse having taken a lionse, that she might give bci 1 

daughter every necessary attendance, la order to \ 

make their situation as comlbrlable as i)ossiblc d.ioy | 

took a child t.) lun-^e, which added a little to tlieiriiN j 

come. Alter mis, Elizabeth Gilbert hired her-fU' lo | 

h'ou a day {^.y: Atlam Scott. Wiiile she was .,t lier j 

work, a little girl, belonging to the house, acquamted * 

her that tliere v/ere some who wanted to see licv. and 1 

upon eiuering the room, she found six of her cliil- I 

dren. Ttie joy and surprise she felt on this occasion, j 

were beyond what we shall attempt to descrd;c. A \ 

messenger was sent to inform Jesse and his wile, liiut : 

Josei)h Gilbert, Benjamin Peart, Elizabeth, his v.-it'Cj j 

and their yoin\g child, and Abner and Elizabrih Gil- ' 

bert, d>e yomiger, were with their mother.'^ \ 

''Among the customs, or hideed common Jau-*: 01 : 

Uio Indian tribes, one of the most remarkable and in- ] 
terestmg was adoption of prisoners. This right be 

niTsoiiY OF cmiujon county, 237 

longed more paniciiUaly to the females than to the 
warriors, and well was it I'or the prisoners that the 
election depended r;aherupc»n the voice of the mother 
than on that of IIk^ father, as innumcrahle lives were 
thus spared wli "-i iIm, warriors wonid have innno- 
lated. ^Vhcll 01,' :.di)pted, if the captives assumed 
a cheerlid aspeci, into tlieir modes of life, 
learned their lun-iinge, and, in hrief, acted as if they 
actually felt themselves adopted, all liardship was re- 
moved not incident to fndi.Ln modes of life. Jkit, if 

^ lliis change of rjir.iiou operated as amelioration of 
condition in the lilV; .-f iIk. prisoner, it rendered ran- 
som extremely dilliciili in all cases, and in soniti in- 
stances precluded it altogether. These diliicnlties 

I were exemplified in a striking manner in the j)erson 
of Elizabetli Gilbert, the younger. This girl, only 1'2 
years of age, when ca]»tuied, was adopted by an In- 

'^ dian family, but al"ter\rard;5 permitted to reside in a 
white fannly of the n;>iiie of Secord^ hy whom she 
was tretiled as a child indeed, and to whom she be- 
came so nuich attaelu'd as to call INirs. Secord by the 
endearing title ol niinu'iia. Jler residence, however, 
in a white l'amily,wa.. a favor granted to the Secords 
by the Indian pareiUs of JClizabeth, who regarded 
and claimed her as iheir child. Mr. Secord having 
business at Niagara, look Ik'tsey, as she was called, 
with ium; and there, nfter long separation, she had 
the ha[)piness to meet with six of her relations, most 
of whom had beiai already released and were ])repar- 
ing to set out J'or iMohli'eal, lingering and yearjiiiig 
for those they seianed destined to leave behind, per- 
haps forever. The sight ol" their beloved little sister 
roused every energy to elfect her release, which de- 
sire w.'is generously aoeonde-d by John Seeord and 
('olonel Butler, ulio, .'•on jifter her visit to Niagra, 
sent fVir the Indiun ^'/hoclmned Elizabeth, and made 
overtures for he.- noisoin. At lirst lie declared that 
he •' iL\nt/d nal sell hts oion Jlesh a/id blood;" but 
attacked, liio interest, or in other words, lli^. 
nci.e hies, the negotiation succeeded, ajid, as we have 


233 iirsTouY of carbon couNTr. 

already socii, her youngest child was among lla; 
sures fii'^i restored to the mother at Montreal.'" x^ 

" P>cntually ihey were all redeemed and coliu i.jci 1^' 
at Monu-fal, on the 22d August, 1782, when tliey j| 
took letive of their kind friends there, and returi.edlo 
liyberry, alter a captivity of two years and iiv';> 

'• Tlie premises, where stood the dwelling and mi- 
provements of the Gilbert family, were, in 183;], oc- 
cupied by Mr. Sepmnus Hough, on the north side of 
Mahoning creek, on an elevated hank aljoul foity 
perches from the ujain road, leading from Lehii;l;toi: 
and Weissport to Tan^aqua, and about four rnilts^iron. 
tlie former. I.enjamin Peart lived about hall' a mil* 
further up the creek, and ahout one-fourth of a jmle 
from the same, on the south side. Mr. Kuteri 
M'Daniel lived on the place in 1833.^' 

HISTORY, &<^. 





t^t .; :i 


sciii vjkii.l county erected. 

, Before describing ilio ]in;sent boundary, &.c. ot 
this county, it is deeniLd to be of sutiicient interest to 
the reader, to present him a brief liistory of the erec- 
tion of Berks county, l:jni which the greater propor- 
tion of SchuyikiU has been taken. 

Tlie ianils on the Tulpehucken were still owned by 
the Indians till 1732-'33, Avhen Thomas Penn }nir- 
chased them, which more eifectaally opened the door 
to emigrants into that part of the provinee within the 
limits of Berks and l.( baiion; and soon alterwards 
many went boyund the inoimtains, witliin the present 
limits of Schuylkill. Germans and others, especially 
the former, who had already seated, sent for their rela- 
tives and kindred ; and they in turn, on their arrival 
here, enticed others — 1:11 several thousand settled in 
various parts on the Schuylkill, Tulpehocken, and 
other places — tiU every glen, vale, hill, and mountain, 
was more or less settled — and under such circimi- 
stances, the inhabhant.^. I'elt die want of a new county,, 
anil were led to i*ctition the Assembly for privileges 
which Penn and his successors had awarded. For 
William Penn, shortly after his arrivid, in 1682, es- 
tablished seveial cou-itits, namely: Philadelphia, 
Bucks, and Chester. Pliiladcljjhia county then ex- 
tended indefinitely lov.'^ards the north-west, bounded 
on the east by Bucks, and on the west by the Schuyl-- 
kill, which separated it from Chester county, whicli. 
included, at that time, Delaware county, and all iht' 



territory, except a small portion now within the liniiu; * \ 

ot'Pliilariciphia county, south-west ot the Schuylkill, •■ ' 

and extended to the extreme Ihnits of the province, t | 

north, west, and south. In 1729, Chester was reduced, \ « 

hy creeling Lancaster county out of it. In 1749, ^{ 

York counfy was erected, and in 1750, Cunihcrlaud \\ 

was estahlisljod, Berks was erected, March 11th, ;" 

1752. |i 

At the time of erecting Berks county, its popula- > ; 

tion was from six to eight thousand* x\s it may be i, 

interesting to the reader, a -copy of the pethion to die *j 
Assembly, and utlier papers, have been copied, avid 

are inserted. «-^ 

A petition from a considerable number of tivj iii- *" 
habitants of Rkadingtown, upon Schuylkill, wa? v 
presented to ihe house, February 4th, 1752, and read, |^ 
setting forth, diat diey had settled in the said town, ^ 
expecting tliut it would be a great place of trauc and | 
business, and had put themselves to vast expin> e iu | 
building and removing thither with their hii!ulies, 
several of whom left tolerable good plantations; tlint 
though (he said tosvn had not al)ove one hou^u m it 
about two years ago, (1750) yet it now consists ot 
one hundred and thirty dsvelling houses, beside,-; ibrty- 
one stables, and other outdiouses, and that there are 
one Inindred and sixty families, consisting of tln^e 
hundred and suventy-eight i)ersons settled tlunda; 
that they have good reason to believe that in uuotlicr 
summer they will be much increased, as the chief 
part of the pri>vince that can be settled is already 
taken up, and the settling of the town wdl be of great 
benefit to tradesmen and others, who are not able ti» 
purchase tracts of land to live on; that they hmnbly 
conceived it to be ihoir interest, to the honoraMu pro- 
prietaries, as well as themselves, and that unlc.s.-: i\m 
house will bo pleased to erect ])art of the counties of 
Philadelphia, Chester, and Lancaster, into a s< parate 
county, tiiey shall ])e untiroly disappointed <.)f their 
cxpectaiions, notwithstanding all the cost and :votible 


'they have been at; that therefore, tliey pray this 
house would take their case into consideration, and 
grant them rehef, by erecting such i)arts of said coun-- 
ties, as they shall think most proper, into a new 
tounty, with the same privileges that the other coun- 
ties of this provinca enjoy ; and that the seat of judi-, 
cature be lixed v.ntliin the said town of Reading.'^ 

Another petition wa? presented, Februarys, 1752, 
from whicli the following extract is presented : "They 
find the causes of their complaint still growhig, they 
humbly beg leave further to represent, that they are 
settled at a very great distouce from the place of jndi- 
•cature, many of them not less than one hundred miles, 
which is a real hardship upon those who are so un- 
happy as to be sued fur debts, their charges in lung 
journeys, and sometimes in severe weather, with the 
oflicers^ fees, amounting to near as much, if not more, 
•than tlie debts; that the hardships on jurymen, con- 
stables, and in being oj<liged 'to attend tvhen required, 
is also very great; that now there is anew town laid 
out by the proprietarit's' order, within fit'teen perches 
of the division line between lMiiladeli)hia and Lancas- 
teit counties, and above one hundred and thirty 
houses, and near as m;;ny faniilies living therein, it is 
very easy for rogues and others to escape justice, by 
•crossing Schuylkill, vvliich has already been their 
practice for some yeari> ; that though their grievances 
were laid before the Assembly some years past,t 
were not redressed, bccau.'ie of other \Veiglity affairs 
being at that tune under consideration ; yet the prayer 
of their petition was thought reasonable, and tiie 
number of petitioners being since doubled by the in- 
crease of the back inhabitants, they theretbre ])ray, 
that this house v/ould grant relief in the premises by 
erecting them into a sei>arate county, bounded, as to 
the wisdom of this house shall seem best.'^l; 

* Votes of Assembly, vol. iv., j..20i. 

\ 1732-'40. Feb. 4, a iietilion sif^ned by Conrad Weiser, Jolii\ 
Davis, James i.jwis, and oilier-, Ma^ j'.reseiiled. 
1 V,.i- i Mt/VhieiiiLiy, v;;l. 4, p. -^05. 

341 ii:sroi!V of sChuvlkill county. ! '" 

i ! 

The pray e?) ot the petitioners was granted by ?lio | j 

passing.oi" act, March lltli, 1752,* directing the troo- y | 

tiqu of a conuiy (n\t of parts of Philadelphia,! Ches- ♦" i 

tQY,X i\nd Lancaster ^ounties.^. ; ' 

" WheiX'M.s, a great number of the back inhabiuinta' \ ] 

of the county of Philadelphia, and tlie adjacent parts \ ] 

of Chester and Lancaster, by their petition, have I | 

humbly reprcser.ied to the Governor and Assembly I j 

of lliis piovince, their remote situation from their re- ', ,j 

spective counly towns, where the covu'ts of justice are |,. ■ 

lield, and p'jbiic offices ke))t, whereby they are fre- I •• 

quently put to extraordinary e:\!pense of money, and > : 

loss of tinre, in their long journeys thither, as parties | | 

in cases, witnesses, jurymen, ^c. For remedying ^ i 

which inconveniences, and relief of the inhab'uaas } ,' 

in those remote jjarls in the ]iremises,be it enacted by f 1 

the Hon. Jamc:;- Hamilton, JOsq., J.,ieutenant Gover- ' ; 

nor, under the Hju. Thomas Penn and Richard Peuii, | j 

true and absobUe iiropiietaries of the Province ot ^ : 

Pennsylvania, iind oi the counties of JNew Casiie, > -. 

Kent and Siu^y. \, upou tlio Delaware, by antl with |j 

the advicu and consent of the representatives of d.j t'\ 

freemen o{ the safi province, in general asseiid^v' i- 

met, and by the authority of tlie same : That all and .1^ 

singular the lands lying within the province of Penn- |j 

siylvania aforesaid; v/,ithin the Limits and bounds as || 

hereinafter described, be erected into a county, and % 

the same are luh'eby created into a couiUy, nanied anti y 

hencelorth to bi- called JJijuks ; bixnided as I'oUoavs-: i 

By alim;, atlhe distance of ten superficial miles south- f 

west from the n'cstern bsmk of the river Schuyll^i^!, | 

opposite to, the nuuuh of a creek oalled Mouara !>'•:/. \\ | 

*A, vol. iii..p. S^rofihe rolls at Harrisburg. 

f Alsace, Kxeier,, Allimeiigle, ur Albany, Otey, Coh- 
brookdale. and JleiLKiiii luwiisliips, llien oigaruzed, were pii!. 
of PhilcKlel[;hia county. 

4 Coventry and pan of Nanlinill, now Union, part ol' ':1il>u-; 

§Ctn.-n;uvoa. KiLc^uii, Heidelberg, Bediel, Tulp.i, i^Lci 
Itumri., and lierii, ilieii organized part of Lancaster CkUiH}. 

'jFeb. 18, .'7f!0, an n-v. was passed to settle this Hue, 


to the run norlh Jionh-west to the extremhy of the 
province, and south-east, uatil it shall intersect the line 
of Chestercounty ; then on one straight line of McCall's 
manor; then along the said line to the extremity 
Uiereof, and conriiming the same course, to the line 
dividing Philadelphia and IJucks counties ; then along 
the said line nurtli-u^est, to the extent of the county 

That it shall and niay ho lawful to, and for, Antho- 
ny Lee, Francis Parvin, William Mangridge, William 
Bird and .Tos^^ph iMillunl, or any thfee of Ihein, to 
purchase and take assurance to them and their heirs, 
of a piece of land, situate in some convenient place in 
llie town of Ileadin:;, in luist, and for the use of the 
inhabitants of s:\id cjiinty, and thereon to erect and 
build a court liouse and prison, sutlicient to accommo- 
date the public service of the said county, and for the 
eas6 and conveniency of the inhabitants. For which 
purpose three hundred pounds were authorized to be 
assessed and levied, fur pnrchasing land, and Ihiishing 
tlie court honsr and prison. 

By the same ad, lOdward Scull of Philadelphia 
county, lienjannn Li-htfuot of Chester county, and 
Thomas Cookson of Lancaster county, were api)oint- 
ed to run, m&rk out and distinguish the boundary 
line between tlic said coumies of Philadelphia, Ches- 
ter, Lancaster and of Berks. 

An act was passed, February I'S, 17G9, appointing 
William McClay, Wiiliam Scull and John JJlddle, jr., 
to settle and fix the boundary line dividing the coun- 
ties of Lancaster, Berks and Cumberland. The for- 
mer commissioners, Edward Soull, Benjamin Light- 
foot, and Thomas Cookson, not having continued said 
line fm-ther than the sottJement at that time (175^) 
made. And v/heteas, many were then (ITGK) setded, 
and new setdeinents then making beyond the said 
lines of n5-2,and disputes havmgdien already risen, 
and othei-s. were likely to arise, concerning the hmit.^^ 
ai.'l l.junds of the said couiUies of Lancaster, Cun,- 

246 HISTORY OF schuylkill county. 

bcrlantl, Berks, and Northampton ; by reason of tin 
boundary lines of 1752, not being completed, the act 
of February 18, 17<)9, authorized and njCiuired 
Messrs. McC'lay, Scull, and Biddle, and enjoined it 
tliat they sliould, within the space of nine monlljs 
from the passage of tliie act, " to assemble themselves 
together, an 1 to extenfd,run,and mark out, by actual 
sm-vey, tlie boundary lines, between the said comriie'. 
of Lancaster, Cumberland, and Rprks, and between 
the county of Jk'iks and that of Northaminnn, by 
continuing the said due north-west course, tVnm the 
south-cast ends of the lines already run betwijen the 
said counties respectively, as far as the lands lately 
purchased by dio honorable, the proprietaries of tliis 
province froai the Indians, do extend ; and tli.-'.t the 
costs, charges, and expenses of running, surveying, 
and marking out tlie saij line, so. far as the same 
shall run l&<,>Vyeea the said counties of IJerks and 
Lancaster— .iind that the costs, charges, and exj-mnses 
of running the said line, so far as the same shall ex- 
tend hetwcert the said c;ounties of Cumherlarul ;itul 
Jkrks, shall he paid equjilly between the said cuiri 
ties of IJerks and Cumberland." 

]5erks. since its orgamzation or erection in 175,; 
has been redriced by annexation of a })art !n the 
county of Nortlunnbejland, March 21, 1772, v.'hidi 
was erected out of parts of Lancaster, Cumlj-rland, 
Berks, Bedford, and Nc4-thampton ; and by the erec- 
tion of SchuylkUl 

As above slated, Berks county was formed out ui 
Philadelphia, (Jhesier, and Lancaster count ie;^. All 
on the east side of the Schuylkill was, at tiic erection 
of Berks, part of Phihaleljiihia, and was divided into 
the follov/iug tcwnships:- Alsace, Exeter, Amity 
Allimmgle, or Albany, Ol'ey, and Colebrcf kdalc^ 
Tiie southern portion of Beiks was part of Chcjier, 
and divided into two townships, Coventry and IViint- 
mill; parts of each of these townships are now in- 
(-hid«:d ii» Union township, organi^cil fjijiice ibj cnv;.. 


tion of the coumy. The west and north-west portion 
was part of l.ancasier, ami divided into tlie following 
townships, namely : CaTnarvon, Robeson, Tulpe- 
hocken, Ileidlebeig, JJethel, Tulpehocken, Cuniru, 
and BcHn. 

Schuylkill count ij was erected out of parts of 
Berks county and Northampton county, by an act of 
assembly, passed March ist, 1811. In tliat act it is 
set forth that: " Whereas, the inhabitants of the 
northern parts of Berks and Northampton counties, 
have, by their pciiuons, set forth to the general as- 
sembly of this state, ihe great hardship they labor 
under, from being so remote from the present seat ol 
justice, and the public ollices: Be it enacted, 4'f- 
That all that part of Berks county, lying and being 
within the Imiiis of ih.e fullowhig townships, to wit: 
Tlie tovvnshi))S of Brunswick, Schuylkill, Manheim, 
Norwegian, Upper JMahautango, Lower Mahantango, 
and Pine Grove, in lierks county; and the townships 
of West Penu and Rush, in Nortiiampton county, 
shall be, and ihe samo aro hereby, according to their 
present lines, declared to be erected into a county, 
henceforth to be called Schuylkill. 

By the same act, courts were authorized to be held 
at the house tiien occupied by Abraham Reilfsnyder, 
in the township of Branswick, until a court hoiuse 
should be built.* 

The following is an extract from the records of the 
court of quiirter sessions : 

At a court of qartcr sessions held at Orwigsburg, 
on the third Monday in December, 1811, before tlie 
Hon, Robert Porlci , Esq., President Judge, the fol- 
lowing Attornie.? were adnntted: 

George Wolf, Ciiarles Evans, Frederick Smith, Wni. 
Witnian, .fames B. Hubley, John Spayd, John W. 
Collms, M. J. Biddlc, Samnel Baud, John Ewing. 

• .• .'i; Laws :.f I'a. V- p. ^02. 


Toiohsh i'j)s. Constables. 

Brunswick, Cliristiau Kaiip. 

Maiiheim, Jacob Emricli. 

Norwegioii, Isaac Reed. 

Ginc Prove, Chri,sto])lier Bamlinnl 

Upper Mahantango, Peter Kalirl. 

Lower Maiianiaiigo, Joseph Keller. 

Schuylkill. George Olinger. 

West Peiiii, None appeared. 

Rush, do do 

Willuiiri Green, sLerifl' of Schuylkill county, h-w- 
iiig returned the precept to him directed, in all I'lings 
duly executed, whereupon the followijig per.son.s ^vcre 
sworn and afUrnied a.s a grand inquest, viz: 

Bernard Kcpner, George Body, Jacob Jluiis;:i, 
Adam Yost, Plulip Fegelly, Tobias "NVagoner. Tsaae 
Yaruell, Peter Kau|», Conrad Rader, Daniel Feiister- 
macher, Daniel l^enshiger, Pi;ter Albright, Ji-v^i^l! 
lleck, Joseph Old, Abraham lloli'ee, John Isioek, 
Daniel Graeli', George llillowgas, Andrew (jiii ' '.i, 
Plulip Seidle, ( ;)nratl Yeager. 



■East Brioiswick township is in the southern pari 
cf the county, and is bounded nortli-east by West 
Penn townsliip : souih-eust by Lehigh and Berks 
counties; south-.vesl :ihd west by West ]5runswick; 
nortli by Schuylkill township. The surface of this 
township is diversified; some portions mouutanious, 
some hilly, and undulating. The Blue niouutani 
mns along the southeni and Second mountaui along 
its northern boundary; tlie intervening space diversi- 
fied. The soil is nalurally not i)roaactive. SonuB 
portion of the land is clashed among unseated lands. 
The population, in 18 10, was 1,230. Taxes, assessw.1 
in 1844, for county purposes, $1,0G6 51 ; state tax, 
$485 31 ; on unseated lands, for county purposes, 
$25 54; state tux, $V) 21. 

Port Clint uii, a p^st town, laid out in 1829, in 
Brunswick township, at the confluence of the Ta- 
macjiia, or Little Schuylkill river with the mam stream 
above the Water Gajs m the Blue mountain. It is 
quite a thriving place, having become sucli by the 
sliipinent of the products of the coal mines around 
Tamaqua. Tlie Little Scliuylkill railroad extends 
from this plae... AwvH twenty-three miles, into tlic 
coal fields about Tamaqua— ihe coal fields of the 

Tuscarora and Tdruch Clmnk mountain; and th. 

Schuvlkiil caiud nmy tliruugh the town, wliich ados 

greatly to ihe pvospeiily of the place. The country 
cir^Ki d Tort Clinton is vjry mountainous and sU'iili 


During tlic Frencli and Indian war, the fev,^ .s<:ai- j 

tering inhabitants, contiguous to the mountain, and | 

the present boundary ot" lierks, were occasionally | 

alarmed on account oCthe nuu-ders committed by the i 

savages that were marauding througli the so'atb.eru | 

portion of Schuylkill county, (then Berks.) The Ibl- j 

lowing account of massacres, eonmiitted by tli^; Indi- j 

ans, is here insctied, to show the situation ef il^a \ 

pioneer settlers along the ]3hie mountain : | 

In the early part of February, 1756, the lidiani \ 

committed several cruel and barbarous murders in ■ 

this township. On the 14th of February, 175(J, the | 

Indians came tu the house of Frederick llei^helsdeiderj, j 

shot two of liis children, set his house and bran on | 

fire, and burnt uj) all his grain and cattle, 'i'hencc I 

they proci^eded to ihe house of Jacob (iurhart. wlievG | 

tliey killed outi m;in, two women, and six children. I 

Two chiidrea slipped under the bed, one of whidi ] 

was burned ; the other escaped, and ran a mile to | 

get to the peo|)le. j 

When tlie intelligence of this murder had reached ( 
Maxatany, mr,;iy of the inliabitants of that to\vnship 
repaired to Albany, to see what damage had been 

done ; while oji their way, they received accounts of < 

other murders ; "When," says Jacob Levan, in a > 

letter to Mr. Seely, February 15, 1750, " I had gat \ 

ready to go with my neighbors from Maxatany, to % 

see wliat damage was done in Albany, three mei.', 1 

that had seen the shocking aflair, came and loid rac ' 

that eleven were killed, eight of them biu'nt, and the | 

other three found dead out of the fire. An old man j 

Avas scalped, the two others, litde girls, were not i 

scalped."* j 

On the 24lh of March following, says the Pemisyh ' 

vania Gazette, April 1, 175(i, ten wagons, wenr, up Ui ] 

Allcmaengle, (Albany) to bruig down a family with \ 

tlieir effects; and as they were returning, about thrc<j ( 

mihis belov,'- George ZeislolPs, were tired u\>'Ji:i. by a j 

' iliiiory 01 Ucrks und Lebanon, p.. 58, j 

nisTonr o? scruylkill countt. 251 

number of Indians from both sides of the road ; upon 
which the wagoners left their wagons and ran iuio 
the woods, and the horses, frightened at the firing 
and terrible yelhng of the Indians, ran down a hill 
and broke one of tVie wagons to pieces. That the 
enemy killed George Zeislotf and his wife, a lad of 
twenty, a boy of twelve, also a girl of fourteen yenrs 
old, four of whom Ihey sealped. That another girl 
was shot in the neck, and through the mouth, and 
scalped, noiwillistanding all which she got otf. That 
a lioy was stabbed in three places, but the wounds 
were not thought to bo mortal. That they killed Im'O 
of the horses, and five are missing, with which it is 
thought the Indiruis carried otf the most valuable 
goods that wure in ihe wagon. 

Sometime in November, 1756, the Indians appeared 
again in this township, and carried otf the wile of 
and three children of Adam Burns — the youngest 
child was only four weuks old. In the month of June, 
1737, the Indians murdered one Adam Trump — they 
took Trump's wife and his son, a lad nineteen yeare 
old, prisoners; but the woman escaped, though upon 
her flying, she was so closely pursued by one of tho 
Indians, (of which ihere were seven,) that lie threw 
his tomahawk at Iier, and cut her badly in the neck. 
The instances of murder were both numerous and 
barbarous in this township. 

Manheim t'ownship is boiyided on the north by 
Norwegian township ; east by West Brunswick ; 
south by Berks count j,^ ; and west by Wayne towii- 
ship. The smface of the township is diversified; on 
the northern bomidary is the Sharp mountain ; the 
Blue mountain is along the south, and the Second 
mountain crosses the interval. The soil is principally 
good — naturally not very productive, though we nteet 
occasionally some tolerably well improved farms. Tlia 
township is pretty well v/atcred. The Schuylkill river 
v.inds lh,roLii|h the north-eastern portion of it, iuul 

■t^'^ ■ 


receives id its course the west branch of the Iii'linii 
I'un, which rises in tliis township, and flows i.orth- 
east along the south side of the Sharp mouiif;;in. 
'Panther creek rises also in this townshij), flowi.i;,'^ on 
eastern dirGction, and empties into the Sclniyllcill 
river, si^,: miles west of Orwigsburg; ]ieaver vAxck^ 
Long run, Eear creek, and some smaller streams. 

In 18 10, dji':! towaiship contained thirteen stoioy- 
four grist nulls, sixteen saw mills, one fnrnai:(% one 
forge, one powder mill, two tanneries. Po])ulation 
in 1820,2,104; iiM8;30, 2,160; in KS40, J.lll. 
Taxes assessed m J 8 1-1, for county })ar^>oses, i^^i/JOS 
75 ; state tax, $1)23 O.'i. 

Schxi(jlkill Ilavcn, a post village and boron^jli. irj- 
corporate!] in 18 1 1 . is situated on the left bank (M' d.e, 
Schuylkill rivi i, four miles below Pottsville, iujmedi- 
ately below the jmiciion of the West J5rancli, and 
about throe milns west of Orwigsburg. It w;is iuid 
out in 1829, by Mr. I). I. .Rhodes, and others. Tho 
West Branch railroad hero communicates wiili ihe 
Schuylkill Navigation, and the transhipment (T the 
■coal has iTeatoil considerable business in this ,11:1 -e, 
and contributed much to the growth of the ] 
Tiie town consists now of about eighty goou, and 
many small dwiilings, iive stores, live tavernn, two 
clun-ches — an []pi>iiiopal and a Methodist cbnich. 
There is also a (lennan Reformed church m ar it. 
The populaiioi. mnnbers about 1,000. Here is a 
weigh lock for cauiil boats, a grist mill and a, saw 
mill; two l)ridges across the river. 

The railroad company has just finished an exten- 
sive building, in the form of a cupola, 12G feet m di- 
ameter, and about 100 feet high. It is intended fur a 
"car de])ot." h u'lds nmch to the appearance of the 
town, which for fuieness of scenery can vie wuh 
towns of gre;ittr maanitude. " Fertile farms and very 
picturosqae scenciy surround the town, iied ihtl 
bright river iiere meanders among the broad mcadu ws 


as if delighted with being unrestrained by the rocky 
precipices of the coal region. 

"The West iiranch railroad brings in the products of 
many rich mhics. It has been constructed in a suh- 
stantiai manner, and of such dimensions that tlio 
heavy cars of the Heading railroad, with which it 
here hitersecls, njuy vun upon it." 

Branch loionshij) is bounded on the north-west by 
Barry township; north-east by Norwegian; soulh- 
etist by Wayuo, and souih-west by Lower ]SIahan 
tango. The siu'lace of this township is diversified; 
the soil a red shafe and gravel, is somewhat fruitful 
if carefully cnltivaK^d ; and sufticiently so, as to am- 
ply repay the J:d)or bestu wed upon it. The abim- 
dance of aiUfu'acite coal adds infinitely to tlie vahte ul 
this township. A considerable portion is classed 
among unseuted UnuLs. The several ridges of the 
JVIahonoy, and spurs of the Broad mountains, cover 
its surface. 'i'lic \Vest Branch of the Schuylkill 
flows through tins tuwnslup. In 18-10, it contained 
two grist mills, foiiricea saw mills, ciglit stores. In 
the same year, there were mined in this townsiiii), 
300,000 tons of anthracite coal. In 1844, there were 
mined a much larger quantity. The tax for county 
purposes in 1844, was !S>2;25G 59; state tax, i!S914 19 ; 
on unseated lands, for county purposes, ^377 36 ; state 
tax, $1.58 09. PopLdalion in 1840, 1,44^. 

Minersville, a post town, incorporated' int» a 
borough, April L, 1841, in Norwegian tov/nsbip, is 
beautifnlly situated, four miles north-west of Pott'*' 
ville, in a delightful valley, thi-ough which the ^S^esl 
Branch of the Schuylkill river meanders purlingly. It 
is a place' of considerable importance. The editoi 
of the Miner.i' Journal sri.ys, when siieakiiig of thij 
place, in December, 1830 : '' A little more than twelv;j 
moiitlis ago, die present site of the town dwelt in all 
tJie loneliness of uncultivated nature, since whicli u 
aspect hau undergone a wonderful change hi iuipro te 


meiits inu\ ]JOpalation. Along the margin of ihe 
town, tlie West Bianch Tail road extends, and termi^ 
nates at Sdiuylldll Haven, distance seven miles and 
■a halt" ficiii Miiieisville, aflbrding an easy and expe- 
ditions mode of transportation. Tlie principal stvccf, 
bears the name of Snnbury, on which are sitnated all 
the stoics aiicl pidjlic bnildings, It was fortneily tbc 
■old Sunbury road, comnunhcating with therith val- 
leys in the direction of the Susquehanna. The 
northern portion ol the village is firm dry soil, grad- 
ually rising and ulTording a southern exposure of 
favorable character for private dwellings, Seven 
large houses have already been erected during the 
present season on this .spot, by Messrs. Ikmict & Gil- 
more, together with a number of small buildings in 
the same qnaiter. Last spring there were Ijui .vix 
dwellings in all, since which there has been an in- 
•crease of forty -nine substantial houses."* 

At present tlie town consists of rising one Inuidred 
dwellings, many of which are commodious; .six 
taverns, nine siores, five churches; one Welsh Cal- 
vinistic, Welsb Haptist, Welsh New School Prisby- 
terian, ISIethoJist, and German Reformed and Lu- 
theran; a /louring mill, steam sawmill, foundeiy. car 
manufactory, and a number of warehouses. The lo;','U 
is surrounded by mines and coal hills, aboundnig in 
anthracite coal of good quality. 

The first machine lor breaking coal in this rouniy, 
was erected on Wolf creek, near tliis town, by Mr. 
Bast. ^Ve sa',>/ tliis machine at work, and it seein.s lo 
answer a good i)urpose, for it saves a vastamoinit (if 

Llewtlhjn, which it obtained from a Welsh njner, 
David Llewellyn, is a brisk village, on the West 
^^rancli of tlic Schuylkill, consisting of some fii'ty or 
sixty dwellings, three taverns and several stores. 
There is considearahle business done here. 

Tv/o miles and a half north-west from lh<; vhiiigc 

"J.Ia.ijva's Iv-'. l-'a., V^jI. vii. p. IG. 


is the tiiiin.?! of the New York company. 
It is driven into the Broad mountain, and wide 
enough I'or a doullo track of railroad. 

Loiver Mahantango iowmhip* is bounded on th< 
north by Upper Mahantango township ; on the north- 
east by liarry and Brancli townships ; south by Pine 
Grove; and south-west by J)auphin county. Tlie 
Maliantango mountain extends along its northern 
boiuidary, dividing this township from Upper Ma- 
hantango. The Ih-oad mountain crosses it from 
souiU-west to n(irtli-e[).st, and the Sharp mountahi 
runs on and near the southern line. The surface u 
diversified, mountainous, hilly and undulating; and 
portions of it very rugged and broken; a consideni- 
ble proportion is classed among "unseated land." 
Many of its valleys, for they are numerous, and hill 
sides are productive, having a soil of red shale— am- 
ply repaying ihelaboi- expended on its improvement. 
It is watered and drained by Long Pine creek, which 
crosses the township from east to west; Deep cruek 
and the Swatara from the southern part of the town- 
ship. In Deep creuk valley, anthracite coal abounds. 
In 1S40 it contained four stores, five grist mills, tliir- 
teen saw mills, two lanneries. Population in 18'JO. 
937 ; in 1830, 1,234 ; in 1840, 1,465. Taxes assessed 
in 1844, for county purposes, $1,384 36; state tax, 
$588 24. Taxes cu ujiseatvd lands — county tax, 
ig52S 34; state tax, *21 1 47. 

Barry toivnship is bounded on the north by Up- 
per Mahantango to v/iiship ; north-east by Norwegian • 
.south-east by Pranch ; and south-west by Lower 
Mahantango. The surface is hilly and mountainous 

»Since 1810, rr/icr ioumi/iip lias been erected, and is bounded 
on ;ht! east by Lower Mah;\nt:uigo ; south by Pine Uiove lowi- 
ship ; west by Daupliin county. Tlii«> township has nnicli "un- 
seated laud," the ta.': upon wiiich was, m 1814, :^-lI9 Hi). Tr.e 
county tax on re;>i ami pers..iif;l estate, besides on unsealed la:. 1, 
in !S4'l,was ;187 OG ; state tax, 1^87 ,50. 


The sovoral lidges ot' the Mahahony and spih;. of iK? 
]iroad mountain cover its surface, but theinterveniiig 
valleys have a soil of red shale and are tolerably 
productive. Much, however, of the land is classed 
among '■ unseated lands." 

In oiio of these valleys, to the south-east, ilowa 
i)eep creek into I-ong Phie creek, which also rises in 
this township. The Great Mahonoy and Littlu JVIa- 
honoy creeks, both considerable streams, liow througl) 
this lo'vnshipj tlie former rises in liush township, 
and liows west, soutli-west, along the south side of 
the JNIahonoy ridge, about fifty miles, and falls into 
the Susquchaima river, eleven nnles below Sunbury. 
About oue-li:ilf its course towards its mouth is in 
Nortlnunb(!ri;ind county. In 1840, it contained two 
stores, one forge, thrt^e grist mills, twenty-three saw 
mills. Population in 1830, 44:3-, hi 1840, (139. Taxts: 
levied in 1844, for county purposes, ^795 K> ; slate 
tax, $235 30 Taxes on unsealed /am/s, for Ccunt], 
purposes, $377 30 ; state tax, $158 OU. 

Fi?te Ciruvi: township is one of tlie south wesl-'it 
townships, and is bounded on the north by Toils 
townshij), erected since 1840 ; east by Wayne ; soutii 
by lierkscouniy; and west by Lebanon and Dauphiij 
counties. Tlie surlace of this township is gtiit rally 
very mountainous, though we meet with and 
there an inviting and fertile spot, rendered prudiictiv-:; 
by the pcrsovcring hand of industry, A considerable 
proportion is classed among " unseated lands." 

"This township is drained by the Swatara creek, 
whose branches traverse it in every direction. Along 
tlie main stream of the Swatara, which Hows on die 
north side of the lUue mountain, runs the navigable 
feeder of ilie Union canal, including the Groat J)ani 
Oi- Artilicia.l Lake, made by the Union Canal (Join- 
pany, in a narrow part of the gorge of the nuKmlaiu 
through which the creek passes. This grcc't worl: 
Bxtciidy across the pass, abutted by solid rocks, fo\;i 

HISTOUV or .•^ClfiJl'-LKILL COUNTY. 257 

liundred and thiny feet, oj id the water which is ar- 
rested, covers between seven and eight hundred acres. 
A towing jjath is constructed along the margin to the 
head of the pond, a distance of six miles, I'rom which 
■fjlace the canal has been contiiuied four miles to the 
village ot" Pine Grove, wliere basins have been made 
•to facilitate the coal trade." 

A gentleman, William liank, Esq.,* in a comnm- 
Tiication tu the wrjier, speaking of the Great J)am, 
says : •' The Union Canal Company erected a dam in 
the Swatara (ra]>, of innnense altitude, for a dam; 
forty-five leet, i.'; die lieiglit of it ! This dam inun- 
•dates about eight hundred acres of land; and the 
5)ond forms a coinpleie artiiicial lake, and proves, oc- 
casionally, a dealli place for some deer, which, to 
elude tlie chase of dcgs, take to the deep and are 
there taken. There ate still some deer in the moun- 
tains, not distant from the dam. Tiie way hunters 
manage to take deer is, to set their dogs in pursuit of 
them, and during the chase, some of the party of the 
hunters do take stations near and along the pond or 
lake ; when the deer n'c hotly i)ursued by the dogs, 
they make for the water, and thus are taken, in some 
leases alive, by the hunters. 

" The daril was constructed to serve as a reservoir, 
to feed the 'canal — it liceds feeding, for it consumes 
much to kee]) all its junctions moving— and afso to 
answer as a slack water navigation, for the distance 
of si-Y miles, towards Pine l^rove, and tlie coal region, 
Wiiat changes!" 

In 1840, it contained six stores, two furnaces, one 
forge, three grist mills, twelve saw mills. Population 
in 1820, 1,808, (Including part of Wayne;) in 1830, 
1,609 ; in 18 10, 1,G05. besides those of '' Pine Grove 
borough." Taxes assessed in 1844, i'oi county pur- 
poses,^ $1,42G 53 ; state tax^ $642 47. (For tho 
borough, $'3C>\ ;i,'.! ; S151 57.) Taxes on unseated 

•H-icry c r UeiK.~ dad Leb. tijri, p. S50, 

Q . ' ' ' 


lands, for (bounty purposes, $632 39; state tax on 
^auie,$25C 71. 

Fine Gnn'c, post town and borough of Pine (irove 
township, is a beautiful and busy j)lacc, situate ;u the 
base of tlie Bhic niountain, on the Swatara crcclc, 
about fiftetn miles v/est of the river SchuylkiU, and 
eighteen from PotlsviUe. It may be emi)hatically' 
termed a business place, for everyone in it appears 
to be eiuployed — " loafers and idlers are scarce/' 

"It is il'O principal shippiaig depot of the wostcni 
isection of the great anthracite coal basig, possessing 
facilities for transpovialion through the niedinin o( the 
Union canal, a branch of which extends ta this ])hu'i',,, 
and terminates in kisins made far boats, from which 
a railroad lead:i- to the coal region, and siiveral 
branches of it to, different coal mines, on l^arlierry 
creek, four or five miles from the town, by mens ol 
which coals arc coi|veyed to the shi])ping depot. 
Here the Inisy hum of active em,ployment, joined iu 
the rumbling ,0,1 the car wheels, and the rattlir.g of 
tlie arti<;lo, is unUxuled into. the boats, breaks 
pleasantly upt\n the ear through the quiet whi( li cu- 
velopes the dw(tdling, portion of the. borough."' 

The town haj several streets and about one hiui- 
dred dwellings ^ severyil large, commodious hotels, six 
or seven sto^^rj, a large (lerman Reformed and 
Lutheran church, an academy, several mills. 'J'here is 
also a forge contiguous, estal)li.shed since 1S28. He- 
fore the, commengement of the, coal trade, ibis region 
was sparsely iidiabited by a few scjtttered German 
farmers, and sqme lumbermen ; lor there was a time, 
not more than thirty years ago, when lumber and 
building ma tari:'4.3v,' ere bronglit, in great qnantuiv'^s 
down the Swatara, and landed at Jonestoun, ia 
Lebanon couuly, O'om which those of TulpehockLn, 
Muleback, and. otliers, were supplied ; but, sitico 
the tallies have, t\iriied, lumber of various kiads k 
Lirouglii uj) the canal from Portsmouth, on the Su^ 



qiiehanna, lo Pine Grove and intermediate places. 
These cliangcs have proved reverses to many. The 
future prosperiiy of tfjis place will depend much upon 
the faciUties afTordcd in tfan.sporting coal to market. 
Pine G).ove v/as incorporated, March 7, 1843. 
' Since the commencemont of the coal, business, a 
considerable (juantiiy of coal has been, shipped from 
Pine Grove; in 1837, 17,000 tons; in 1.-838, 13,000; 
in 1S3!J, ^30,6,59; in 1.840, 23,a<j0', in Ifi-tl^ 17,653.; 
in 1842, 33,331; in 1843,22,905; in 1844, 34,916; 
making an aggrugate, hi eight years, of 182,354 tons. 
If liie Union canal were widened so as to admit 
large boats, the quantity sliipped here would be ma- 
terially increa.:j' d. 

.Sivataraviilc^ near Pnie Grove, is a small village^ 
consisting of a few old looking dwellings. 

y Hush township is bounded on the northrwest by 
Union township ; north-east by. Carbon county ; south 
by West Penn townslii[/^; and south-west by Scliuyl- 
kill townshii). This, like other townships. in this re- 
gion, is co'C^ered to isome considerable extent with 
mountains and liigh hills, not yet thoroughly, explored, 
except the southern section, whichiabounds with coal 
mines. It is said that there is a salt spring hi this 
township, near tlie mouth of Panther. creek, a small 
tributary of the Little Schuylkill riv^r.- In 1820, this 
township contained only 253 inhabitants; in 1830, 
359; in 1840, 370. It contains several villages or 

Home, laid out son.e ten or fifteen years ago, by 
the Messrs. Duncan of Pliiladelphia, is situated in 
Locust valley, at tlie intersection of the Catawissa and 
lierwick road.--, " It is ^;aid to ])ossess advantages not 
common in this part of the country; to be surround- 
ed by good iarm land, having abundance.of limestone 
in the neigliborliood.'^ It consists of few houses. 

Patier!ion,n?.m(idi aftur ihird Patterson, Esq., is on 
Jh'.' ;■' :hnylkill valley railroad, about seven miles from 





queluinna, to Pine Grove and intermediate places. 
These cliangcs liave proved reverses to many. The 
future prospcriiy of t}4s place will depend much upon 
tiie facilities afforded in iransporiing coal to market. 
Pine Gjove was incorporated, March 7, 1843. 
' Since the commencement of the coal, business, a 
considerable quantiry of coal has been, shipped from 
Pine Grove; in 1837, 17,000 tons; in 1-838, 13,000; 
in lb3!J, iiO,6.39; in 1.840, 23,860; in 18-Uj, 17,653.; 
in 1842, 32,331; iu 1843,22,905; in 1844^ 34,916; 
making an aggregate, in eight years, of 182,354 tons, 
If tlie Union canal were widened so as to adnnt 
large boats, the quantity shipped here would be ma- 
terially increased. 

,SiuaiaraoiiL, near Pme Grove, is a small village, 
consisting of a few old looking dwellings. 

■ Hush township is bounded on the riorlhrwest by 
Union township ; north-east by. Carbon county ; south 
by West Penn townsliip.; and soutli-west by Sclmyl- 
kill township. Thi.s, like other towuships-m this re- 
gion, is covered to some considerable extent with 
mountains and high hills, not yet thoroughly.explored, 
except the southern section, which .abotmds with coal 
.mhies. It is said that there is a salt spring hi this 

township, near the mouth of Panther. creek, a small 
tributary of the Little Schuylkill riv^r; In 1820, this 
township contained only 25',^ inhabitants; in 1830, 
359; in 1840, 370. It contains several villages or 

■ Home, laid out some ten or fifteen years ago, by 
the Messrs. Dutican o{ Philadelphia, is situated in 
Locust valley, at the intersection of the Catawissa and 
lierwick road.s. " It is ';aid to ])ossess advantages not 
common in this part of the country; tobe surroimd- 
ed by good iarm land, having abundance.of limestoui 
iu the neighborhood.'^ It consists of few houses. 

P«//t?A9on, named after iiurd Patterson, Esq.^is oi: 
the :•' ^iuiylkii; valley railroad, about seven miles from 


Port Carbon, at the confluence of the Big creek wifh 
the Schuylldll river. It was laid out by Burd Pailcr- 
son, Swift and Porter, in 1830, and contains twenty 
dwelliiujs, two taverns. In tlie sunny days of this 
once bustling village, Messrs. llalsey & Ruunion 
erected a brewery, which has, however, been ;d)ai!- 
doned for some years. JNIiiiehill, abounding w.'.th ex- 
cellent anthracite coal, approaches the town, and no 
doubt will furnish the means of the future prosperity 
of the place. 

The first soUlenicnt made in the vicinity of tiii.> 
village, was by John Bushey, between 1785 and 1 790. 
Bushey afterwards sold it to Mr. John Seltzer. 

Tuscarorn, a post village, in Rush township, on tht 
north side of 'i'uscarora mountain, at the head waters 
of the Schuyll.ill river, and on the Shuylkill v;i!ley 
railroad, was laid out in 1830, by Joseph LyL-n. Ii 
is one of the Alladin lamp creations of the coal trade., 
and consists of twenty dwellings, nnich scattered, two 
taverns and one store. The principal part of the 
town, with a b.rge tract of land, is held by Stevenson. 
and Schuylkill company. Formerly it was chiefly 
inhabited by miners, who depended on the coal trade. 
Near the village is an extensive coal jnine, which ha.-. 
been v/iu-ked for nine years, by James Palmer, bu: 
at present it is not in operation. The village is loca- 
ted in a wild and barren country, and its futme pros- 
perity depends ni)on the success of coal business liere. 
The railroad terminates liere, eoimecting with Port 
Carbon. Some ten years ago. Bell & Son, erceied a 
large commodious frame building, which was orcu- 
pied several years as a hotel; but owing to a change 
of times, it lias not l)een occupied as such for the last 
six years. The first settlers in and about Tn-;carora. 
, were George Raber, Jacob Ladig, Peter Ladig ai'd 
Henry Schcll. l\Ir. Raber resided lor many year.^, 
one mile Av^est of Tuscarora, where he had;.sf:i> 
an improvement made by George Freheio,si.\iy yca^s 


ago. Rheiuhard, Korslier, and Fries, were early set- 
tlors east ot'Tuscarora. 

Tamaqua, a i^jst town and village, laid out by the 
Lehigli Coal aiui Navi^ailion Company, ui 1829, is sit- 
uated ill a dell, ])et\veon the Sharp and Locust moun- 
tains, where scarcely ground enough was found for 
«;. sites for houses and gnrdrns hy scraping away the 
": rocks that incumbered it. It is on the Tamaqua, or 
Little Schuylkill river, seven miles fiom where it 
rises, and seventeen above its junction with the main 
streani, and fifletu fi-onk Pottsville. At present it is 
(juite a brink place. Like many of the coat tuivns, 
the houses are not built hard by each other — rather 
ill straggling ch'sters, numbering in all one hundred 
and tbirty dwellings; sonu of which are substantially 
built. It contains six taverns, four stores ; formerly 
also a brewery, one Catholic church, one Episcopal, 
one German Reformed and Lutheran; a car and coach 
manufactory. Population 500. 

, The inhabitants mainly depend on the coal trade ; 
for anthracite coal is abundant here, fownd hi large 
veins, and o( excellent quality. The coal lands in the 
vicinity, are principally owned by the Lehigh Coal 
Company. The coal mines worked here are above 
water level. The veins of coal are alpliabetically 
enumerated; several of them have been successfully 
mined. Vein D, on ilie east side of the Little Schuyl- 
kill, or Tamaqua river, lias a drift into it, of 3,300 feet 
in length, from which one hundred tons of coal are 
daily taken. From tlie same vein, on the west side 
of the river, fifty or sixty tons are daily taken out. 
Both worked by the Little Schuylkill Company. Vein 
E, on east side of Taniaqjra, has a drift of 2,200 feet, 
out of which one hundred and forty tons are daily 
taken. Vein E, lins not been worked on the west 
side. Vehi F, has a drift of 2,300 ftet, worked on the 
ea,st and w.;ot. Vein E and F are worked by Mi, 
Parter. \^\m A, B, and C, higher up Taniaqua, 
hav ' i.\ol yet bet:ii opened. Veins 0, P, Q, and l( , 

262 iiisTORY or schuylkill county. 

are south of tl-e village. Q is the only one worked 
There is a railroad from Port Clinton to ']'ania(iua. 
It is said tu be the best in these regions, and so n-'arly 
level, that the iiorses whieli drag tlie car, go up i:. [U 
the rate oi' ten miles an hour. From the winihng 
course oi' die river, it was found necessary, in the con- 
struction of this railroad, to cross the Taniaqua river 
several times, v/iiich is done on covered bridges. 

Those Avlio delight in mountain scenery, will be 
fully gratifi:d in a ride on this railroad, which ruiu lis 
whole distance liy the side, or in the neighborlund of 
hills, lifting then- tree-crowned summits high inlc ti'L 
clouas. I 

Acontinuatiou of this railroad from Tamatiua, U\ ] 

connect with iho Quakahe and Crfttawissa railroad. i 

has been projected, hut never made. A stage read | 

connects Tanuujna ^v'ith Mauch Cliunk railrujid, five ', 

miles east at the Suiunut Mines, and with the Sd.iiyi-- I 

kill valley railroad, four miks west, at Tuscaroa. | 


Sckiii//kill tcumship is one of the -central;- \ 
ships of this coiuily, and is ibounded on the iionh 
west by Union 'township ; north-east by IJusli and 
West Penn; so'.ith by East Brunswick and Wcit 
Brunswick ; soiuh-west by Manheim and Norwe- 
gian towiishijis, 'It tomprehends a ricli section iA the 

coal region, ha '.nig within it the Sharp mouniainj ] 

Mine hill, or Locust mountain, the Bi'oad movmtain ^ 

and the Alahonoy mountain, in all of which anthra- \ 

cite coal aboiuuls ; it embraces the greater portion of J 

the Schuylkill A'allty Railroad, along whicli a vast \ 

mmiber of minea have been opened. (See descrij tion 1 

below, of Schr.ylkill valley.) The Cattawissa cr::-ak ; 

crosses the northurn section of the townsliip, where it I 

is navigable for canoes; and the Great and Littlii M\\~ > 

honoy creeks 'cross it ««uth-'\vestwardly; and smuiIi oI i 

the Sharp mountain, 'ilambling creek flowt i;i llie * 

same direction towards the Schuylkill, below .Mi»v.hi | 

Carb:))!. It contains the villages of Middlepoil, Greeji- | 


MISTOr.y 01^ ^.cnUYI-KILL COUNTY. 263 

field, Louisbuig, Paiterson, Bell Forest, Five Point 
Mines, Cumbulb, New Philadelphia, &c. 

•The roads iVom M'KeansLurg to Cattawissa and 
Sunhury, pass through the township. The surface 
of the country is mountainous; the soil chietly of 
white gravel, alternating with red shale, and gener- 
ally sterile; a ' considerable portion of it is classed 
i i among '* unseated lands.'' 
■• Louisburg, a small village, on the road from 

M'Keanshurg to Cattawissa, about eight miles north- 
west 0*1 Orwig.sburg. Ii consists of ftve or sixdwell- 
• ingsS, one tavern nnd a store. 

Tins township liad, in 1840, two grist mills, nine 
• saw niihs and four stores Population in 1820, 540 ; 
in ISJO, 1,200; in ISiO, 1,:334 ; dt present, (1845,) 
rising 1,500. The Taxes assessed for 1844, amounted 
to, for county purposes, $1,877 GO; state purposes, 
1^743 83. Taxes on miseated lands — county tax, 
^184 45 ; state tax, ^::73 76. 

Here is inserted a description o{ Schuylkill valley, 
&.C., written twelve Y<;ars ago, since which time, im- 
/portant ciiangcs have been made. It is principally 
irom Hazard's l(egi:?[er: 

" This valley is narrow, and lies between the Sharp 
mountain and iMine hill, and commencing near Potts- 
ville, runs eastwardly about thirteen miles, liotl) 
sides of the valley abound with excellent anthracite 
coal. The river HchiiylkilL, which is here but a creek, 
has its course from its primal fountain, through this 
valley; and the valuable mines arc approached by 
the railroad that fullinvs the banks, which are nearly 
jiarallel with the ducctiun of the coal strata. Deep 
ravines extend Irom the road northward, to Mine hill, 
through which comm.jnly, a small stream of water 
runs, cutting the veins transversely, so that they can 
be advantageously v/oiked above the -water level. abinit tv/'o miles above Por-t C>arbon, at die 
mouth of Zaciiariah's run, otre the " I^ioe Point 
Midcs,''' wl;ich are very extensive, and produce iirf.'l 

264 iriSTOur of schuylkill county. 

rate coal. Along the run a lateral railroad may It 
made cc^umianicaiiug with many valuable coal beds. 
One mile above Bolton Cm-ry's mine, is the " Bopp 
Tract'' owned by Messrs. Hubley. Indian nm di- 
vides this tract, along which a lateral road moy be 
also made to mines of approved quality. The next, 
upon the river, is the " Barloio and Evans Traf^tP 
near the mouth of Silver creek, ibur miles above Port 
Carbon. This stream passes through Mine hill, and 
gives access to the large and valuable tracts of Messrs. 
Burd Paltxjison, Geissenheimer and others, rjn the 
Glenworth; and Valley Furnace tracts, is auodier 
lateral road, a mile abo«e which is another stieLun, 
running ihrough the Valley Furnace propeny, up 
which a lateral rt^ail has also b^en made to sonii:; \ 
five mines. Above this lies Middleport, a new pqst \ 
town, at thiS conlluence of the Kaskawilliam creek | 
with the Schuylkill siver. Up this stream, laterals \ 
have beeii made to the Mine hill, by the })roprietors \ 
of the land known as the " Jacob. Stahl^^ " Oliugci-,'' \ 
and " Bushtij Traof.s;" on eaoh of which, open j 
ings have been made into beds of ooal of good (piahjy. . 
The next lateral road is up Laurel creek, to the I)e- j 
long collieries, owned by Mr. ].auton, and Llighr, | 
Wallace, ^ Co. One mile above this, is the tou n oi 
Pattersoii, by Messrs. Bmxi Patterson, Swift | 
& Porter. Big creek, which penetrates the Mine hill,. | 
and divides, tlie coal strata advantageously, passes j 
through tlus phice. The river road and iSIiivj tnl!, j 
are much nearer to each other, than below, liaviiig \ 
gradually converged from a mile above Port Carbon. j 
As the road follows the course of the river, at ninny j 
of the bends it intersects the veins transversely, for j 
they range inyaaahly seventeen degrees north o\[ east. , 
Tills circunjstauce is \v;orihy of notice, as it sianvs j 
that the coa.1 is by nft, means cwifmed to the north. ; 
side of the river ;. and there am on the si^.nib side 
several nup tracts, as at MiddUport, the \ aiuablfi 
properly of Messrs. Ropb and David Winebrenhpv. 
cf Philadelphia, knuwu, as the ''-Jacob LaclivJ' upjI 


part ef tliat owmul liv Messrs. Porter, Enierick, and 
Kom, called iho " Hkster Tract:' Next above Pat. 
terson, lies the " Petur Ladii( Tract" of Mr. Biddle, 
and the '' Jiab-r Tract,'' owned hythe same geutle- 
lUan, and Mr, EdwDi Swilt. These are rich in coal,. 
and advantageously siaialed. Pebble run divides the 
Slrata finely lor mining operations, about a mile and 
a half above Big creek. It passes over '' Jiaber 
jyacty" and divides Mine hill, here called " Locust 
mountain:' Next to d.e " liaber Tract" is the 
« Tuscarora Tract'' of Mr. William Lawton, Blight, 
Wallace & Co.- -a hu jie t.aet. The next tract above 
this, is also a large one, belonging to Jose])h Lyons 
and Jacob Alter. Tlie river risers from tlie springs 
of this tract, which divide the ground advantageously 
for mining. The veins which we have just noticed, 
are said to have four hundred breast above the water 

Union township v.^ iii the north-eastern part of the 
county, and is bound. -d us follows : On the north by 
Luzerne co\m(y ; .sonUi-east and souih l)y Rush and 
Schuylkill townshi[)s ; west and north-west by Colum 
bia comity. This lowiiship is mostly covered with 
mountahis, and higli vugged hills ; and until late had 
been but little explored, except die southern portions 
of it. A considerable proportion of it is classed 
among unsealed lands. It is bul si)arsely populated. 
\\\ 1;8 10, it contained !»()() inhabitants. The county tax 
assessed in 18 11, on veal estate and personal property, 
amounted to $(i 10 71) ; for state purposes, i^30S 85. 

Upper Mahantar.g() towns/iip, a north-w^estern 
township, is b(mud(;d on the nortli and north-west by 
Norlhiunberlimd couiily; east by Norwegian town- 
ship ; south by Barry and Lower Mahantango town- 
ships ; on tliu" Y/est by Dauphin county. The surface 
is hilly— it is a '■ congr'/gation of hills;" having the 
Mahonoy rnnuutrtiu on the north,, and Mahantan;iv->. 
i),, the soiUh. ft is watered iJ);incipally by tv/o, 


braiiche.. uf the iMalmntango creek, flowing v/cst-- ij 

wardly Uivoddi il ; after uniting, they (low onward ^ 

for ei'^htroii or twerily miles, into the ?.;^ 

river,°ahout twenty five miles above Ilarrisbing. fhe U 

soil is red shale and white gravel ; the Ibrmer i:s bUf^ |;, 

ceptible 01' improveiuent ; but the latter reciuues n:ore .| 

labor to bo bestowi^d upon to make it yield, than wiU U 

repay the iuisbnndman. A portion of it is classed y. 

among •' an.soated lands." 'i 

The poi>!iU:ti"ii ill 1820, was SG3; in 1830, l,,150j f 

in 1840, I, Jill. 1i.'! taxes assessed for 1844, were, | 

for comilv' pi .i'"^-' s ^^^'-^-^ ^- ' ^^^^^ *'*^' *^~''- ^^ ! « 
on unseated la.uls— county tax, $21 85; stale VuK, 
$8 75. Tii 1^ 1), it contained eight grist milb., eight 
saw mills, fivi' Ujri:., antL one distillery. 

Ziinnicrnui.tdairn, is a small chister of 'houses in 
the northoru I'urt uf the township. It contains a stjre 
and tavern. 

JVaijne towvahip is bounde-d on the norili by 

Brancii township; east by Manheim township; icrth | 

by lierks couuiy; and on the West by Pine (iiove i 

township. A uTcat pro])ortion of this towntihip is \ 

mountanioiK uod hdly ; soil gravel, though consiciera- •' 

bly impruved, ii is watered by several small streams, J 

tributaries of ii!<! Swatara creek and the Schuylkill j 

nvcr, alTorchn;^ ndl! seats for a number of grist mills j 

and some twt;hiy-iive saw nulls. Poi)ulation hi ISlO, | 

l,62l!' Taxes f.a- ks44— county tax, Sl,513 25 ; state \ 

fax, ^*GC5 4 7. Taxrs on " unseated lands"— cevmly | 

tax, 5S01 89; state lax, $24 82. | 

Friedensbur-; a ])ost village, nine miles from Pino ^ 

Grove, and W: r. from Schuylkill Haven, consrsting oi | 

some fii'iion ir . iulit.^cn dwellings, two taven.s and | 

one sturo. The an rounding country is i)retty well l 

improvitd. AL^ricallnre receives considerabk lUien- | 

tion. Lini'-,;is a manure, is beginning to be us.jd. Its ^ 

application rewrads the farmer amply, j 

'i "iie fi V. j'cahering hihabitants of tiiis rui,ion ol 



country in 1755 to 17G3, were greatly alarmed on 
account of the iiamerous murders commiltd by tlie 
savage Indians. The greater part, or all, had lied 
from their plantauons iato the more southern parts of 
Berks county. In Gctober, 1755, the Indians were 
traversing this region of country, and committed 
several murders under circumstances of much cruelty. 
Mr. W. Parsons addressed a letter to the Kev. Kintz, 
dated October, 1755. as follows: 

"This morning, very early, between four and five 
o'clock, Adam li^cs, i.n iulial)itant over tlie first 
mountain, about six inilus from Lawrance Hant'."; 
house, who lives on this side of the mountain, came; 
to my house, and declared that yesterday, between 
eleven and twelve o'clock, he heard three ^uns fired 
toward the ])lanlation of his neighbor, Henry Ilart- 
man, which made bin. suspect that something more 
than ordinary had ha])pen( d there. Whereupon he 
took his gun and went over to llartman's house, be- 
ing about a quarter of a mile oil', and I'ouiid him lying 
(lead upon his face ; hi-, head was scalped ; but saw 
no body else. He made, thereuiion, the best of his 
way through the wouls, to ihe inhabitants on this 
side of the mountain, to inform them of what had 

'In another letter to Adam Heed, Mr. Parsons says : 

Sir : — I wroie you yesterday, that I intended to bo 
with you at the unhappy place, where Henry Hart- 
man was murdered, but when I got to the top of the 
mountain, 1 met some meii, who said they had seen 
two men lying dead and scalped, in the Shamokiu 
road, about two or three niileb from the place where 
we were; wherefore, we altered our course, being 
twenty-six in nuriiber, and went to the place, and 
found the two men lying dead, about three hundred 
yards from eai.h oilier, and all the skin scal})ed oil 
their heads. 

»P-;niicialit;curJ;:, N. p. 258. 



We goi a yiubbiiii^ hoe and spade, and dug a ^lave 
as well ciji WL! could, llie ground being very stony,, 
and bniied tlicm both in one grave, without tiiking 
off their clothes or examining at all their wounds j 
only we saw that a bullet had gone through the leg 
of one of ihcni. I thuiight it best to. bury them, tQ. 
prevent iheir bodies fiom b<eing torn to piecesj by 
wild beasts. One of the inevi had a daughter witli 
him that is yet missing; and the other man had i\ 
wife, and Ihnx: or fuur ehildren, thai are also miss- 

I shall be obliged to. nutm-n home m a day or two, 
but hope to see you sometime about Christmas, an4 
to find uiy unhappy countrymen souaewhat relieved 
from this clisu-e:;sed (•ondilion. I can't helj) ihiiikiiig 
that it would be well W^i' a good number of ibe in- 
habitants to go next Monday, and' help to being ibo 
pooir people''s grain and com to this side of the muhiu- 
tain — it will help to maintain them, which wc must 
do, if they can't maintain themselves; and 'tis very 
likely those baibarous Indians will set fue l( . aiid 
buru all, d"it \)r not soon secured.* 

1 am, Sij:, your very humble servant, 


PVest Bruhsunck toivn.ship is biDunded on the i 
by Schuylkill township; east by East limns a 
south by ]icrksfX)uuty ; and west by Manheim u 
ship. The siuiace is diversified; mountainous 1 
and a small pei:tK)n of it is level. It has the 
mountain on the south, and the Second mountai 
the north; and the intermediate portion is diver:; 
by many hills, of which the Little mountain is a 
The soil is rod shale ami white gravel. All aloi 
lioxth side of the Ulue mountain, is a belt of red 
succeeded by a tllu limestone formation, .i 
siderabje portion of which occurs near Orwi;::' 
This township is preuy well watered.. Puie 'o 

ick ; 
n on 
i die 
',■!■ i:? 


Uecods.IN. i!.i:5g.. 


■; w 


the principal stream llowing through this township, 
in a south-wesleni direciion— it falls into the Schuyl- 
kill river six waI;^ below Schuylkill Haven. 'Plicre are 
several mills on ii. There are siill some lands in this 
township classed among '-unseated lands." The 
taxes assessed in Iblt, tor county purposes, amounteii 
to, exclusive of Orwigsburg, *l,434 3'3 ; for stale pur- 
poses, S626 2S, Populalion in 1810, 1,701. Be- 
sides Orwigsbarg. tbere are several small villages in 
the tuwnsbip. 

Okwigsi5u)u>, post town, borough and seat of jus- 
lice of Schuylkill county, stands on a rising ground, 
■ near a small stream,* wliieh Hows into the Schuyl- 
kill river. It was laid out by Peter Orwig, in \19U, 
but was not mucli settled till after 1811, when 
• Schuylkill county was separated trom Berks, when jt 
was made the county seat, and incorporated, Marcli 
, 12th, 1813. 

The valley in whirh this town lies, is surroundcit 
by lofty and beautiful hills, wliich admit of cultiva- 
tion to their very summits. The lands, though much 
broken, are well cultivated, and very productive. 
The town consists of about two hundred dwellings, 
many of which arc tln\-o story, and of brick, con- 
venient and handsome. The court house and public 
dfices are of brick; the former, a large substantial 
building, surmounted by a cupola, and the aca(lemy 
is a spa^cious building, also with a cupola. _ Tliis insti- 
tution was incorporated in 181 3, and received a dona- 
lion of $2,000 from the state ; four public scliool.v. 
There are S(;veral hne churches here, viz: Tlie 
Lutberan, which is. a spacious building; the German 
Reformed, the corner stone of which was laid, AugU'^i 
2yth, 1831, and llie oi.r held by the -Church oi 

*'l'raduioii has it, ihat ai ih:- junction of llie little creek wli'ci! 
runs arouni Orvvigsburij wiih the Scluiyilull, was once a. ecu- 
j.idi-rableliulif\n town, on or near Scollop Hill. 'I'liu lunnel ol uu: 
<.aui.l pa-iscs ihvougli tins hill. 

370 iiisTony of schuylkill county. 

God," and one by tlie Evangelical Association ; ^:t 
stores, and four taverns, one printing oUice, is.juing a 
weekly paper called Die St'unmedes Votks. The 
population of the town was, in 1820, GOO; in 1830, 
773 ; in 1810. 779 •, at present (1844,) rising 800. 

The tain[ukc leading from Heading to Pottsviile, 
on to Sanbnry, passes through here. The town is 
tv\^enty-six miles from Reading, and eight south-eost 
of Pottsvihe. 

McKeansburg is a brisk post village, four nulcg 
north-east of Ovwigsburg, contains about thirty dwell- 
iijiifs, two stores and, several taverns. 
. ^Landisvillc, on the Reading railroad, tAVu miks 
from Orwigsburg, contains some thirty dwellings, 
two stores and two taverns, and public school houses. 

". Went Perm township is in the north-eastern pavx 
of the county, and is bounded on the north by Rush 
township ; noith-east by Carbon county ; sout'a-east 
by Lehigh county ; south and south-west by East 
Jhunswick to.vnship. The surface is hilly, the soil 
gravelly, and n^iturally not very productive—raiher 
sterile. A considerable proportion of the land is 
classed among "unseated lands." The Taniaqua, 
or Little Schuylkill river, drahis it;onthe nor<h-west, 
which riocs in Rush township, and near thu boundary 
of Norltiamptoii county, and at the foot of the .Spring 
mountain, and by a devious, but southward course, 
joins the mail; stream or Schuylkill at Port Clmton, 
on the north side of the Kittatinny or Jilue mountain, ^ 
receiving nuuiy small tributaries. Along the valley j 
of this stream is a railroad from Port' Clinton lo Tu \ 
maqua, a posi village in Rush townshii». Lizard j 
creek and Mahoning creeks rise in this township, j 
ruiinin;: castwardly and emptying into the J^ejiigh *, 
nvei. Those sircanis allbrd considerable watei power. i 
Tiie coal hills of Mauch Chunk and Tuscaroi:' moun- * 
lams give it a high value. It aboimds with anthracite 
coal. It contains several inills — a Oerman R'^.forro 
.iiid Liuheraii Chi'Tch. 



The inliabitaiUs of tliis townsliip, on the southern 
border, were, in 1155-56, and later, mucli exposed 
lo Indian depradaiians. [See East lirunswick town- 
sliip.] The population of 1830, was 1,379 ; in 184(>, 
1,230. Taxes assessed hi 1S44, for county purposes, 
181,074 G3-, state' tax, ^15G 63; on unseated lands, 
county ia:i, $201 4t ; state tax, $81 73. 

Norwegian township is one of the norihern town- 
ships, and is boiuidod ou tlio north by IJroad moun- 
tain ; north-oast by S(MiuyilsiH townsliip; south by 
Mauheiin; soulli-wrsi by liranch and l?arry, and 
west by Upper Mahantango township. This town- 
ship, though covered with mountains and hills, and 
containing little arable land of good (piidity, 13 one of 
the inost important ones in Sebnylkill county, if not 
in the state, and has been iho principal scene of won- 
drous improvenv.'i its, of which Potlsvilleis the centrc% 

;. The Sharp mountain, tb(! southern boundary of 
the anthracite coal Ibrmation of Pennsylvania, ibrms 
its soulliern line, and the norlh is marked by 15road 
mountain. The main branch of the Schuylkill river 
enters it from the north-east, and receives Mill creek 
and two branches of the Norwegian creek. The 
West Branch, and tlio west-west branch of the 
Schuylkill, enter U from, the north and west, all of 
which give ready accjess tollie veins of coal, by the 
facilities which theif valleys aiibrd (or the construction 
of railroads and penetration of the hills. The main 
river has two dams, wiih canals in the township :* 
the ftrst forms the basin at Mount Carbon and Potts- 
ville, and the other the basin at Port Carbon. A 
railroad follows the main stream from the latter place 
to its source — another on M:ll creek, which extends 
about four miles, and. a third on the two branches o[ 
the Norwegian. The latter is known as the Mount 
Carbon railroad. Oh the West, and West-West, 

Mlaz-j. I's Vvi2. afl'a. for 183i.. 



Branch, a fiji.rih jailroad penetrates the liiocd ^ •, 

Tliere are several towns and villages in this town- 
ship, noticivl below. 

PoTTSviLi.K AND ViciNiTY. Before 1790, there 
nvere,coiriiuualively si)eaking, lew settlers north oflhe 
Blue, or l^ittatiuny monnlain, within the limils of 
Schuylkill cnutniy, except in the valley south of the 
Second fiiuu'.mnn. About the year 1795, or '9G, IWo 
individuals, Lewis Reese and Isaac Thomas, yeUled 
DU the north of tije well known ^^ Schneid Berg,'^ i. e. 
Sharp mouniaui, in the Schuylkill Gap. Ilavii;^ 
purchased a tract of land, and erected a small furnace; 
carrying it on for some time^ they sold it in lb06; to 
■Jokn Polt, of District township, Berks count}/ 

Mr. Pott tore down the furnace, and erected in it2 
stead, rireenwood forge, the remains of which :i re siill 
visible. In 1 807, ho built Greenwood furnace, whicii 

was successfuliy in operation till 1827, the liiiie of J 

•John Pott's death; then it passod into the ha..ds of j 

Benjamin Potf, sou of the ileceased,and since th rough i 

several hands. That furnace is, however, no more, 'i 

The Greenwood liasin occupies the site &( tlie old » 

furance. W^hcii Reese and Thomas erected the fur \ 


••John I'oii's I'aihcr, Wilhelm Pott, tame to America, ii 1731. | 

"We find Ills luirr.e, among others, noticed in the lollo'\'ii.g re- | 

cords : I 

Ai the court hjuse of Philadelphia, September 12th, 1731, i 

I. present, the Honoiubie ihe Lieuitnant Governor, the Mayor of the J 

city, and others of the Magistracy — eighty-nine Palatines, who, | 

>Arith their families, uuiking in all two hundred and sixiy-ons f 

persons, were imported here in the ship Saint Andrew, John j 

Stedman, Master, fro'ni lloiierdam, l)ut last from Plymouth, is by ) 

clearance from thence, this day look and subscribed the etfectol i 

the government calhs, and also the declaration jirescribed by the ' 

order of council of the "Zlst of September, 1727. 1 

On his arrival, Wiihclm Pott settled first at (jermam uv;i, iliea 'j 

ill Berks ccnniy, ■where John Poll was born. John marrisd a } 

Miss Lcsher, cJ Oley, v/ith whom he had several sons, /iz : Jchn, ] 
benjamin, Jame^, Abiaham, William and Jacob; three Ol .vhom 
•arc sitli living: John, Benjamiu and Abraham. 


lILSTOiiY Oi-' sriiUVLKILL COUNTV. 27:3 

ttace, tlicy, as is comniou erected a number of small 
houses lor '• liie \\:\\\i\s at work," and were occupied 
by soiae eiglu (It- rnor;) lliiiiilies ; the heads of tliesc 
vyrere Jolni l^lsc, H'.'iny JJoltoii, Daniel Focht, tlje 
vlerli; Tlionms Sv/iiy(;r, Antliony Scliott, George 
Frievie and (icorirc Ueihu;r; these all lived at the 
furnace before' M\\ Poll moved ids family liere ; he 
Lad erected all iiic-^i Iciiaut houses, before 1809. 

liesides Mr. Pott, the followuii'- were among the 
first, or pioneer Miltlers— Henry McClattery, and one 
Newscliwamler sealed a short distance west of Pott's, 
at the pluct; knovvu as JNIount Carbon. Michael 
Jioechtel had settled on the iarm tiow owned by 
Cary, Lee &: Hart, ol' Philadeli)hia. About one-Iirdl 
mile fiirtlier \ve.,t, lived Jacob Yoe. At the present 
site of Minersville, livtal 'J'homas Reed and Isaac 
Reed. Three luiles north of Pott's, John Boyerhad 
-ictUed, at the well Known place called "Flowing 
Field r some lour niiles north of this lived the well 
known Nicho Allen, ai the Big Spring on the summit 
xjf the Broad mmnnain. His residence was known as 
llio *' lilack- Cd/ii/i." I'wo Hides north-e;ist of Pott's, 
lived Peter Newsehv. aiider, John Hughs, Philip Uil- 
eomp, Solomon Keep. Jacob Keep, Peter Keep, Geo. 
Keep, Comad Keim and John Keim. At the present 
J'ort Carbon, several lannlies had settled; these were 
Mr. Stit'/el, knov.-n m his day as " iJer Zimmeriyian,'- 
i. e., the carpenter; Shadrack Lord, father of Mr. 
Lord at Baylidl. Shadrar.k had setded on Eagle hill. 
These families, with Mr. Pott, were the pioneer sel- 
lers of this portion of the anthracite region. 

Other tlian the nalaral increase of the population 
was slow — litil.' (U- no accession prior to ISlOor 1811. 
I U was some ciLdu or ten years after the discovery ol 
\ -cnal, before th's ])lac'; attracted much attention. Tlie 
*> first coal discvirr-d hen!, was, according to the state 
ment of Abiahan. P.>it,^on of John, hi 1807,* whei. 

•Ol) ox:uninir,p a opy of .Sl-uH's Map of the Province .i 
J'coi ' Ivauia, imbhshoa jn 17 TO, I see 'Uualmurk" norlhof ih: 


.274 nisroKY ;ik Schuylkill countt. 



Uie tbuudatiou iur Ureeiiwood furnaco- was diii^, in 
digging w'liicb, a viuii af coal was found; and in dig- 
ging the foundation ef Pott's- grist mill, in ISl-Oyia 
vein of nine feet tliick was struck, and now success- 
fully worked by Mr. Joseph Ikddle ;■ but its use and 
value was not tiien. known and Inlly a]iprecialecl 
After the indeiatigablo efforts of Doctor JNlcFarland, 
.'i scienlilic gentleman, to bring the coal here into 
notice, wiio had opened a vein on the '• York Farm," p 
in 1811. ten miles west of Greenwood furnace, anJ 
the laying out of Pottsviile, by John Pott, in 181C, 
this place increasL.d rai»idly, and soon a consiiluraOiG T. 
town grew up in the forest. The ground or town 1 
plot was surveyedand laid'otf for the pioprielor; by | 
llenry DonncU, wha^was also among the first tc cveci f 
a house. William Caslcy, Joseph Leckey and (lc( . ^ 
Dengler also, e.ich of thorn, put up dwellings here, \ 
shortly after Pottsviile was laid out. 

About this time, or shortly aiterv/.ards, in lbl8, 
Mr. Jacob Reed opened a vein of coals at JMiners^ 
ville. From this time onward speculators, and a 
conscquuul tid .- o\ inunigpation, tended to this region 
of country. Pottsviile formed the nucleus of a dense 
settlement — "an oppidan settlement," {oi it is sur- 
rounded by tovrns, hamlets .ajid villages. 

John Pott, son of John Patt, deceased, erected a 
distillery about the year 1819. Lewis Eberi bniit a 
house the same year. Prom 1820 to 1834^ a num- 
ber of persons settled here ; among others of enter- | 
prize, was Col. Geoige Shoic'maker^ who had,a.s e;;riy I 
as 1813, openeil the Spohn vein- of coal, began to j 
build in Pottsviile. Vwm 18,24, the growth :^t die i 
town was.rapid.and tlie improvemquts in the vicii.ity | 
correspondent v/ith die town — both unjirecedei'ted in | 
the history of tii'; country; for, in lg2|J, the house. J 

'I'u-icaroir. maiir.tain, im north-east of. Reed's, npt m..i:y inilei 
from the Wcluiyhrill Gup, within the then limits or li >unds ci 
RerUs couf.iy. See also the First Annual Report of Ihc C\al 
Mittini, A'iwruttion of Kfchuyikill County, in subsequ'MJl /'agt, 
Oliap. Hi. 


since known as ihc irhite Horse tavern, was kept by 
Mr. Jului Pott, the proprielor, and who owned land 
iii the vicinily, us a sort of watering place for the 
stages on the Suubury road. In 1824, we hear of 
five scattered d\'/elH>igs in the vichiity. Tlie causes 
which led to the inllux of miners and speculators 
about the year 1S25, liave been stated above— the 
town was soon laid out—or rather several towns 
were started— for each prominent adventurer had his 
favorit\j location, and as each successive arrival of 
greedy adventurers tended to fan the llame of specu- 
lation, town lots and coal tracts (some with coal, and, 
many whose coal a^^is but imaginary,) doubled, 
trihled and quadrupled in value, and passed Irom 
hand to hand like currency. Houses were rapidly 
constructoil to accommodate the inmiense crowds that 
came to search for lots and lands, and in 1828, we 
hear of several excellent stone houses and stores, 
others of brick and frame, a weekly newspaper— TAe 
Miners' Jtnirnal—d. rending room, hotels,6ic. Messrs. 
John and Hetijamin roil had, as said above, erected 
Greenwood furnace and lV,ige,and were making non 
from 01^3 obtained bebw the Blue mountam. The 
next year, Clinton Row, ox Mahantango street, and 
another row of houses, were erected; and such was- 
the activity in buildin;!, that it became necessary to. 
send to Philadelphia foi- lumber, to use in a region that 
hitherto had exported little else than lumber and coal. 
A daily stage to Philadelphia was also established m 
tliatyear, and a trip of fourteen hours was cracked 
up as something remurkable. A dozen little towns 
had already risen around I'ottsville; Railroads also 
be^n\n to be introduced, imparting a new hnpctus to 
the°coal trade. The Scluvyikill valley, the Mill creek, 
and the Mount Carbon nuhoads were started m tliat 

The following extracts fioini the Miners' Journal 
for 1829, will atlbrd an idoa of the rapid rise of coal 
knl ; >'Five years apo the Pl'acock trade of coar. 


land, belonging to the New York and Schuylkill (.ci-.i 
Company, wos purchased by them for the sum of 
$9,000. Last v/cek it was sold, and bought hi by 
the original seller, for the sum of $42,000 The 
present owner, we understand, would not di.s[!Ose o.( 
it for $70,000." 

The folio v/ing shows the condition of Pottsville. ii: 

"We are," says the editor of the Miners^ Jouriml, 
"sadly in want of mechanics here. A lialf i dozen 
good master blacksmiths, with three or more joarney- 
men each, would fmd plenty of business. TliC horse 
shoeing custom is immense. A regiment of carpen- 
ters, bricklayers, find stone masons, witli a strong de- 
tachment of sobei laborers, would find emphiyrnoni. 
House painlurs, who mulcrstand mixing piiims a)ui 
using them without daubing the lloors, are very rare 
among us. Our town supports two paper h;i!igeiE> j 
handsomely j thirty-one cents a piece for li.iriging \ 
paper is too much — a little competition will regulate ] 
this branch. A wheelwright, a cabinet-maker, ;uul a 5 
pump-borer, might crowd m amongst us to adv:.iuage | 
A good barbur shop, we have not got. Our barbero | 
are all stationed m the bar rooms of the tav*;ri:s, (or I 
want of room elsewhere ; the accommodations arc | 
consequently very inferior. Our borough would sup- J 
port a tobacco spinner, and a good cigar mak>;r. We \ 
see no reason wliy a pottery would not succeed: the \ 
raw material is abundant in the neighborhood. A | 
few tanners in the suburbs would find plenty of hides, J 
which, for want of sale, are hung up under our noses, | 
this hot weather, spreading pestilence around, and de- | 
gtroying the comfort of all the lamilies wilhm reach j 
of their ellluvia. VVe are glad to hear that a fuic was ; 
intlicted laiely or. :<. person for the filthy practice allu- • 
ded to. A lew .nore clean butchers, who Avonki 
slaughter oul of town, and deliver their meal to xhr. 
citizens with a pleasant countenance, would be mor(: 



.. *' We really wani a 
niiil crackers, and liali" 

good clean bakery of bread 
a dozen of huckster's shops. 
We have no ice houses, and no milkman yet ; both 
are. very much wanted. About a thimble full of 
milk lor a cent may be had some times, alter a real 
hunt through the iaiies and alleys — nor can it always 
be called water poof. And if we may judge from 
the quantity u\' ruiu consumed, we may venture to 
hold out tlattuniiii hopes to a distiller. He can lay 
up a goo(i stQie ol 2';t:.',in in winter, for nmch of wliicii 
lie uiiglil barter his Tupiors; lie cannot lulten too 
many swine on the \uwA lur this market. A rope 
.walk ought to succeed. An eating house on the 
plan of the New York Fnltou Market shops, would 
be exactly adapted to tlii.-' place Our hotels charge 
thirty-seven and a half to Jifiy cents a meal, and sleep 
often on tlie lloor— a uenleei oyster liouse would liit 
it exactly. A large hat store, with a manufactory of 
the article attached, is uiiich wanted; youcaimot buy 
a hat now without going to a grocery or liquor store 
forit. A tasty fruit, confectionery and mineral wa- 
wnter estabhshnn-nl, A>onKl he well patronized. Ah.r .-. 
dry good and grocery stores are wanted. It is high 
time that the union oi all kinds of goods and wares, 
wet, dry, soft, hard, and grocery, in one room, was 
abolished. A smig grocery and liquor store has 
hitely been opeiicd here, which is doing an elegant 
business. A dry good store is found to answer very 
well. Two hardware stores are doing very well. A 
new apothecary store, and one established last fall, 
(1629) are liourishing. Goods of all kinds sell enor- 
mously high, for wan! of competition. Owing to the 
scarcity of liouses, the business is in the hands of a 
favored few. We see no reason why a snug fancy 
store would ttot do Imsirxess. ]hit we are certain 
Uiere would be no mistake in a good millinery, man- 
tua-making and sewing establishment. A lady can 
get nothiiig in the line of the former two, under a lon^^; 
notice, and tlie young nien don't know wliere to gel 


Ltnien made up, A good saddlery would de„ 


A bath house, \w 11 kept, with apartments fi-r both 
sexes, would not fail to receive extensive palroria|e 
in our alternately dusty and muddy borough. A hou 
twenty women, who Avould hire out to wash clother., 
scrub houses, &e., might earn their fifty cents a day, 
and find ample employment. A hundred goi-d ser- 
vant girls, wlio kno'W how to stay at a good place 
when procured, would make their dollar a weik. 
We need hardly say tliat more boarding houses 
are wanted, especially for 'the middling clusses oi 
persons. There ave at preseavt three large buildi))gs 
in progress fov iho accojumodation of the lii I class^ 
which, when fnushed, will help to thin the lloor^ of oui' 
hotels, which are frequently covered at night with per- 
sons who caimot lind beds. Competition in iLivern- 
keeping would be as salutaiy as it wo-uld be novel i*! 
this town. 

"Having given a hasty hit of our wants, i' just 
occurs to us, that were these persons lo couio hore 
en masM', they would be in a great i>redicaiiiuiit for 
houses, v.'hertiu to put their families, and ])ursue theii 
dilfereiU avocalioui,. Those who are here qan liurdiy 
live for want of room. For our part, being m the 
building line, we are daily, uideed almost hourly. 
beset with applications for houses to rent. No cajji- 
talists could hit upon a better investment ilitai in 
building blocks. of snug substantial iiouses for irad';S- 
men and mechanics. They would not pay less tlioii 
twelve per cent. ])ijr xamum — the present scarcity has 
raised rents liH .en to twenty per cent. 

"It would,'' coiaimies the editor, "be a great bles- 
sing if about iiUy industrious lairmersfrom the lower 
counties, (who at the end •of a hardy year's hiboi 
cannot layby -i.^ i»ence,) wowld come up lu-^; and 
purchase some id' the ancultivated land al. ng tlie 
Mahoiioy river, t(.jj or lifteen miles from Pottsvilk\ 
where the bottorn land is rich loam, atid t^w ridire 
strong red sjiale, ai.d susceptible of the highest state 
of cultivation. The brightest success avouM '•inile 


Upon their enterpiize. Many a fortune is waiting to 
be ploimlied np 'oy sonic fiivored farmer in the few 
'fertile valleys u'ithi!i inarkcling distance from .this 

'<*We do not ilnuK Ihnt we Overstep the bounds of 
tnitli, when wo assert Pottsville is the best 
market in the Siate. liy way of exercising yo\ir 
own judgment, talro a glance at our prices current. 
Hay, twenty-ftv': dollars a t(m, scarce, and qu;dity too 
often inferior ; straw., twenty cents a bundle, scarce, 
and bniidlcs aboni half the weight usual in other 
places; llour, five d-./iIars sr.venty-tive cents a barrel, 
scarce, and as we have no inspector, the quality is 
often very inferior ; iats, forty cents a busliel ; rye, 
sixty cents; pDtitoe.s, siM/taity-five 'cents a bushel; 
fresh butter, sixteen ceius a pound, dl ways very scarce; 
any kind of grease, resemhling butter, commands 
'twelve and a-half ceiifs; eggs, twelve and a-half cents; 
fowls, forty cents a pair, scarce; apjjles, as big as a 
hazlennt, eagerly carried off at a cent a piece; garden 
'Studs bring any price your conscience permits you to 
ask ; cattle of all kindb, Irom the ox to the sheep, com- 
mand at least as high a price as in Philadelphia ; 
milk, a thimble full for a cent, "scarce ; cream, so 
'rarely seen thai no price can be aflixed. 

"All otheY thhigs in llie farmer's line will be found 
proportionate. iVlanurc! can be had in abundance for 
a tri/le ; almost for the hauling awuy. Let any enter- 
prizing farmer lake a trip this way, and satisfy himself 
of the Correctness of tlicse representations ; and when 
. he fmdsthat land, susco|)tibie ©f good cultivation, can 
be bought for ten dollars an aci'e, on a good strean) 
ten or fifteen miles from stlch a market, he will not 
hesitate a moment to malce such a determination as 
will add to our condbrt, ;aid ensin-e to iiirnself an 
accession of wealth, and the real independence whicli 
au industrious farmer Ought to enjoy." . 

In 18ai_, tha imniber (if buildings liad increased 
•t£i f/v/' hundred and thiriv-live, of whicli there wci.. 


sixly-twc of bi iek, uiul sixty-eight of stone ; tui^cfhcr g 
with an Ep^iscopal ehurch, a meeting house, and a {i 
beautiful structure for the Miners' IJank, of wliich f 
the front .s of cnst iron; and the conimodious lioiels | 
of Mr. Soitzincer and Colonel Shoernaicer. There | 
were also scvenly stores, richly slocked, among wliich | 
were those of tsvo booksellers and stationers, and of 
tailors, inilUners, and dress-makers. And they boast- 
ed too, of a circulating library, and Exchange l^ead- 
ing Rooms; two riews[)ai)ers, and a semin;try. 

For any one fiom Cape Cod to New Orlem;... iv 
say that he had not heard of the renowned liwn of \ 
Pottsville,woula sound as marvellous as if an Aiapi;in 
were to declare that he had never heard of Mali,;met, 
or Mecca, of iCaob,., or of the Holy Well. Tlwre i* 
scai-cely a valley, hnwever remote or cut otf from the 
rest of the world, iVom J<:astport to the Sabii^', or 
from Capo llalteras to Lifde Hock, that has not i^eard 
of the fame of Fotisvillo. Here, half a dozen sum- 
mers since, there was not more than one shabby log 
hut standing, and the wild scenery of the sjjot where 
are now to he .seen so nmcli enterprise, activity .aid 
bustle, lay uuiiisturbed in all its ])riantive graoiliMU 
and loveliness. The road to Sunlmry, over the J)i\-.;;d 
mountain, ran through it, and the weekly sta:.fO. in 
all its course i\rAi\ Philadelphia to the place of ii:. 
destination, did aut witness a wil<ler or more dL-.,olcUf:. 

Here and there smoke might indeed, be s'ur 
curling from Mine tleroian's cottage, and waving 
in graceful folds a1;ove the trees, showing that nirm 
had dared to. invade the forest; but these inshmces 
were few and far between; and the bear, the deer,. 
and the fox, divided the empire of the woods oniony- 
tliem. lUU now wiiat a contrast! The genius of 
man has s(,ldom rids :d such a monument to bi.s owr. \ 
powers. The tov\:n of Pott.sville— for under thui ;.an.r « 
we sliall include Mount Caibon and Port Carli.'uJor 
they ate three \\\ onu— con-taining upwards -d' four 
Uwusanri people, Desides th^ liordes of Tartar look- 


ing population liovcvi!)g on its skirts. Muny of llie 
latter cohabit together in s/uni/eci- or tents made of 
hemlock, and covered with l)raiiches. Tliey are all 
engaged in llu; land;d)le business of "penetrating tlic 
bowels of the eaLtli."' JJiit mark, gentle reader, and 
inwardly digest, when you hear that from this port, 
which IS more than u liinidred miles above tide water, 
there is a fleet of upwards of four hundred vessels — 
a fleet more I'oriniilable than that which bore the 
Greeks to liieTjojini war, and composed of vessels, 
I tlie smallest of avIiu'Ii is ;dmost as large as that in 
I which ('ohnubus ventui.Hl lo cross an unknown ocean. 
L 111 the first week of October last, seventy-eight ves- 
I sels cleared from Potisville, carrying to the sea-board 
the rich minerai treasiiros of this district, and during 
I' the same period, twt;i]ly-t wo arrived from Philadel- 
phia, laden with the luxuries uf every clime. 

The situation of tin; town is remarkable, being em- 
bosomed in lot\y hills. Sharp mountain in front 
(south) of it, presents a surly and almost savage 
aspect, heighten(!d b\ the almost black, dismal cav- 
erns excavated iVom its side, and looking like entrances 
to the abode of Pluto ; and the Norwegian, covered 
with coal dust and si iiggislily moving on, is no bad 
type of Styx. 'J'he feeling produced on visiting Potts- 
ville, is, that it is no place for trifling, for every one 
wears a look of impurtancc, and is plainly intent on 
playing his cards, so as not to lose a trick. A strong 
inclination is fell by the s})ectalor to join hi. and tako 
a hand. The interest of the game has overcome the 
scruples of many devout })eople ; tor you may see 
the grave Quaker, the ejaculating ]\k:thodist, and the 
sober Presbyterian, sitting at the same table, and using 
all their ingenni:y to l^;1 the odd trick; but what is 
uiost sur])risiiig, is thai il',';y all a])pear to get good 
cards, and an; pi'iludly sitislied with the result ol 
the game. 

It is curious uj obs;uvt the motly mixture of pec 
pic of all cUmes and omplexioiij that have come to 

283 ifi^iTOR'F CiP SCHUfLKILL COUNft. 

worship here. Then you may see the pale citizen. 
who has been engaged all his life in measuring goods 
behind the counter, and wlio has never before been 
out of liie sight of the sinoke of his own cliiiiiuey, 
until lie was tempted to go in quest of the golden 
fleece in the form of coal, in consultation deep with 
a hardy, Morid countenance, and you may percuive 
■from their eager looks and animated gestures, Ihat a 
spec of some nutgnitiide is afloat. 

Then agani may 'be .seen tlie German, whose 
ancestors came (o kindly Pennsylvania neaily tv/o 
centuries ago, a ])uriod, as historians tell us, iiiore 
than sulTicieni lo blend two hostile races; and liere he 
is, the same iii dress, language, manners and hoary 
prejudice, as \v'lu'n the first of his name left Uottcr- 
dam. There Ik; stands, with the title deed of his farm 
in his hand, and i.nrounded "by a half a duzL'ii of 
gharp looking iellows, who are trying by words and 
signs to close a bargain with him — but he is keeping i 
them at bay, \x^ a good stout bull-dog Avould a i.iarr-el | 
of curs, though lie seenrs at the same time to be aiV:.i I 1 
of being hit. | 

No town of its size is so well stjpplied with every | 

esseinial ut' I n\nny and 'convenience. Of attorneys, | 

there are plenty, of the first repute, and with enongh | 

of activiiy lo preveiu the ])eoj)le from stagrjating for % 

want of excitement. And there are agents, who v.'ill I 

gladly execute any commission, from one to ten thon- II 

sand dollars. Fancy stores, well mipplied with rib- ! 

bands and artifimal ilowers. A'perftnner advertises all | 

sorts of eosmeii:s, :nul a Yanlcee scliool master for | 

scholars. Dociors are tliere too, fresh from college, \ 

and shilling willi the rellected science of Physio and 1 

ChopniLii There i: a ball-room, a church, and sev- 3 

eral excellent hot.ds and boarding houses, a)id the \ 

newspaper is one of the best conducted journals in \ 

the couiitry. Two daily lines of stages rnn fjoni \ 
Piiiladeiplna — Recside against Coleman — and \hey 
rs'crit a oulogiimi for the vigor with which thev :'rack 



their whips, the malchloss fury of their driving, and 
for their cxqui^^il'^ skill in upsetting. PottsviUe has 
every requisite for becoming a great city—an nnin- 
terrupted navigation l)y the canal to Philadelphia 
coal eaoim-h to supply the world for thousands ol 
years- and if the resources of the country should be 
developed with th^. rsamc untiring activity by the next, 
as it has been by the present generation Pottsvilie, 
bold as the assertion may seem, will rival the larg« 
cities of the sca-boaid in i.opulation and wealth. 

A writer in the Polhvllle Advocate,'early in 1831, 
•Ihiis speaks of ibo l'la';(^: 

"The town of Pollsville, by the late census, con- 
tains upwards of 2,500 inbabitants. The fluctuating 
population havhig withdrawn, there may be u tnting 
decrease; for, at the tunc when the census was taken, 
we were thront-ed wiih strangers, drawn to the i)lacfe 
by the ill-advised and premature uproar so loolishly 
raised about it. That, however, fortuiiatc y, did no 
essential harm, and is an earnest that, lor the iuture, 
it is not even in the power of our friends to injure us. 
We have now seventy stores, of various kinds, rieil>' 
stocked, many of llu-ni rivalling those ot Philadeli-hia 
in appearance. 

" Since last spring, about fifty new brick biuk ings 
have been erected hi ihc town, more than halt ol 
which are large three .story houses. Among these am 
the uniform stores er.-cted by James Appleton, at the 
upper part of Centre stieet. Jacob Alter has also 
erected three handsome stores, in the neighborhoo<l 
ef the Arcade. 

''Nor are our private houses less creditable to us 
tlian our public improvements. Among (hose whicli 
have lately bcencompleted, we would ii.eiUion Lran 
cis B. Nichols' and AbTaham Pott's, on Market street;. 
J. Sfuiderson's, Burd Patterson's, on Mahantango 
stre.i: J. C. Otlormau's, on Centre street; and many 
athers less remarkable; but imparting an air ot neat- 
h • ; ,uid comtort net ofien seen m towns ol such rap;a 

284 uisTonr of Schuylkill county". 

growtli, In iho Inwer part of the town, we have ' 
Thomus Uidgtiv/ay's, and several others, conipiising 
part of whal'is iisnaUy caUed Morrisville, wliich, with | 
Mount Ciirhon. forms a strikhig entrance to the town \ 
from the south. i 

"Wo iiui-M not omit to mention M. B. Ikiekley's | 
beautiful ruKlirJoii to Pottsville, distinguished by tlie i 
name of tlr-M.nwoo.l, occupying a ])oint remarkiihlo for | 
its beauly.aufl the i-uried scenery whicli itcornrnands. | 
Among the iuiprovements, we remark a large sioub ■% 
liotel, and a row u[ handsome stone liouses. In the f 
rear, on tlic river r(/ad to Port Carbon, there is a large | 
brewery, m full operation, established by A. Y. Moore, | 
enabling us to of beer fully ctpial to that o! j 
Plhladelpiiia. I 

'•Adjoining Morrisville, as we remarked above, i 
stands i\loum Cabon, which, under the fostermg caro 1 
of John Whih.', now fully equals any part of the ] 
town in appearance. During the past season, inany i 
valuable addili'Mis have been completed ; partlLularly | 
a hotel, which would do credit to a city, and a row j 
cH' stores, 'fb., Norwegian railroad terminates j.ere. 

" Mount Carbon com[)rises the southern extremity 
of Pottsville. It stands on the Schuylkill, at the foot 
of the Sharp moimtain, lying in tlie valley be;\\ een 
tliat antl SuconJ mountain. Its situation isroniuMtic ; 
the abruju hills, risiiig almost perjieiulicularly around, 
are strikingly grand ; while the Schuylkill, winding 
through the g')rges of the mountain, complcicf a 
scene of ]ncturt sipie beauty unsiu'passed by the points 
in whose priiise our northern tourists are so fUieni. 
Sharp mountain itself is a remarkable natural curi- 
osity, resend/ling a rampart-boundary to the coal 
region on ilio iouih, 

'• 'J'hi; origiiiai Iavu of Mount Carbon receitv:Q 
considerable additions during the last year. S , 
the closing of navigation, the lock at the mouti o. . 
Ciinal has been reneweil, under the superintt i.i, 
of Mr. Mdks, tlic agent for the canal company. 




the pool abo;x', are tlic docks of Messrs. Elmaker^ 
Audenreiil, ami White & Coombe, who have two 
docks at the r^iar of their store houses, eacli twenty- 
eight feet wide, and in Lnglh one is one hundred, and 
the otlier one liun(hed and fifty feet. Beyond arc 
Mr. Eldridge's landings, adjoining the range now con- 
structing for Messrs. Thouron and Macgregor. On 
the opposite side, he the boat yards of Mr. Shelly, and 
the extensive landings of the North American Compa- 
ny. Again on the left are Mr. S. J. I'olt's wharves; 
those of iMessrs. Morris ; and Mr. C. Storer's boat 
yard, on wliicti we perceive he is erecthig a screw 
dock. The Jatier lie at the foot of Morrisville. 

"The pool beluw^ the bridge alFords wharves to the 
store iiouses of Messrs. Moore & Graham, Nathans, 
Thurston, and others. Several new landings are hero 
constructing, the margin of the river jnx'senting every 
facility for works of this nature. I'he principal build- 
ings lately erected are a range of stone stores and 
dwelling houses, the hotel on Centre street; on 
Market strtnt, six lum; and twelve frame bihldings. 
Tlie houd i.s ii l)(.;iuliful edilice of stone, forty-tivc 
feet wide by eighty-two, exclusive of the piazza, 
which presents a promenade to each story, embracing 
a view of the mountainous scenery around. These 
improvements are owing to the enterprizing spirit of 
Messrs. While and Coombe. 

"The Mount Carbon railroad, projected as an onl^ 
let for the rich cnal formations of the Norwegian 
CTeek valleys, was commenced in Oct. lSii9, under 
the superintendence of William R. Hopkins, clnef- 
engineer, and .lohn White, president. At the termi- 
nation the. road is elevated ujjon 31 piers of niasomy, 
erected upoti the lariduigs; thence it passes through 
tl » gap of Sliar]) moimtain, across the landings l>e- 
6 .4 menlicned, follov.'ing the valley of the Scb/uyl- 
. i/> to Morrisville, Af this point we have, on tlie, 
( /afi; Messrs. i\Iorris' mines, and on the apposite side 
t I the river, en the l.ippincott and Richards ^ract, 


the mines uow worked by Mr. Baraclough; The t^ 

road hen? loaves liio Schuylkill, at its junction \/iih m 

the Norwegian creek, stretching up the valley ol' iha f^ 

latter, parallel with the (ireenwood iniprovenuuiic-, ^i 

directly through Pottsville, to the Ibrks : a distance ^i^ 

of 6,208 feet t\'oni the i)iejs. Below this are ihe ^T' 

mines now working by Mr. M'Kechney, and several ^ 

openings vn land belonging to I). J. Khoads, Ksq 1 

<' On tlie last branch, wiiich is 14,200 feet in lengdi, | 
the first lateral above the forks belongs to the iNorfh | 
American Co., and l^'ads to their Centreville colli.Ties, | 
wliere they havj twelve ojjenhigs, upon the celebra- I 
ted Lewis and Spohn veins. This, coal is in high 1 
estimali(/n, ainl lias greatly aided in establishing the | 
reputation of Selmylkill county coal, in the easieni 
markets. JJeyumi' this, the road passes through Ben- 
jamin Poll's fihd.s, and again strikes the Si)ohn veiii 
at the east mines of the North American Co. '^I'he 
Hillsborough iniCt eomes next, on the right, on wliicii 
are several openings. Here we diverge to the IciU 
through the celebraled Peach mountain tract, bi'iing- 
ing to J. Whituj and pass five openings made by him. 
Next the Ixose ivill tract, owned by L. Elhnaker: on 
these lands are several mines, leased by the Mestra. 
Warner, Wade, and others, near the town of "Wndes- 
yille : a liuiving lillle ])lace, laid out by Mr, Elll- 
maker. Above the town, the lateral road iVoni Capt. 
Wade's mine comes down. The east branch termi- 
nates upon the Flowery field tract, belonging la 
Messrs. Bonsull, Wetherill, and Cummings. This 
land has been exteiii;ively worked by, various indi- 

"The West llianeh commences at Marysville. on 
the Oak hill tract, aiid is l(),400deet in length. On 
tliis esrate are the mines leased by Messrs. Smith. 
Hart, M'axwoll, Wade, Hall, Dennis, Gallagher, and 
Martin. Among those are the celebrated Dmn.end 
n.nd Oaiv liiii veinij. We must not omit the hold 
kept, by l\h. B- Gallagher, at a convenient di;i 



tance from PottsviUe for an excursion. Below Oak 
hill are the Green park and Clinton tracts; the former 
belonging to. John White, and the latter to Mrs. 
Spohn. At Green jiark there is one opening under 
the superintendence ol Mr. James ])ill. Adjoining 
this is the IJelniont estate — also John White's. Next 
the Thouron tract, a portion of which has been pur- 
chased by lien]. Poit^ tht; Spohn vein passing through 
it, Contiguous are-.the Spohn, Lewis, and Duncan 
estates. The railroad huro i)asses li. Pott's saw-rnill, 
and extends in a })erfeclly straight line, a mile in 
length; nearly to. (lie juncwua witli the main road." 

Since the above extract was published, now fifteen 
years, many inijjortant changes have taken place. 
Old mines havebeenexhausted orabandoned,and new 
ones bjjened ; a great number of new railroads have 
been constructed ; several mines liave been explored, 
and pofitably worked, below the water level. Tliv 
geology of the region has been fully explored ; Fotts- 
ville, Reading, and ]^liiladel])liia railroad has been 
opened, in \til2, alfurding tiaily connnunication m 
seven hours to Philad(;lphia, and promising to etl'eet a 
complete revolution in IIk; transportation of coal ; tht 
speculations of 18136, imve expanded and exploded. 
PottsviUe has iticreased its population from 2,424, in 
1830, and 3,117 in 1835, to 4,3^5, in 1840; and is 
now a compact, bustling place. Its trade, no longer 
driven back and forth by the tide of speculation, has 
settled, or is settling, into a steady channel, well un- 
derstood, and' well managed by capitahsts, merchants 
and miners. The town t\ow contains a handsome Epis- 
copal church, a)id a sj)Iendidaiuw Catholic cathedral, 
both in the Gothic sLyle ; a German Catholic church, 
and neat edifices, for th<j l^resbyterian, German lie- 
formed and; Lutheran, Episcopal Methodist, Welsh 
Methodist, Universalists, Welsh Jkiplist, Welsh Pres- 
byterians, Welsh CalviniiUs, Quakers, and an African ; 
in all, 14 churches; two academies, a numb<;r of public 
schools, a spacious town haU;.a splendid. hotel, called 




Pennsylvania Hall, and several other spacious hoivjl:^; I*! 

a fnrnace, at vvludi ii'on has heea siiccessrully njado * ^ 
with anthracite coal ; a Ibrge and rolling mill; several 
large I'oundrics, steam engine I'actories and maciiiuo 

shops, &c. The Greenwood I'urnace lately repaired, ., ' 

and under the superintendcmce of i)r. Palmer, & Co,, 1 1 

is now in succ'/ssful operation. |-^ 

Messrs. Haywood ^ Snyder's foundry, macliino 

thoj), &c., was crocti d in 18.'3-l — is avery exteo-jivc 'I" 

establisliiheui. The Pottsville Iron foimdry ;md '':^^ 

machine sho}), owiui.l and carried on jjy \\. W. ^l\ 

McCinni., '•m]>'oy ; constantly from fifty to .-:xty || 

hands. Fairell's foundery, was started a few ye: as || 

ago — gives cmploym. lit to some six or eight handi J| .se\,'eial .U.und lics manufacture annually an);;ics 'h 

to the amount of $1 10,000. ■^ 

Clemen's steran mill has heen in operation -.nice a 

183G. 'J'hcre is in extensive hoard yard here, several -f:}, 

breweries, and ^(.ures of stores, groceries, shops, iLc.. \^ 

There are foin weiddy newspapers published, aiul 
ably conducted, \ iz : " 'l"he Miners' Journal," euiicd 
by lienjamin J{;innan, Isscp ; " Tlie l^jttsville Empo- 
num," hy E. 0. Jackson, Esq.; "The Anthracite 
Gazette," hy Messrs. Wynkoop & Kershner, Esijrs. ; 
Olid one, a German pajier, "/)/e FreULcist Prc.^yc.'''' 

The Danville and Pottsville railroad, designed to 
connect the Schuylkill Navigation, at Pottsville, witii 
the Susquehanna at Danville and Snnhury, was pro- 
jected hi 1S2G, and was completed in 1831 us far as 
Girardville, a small handet of three or four houses, 
ten miles north of Potisville, Sixteen miles are also ¥■ 
completed on tlie Si nbury end. The death of ifs ffl 
diief patrons, tin; lite Stephen Girard, and Cxvu. \ 
Daniel Moiitgom(n'y,of Danville, with whom tht- jnu- I 

ject originated, lias ri;tarded the progress of the v.cik. ; 

On the ten miles near I'uttsville, a tunnel of 1\A) km j 

long, and f^iir inclira-d planes, have heen conslriiCkd ^ 

;.( ail enormous exjieiise; hut the tunnel ii,5t'j feet % 



long, into the Giiard co;il mines, on Mahonoy, is but 
'partially completed. Until this is done, this part oi 
the road cannot be prutitably used, and the super- 
structure is now rotting- in the sun. 

t , As the mines' in IVa'orable situations, above water 
ievel, become exhausted, it is necessary either to seek 
new ones at a greater distance, and an increased cost 
of transportation, or to dive dee])erinto the bowels ot 
the earth. The hAuM course has been adopted in 
several valuable jnines, about Pottsville, by Mr. 
Charles Lawioiij iMessrs. Pott and Bamian, Mr. 
Charles EUet, the Di.'laware Coal Company, Mihie 
and. Haywood, and Mr. lieorge II. Pott, and others. 
Mr. Liawton is mi(l<jrniiniug the very town (jf Potts- 
ville itself. These veins are inclined at an inclination 
of about forty degrees. A wide shafts or descending 
■passage, is iirst sunk, at die inclination of tlie vein, 
wide enougli for a double track railroad, upon which 
' ihe loaded cars are Ijanlcel to the top of the mine. 
Tiie Miners' Joarnal says, in 18d2 : 

V '•Tho collieiy o[' P. It and Pannau is of the most 
interesting of tlic kni>i in the region, and will well 
■repay the troulde, and we might add the fotigues, of 
a visit. , The colliery is better known as the Guinea 
hill, or Black mine, and is one of the deepest in our 
V:oal basin. • Th>; depth of the slope is 400 feet, which, 
at the inclination of jbrty degrees, would give a per- 
pendicular depili oi^252 feet into the very bowels of the 
earth. The pitch of the vein, as soon as it loses the 
intluence of the hill, is very regular, and the coal be- 
■comes of a purer and better quality, and is found in 
■greater masses between the, slates. The colliery is 
worked with two steam engines — one of fitty horse 
'power, and the odici' of twenty. The former is used 
-in pumping the water uhicli accumulates in the 
mines, anil the iiuiei' in hoisting the coal in cars to tla^ 
mouth of die slope. The pump used in the colliery 
is of cast lion, twelve mclKsni diameter, and exteims 
the ouiiiL dcjvili of die slopu — 400 feet. Tlie colum.j 


ot" water broiitAlii up by tlic engine, at eacli lii. ci' .i.,; 
pump, is (anal in .veight to about eight ton..-! and i 

■'At iliiniepili of 200 feet of this slope, a tumuli has 
been driven ninety yards soiitii to the Tutuiel vtiti. and 
70 yards novtti tu the Lawton vein — both iniough 
solid roclc 5 which (Miables the proprietors to work lliree : 
veinSjWidi thii present engines and fixtures. /",s the 
visitor k'iivcs ihe r-lope, and finds hiniself, lantern in 
lu'ud, groping Ins way through the gangway mlo tire 
ho.arl of tiie niiiiojie is half bewildered and f-uutled, 
as the almost iudir^tinct masses of coal, slate, dirt, &c,. j 
fashion themselves into something Ijordering npon a 
dark, (hisky^ and e/en forbidding outline, it seems 
as if you h;id fallen upon a subterranean city, lutried 
by some great convulsion of nature ; and the illusion 
is still furthtr heightened by observing workmen 
busily engaged, aj'i)arently in excavating the rains. 
Or, if you arc Inghly imaginativt?, and have read the 
Odyssey, you might readily fancy the feelii'gb of 
Ulysses, ihal •gidl-like and much-onduring man," | 
when liu paiJ a \ isit to the infernal shades, fer tbo | 
purposii of a s./ur laming (he shortest and mo$i direct, | 
cut to his beloved Ithaca. Homer, ho\vevcr, does- I 
apt inform us whether or not the shades carried lamps I 
in their caps. wilh!u;t which the pick would le of lit- | 
tie use to our miners." 1 

On several occasions. Pottsville sustained injury 
from freshets — in October, 1831, and January, 1841. I 
The following tVom the JVliner's Journal gives an ac- 
count of these I'reshets : 

•'Since die recollection of our oldest inhabitants, fhis 
portion gf die country has not been visited by so con- 
siderable a freshet as wa.s witnessed in the early ].ian 
of the weeii:. It is not less remarkable that the loss 
of property sustained by this accumulation of waiers, 
has proved, so far as is ascertained, entirely dispro- 
norl)CQ(;d to thegenciral a[)prehension— -aiiotf.e..; prooi' 


of the pervading strcnyih and solidity of the results of 
ontciprize. I'hj rain luis fallen copiously during 
^veral nights preceding Tuesday, on which day ii 
subsided, exluLiting in its eiiects in the accniiuilated 
tprrents which rolled down the declivities of our 
mountains. Many of the low grounds were involved 
ill inundLUion. 

"The Scluiylkili ro,':e to an unusual height. A por- 
tioti of tlie main Itigli v/ay, near Maj. Kcpner^s, was 
overilowa ; travelling in carriages was checked, and 
the laaii from that point, was carried to our borough 
on horse-back. Tlic Sciiuylkill navigation dam, in 

'this vicinity, reeeiveiJ some damage, which Avas 
speedily repaired. Several coal wharves at Port 
Carbon were somewiiat injured, by the removal of a 
part of the strnctnro supporting them. Several boats 
were swept away. Mr. Craiolei/, ihe owner, widi 
didiculty preserved Ins dwelling house, by erecting in 

^I'ront a strong stone liarrier four feet in height, from 
the devouring Hood. Jlis barn,.however, was carried 


'' 'I'he destruction of j)roporty has (January, 18-11,) 
been considerable, by iilliugup the cellars, &c., in this 
borough, wliich in soiue instances was so, sudden that 
the merchants had no tnnu to remove their goods. 
Our friends in Coal street had tlieir conununicalioii 
wUh the rest of the town, completely cut off, by the 
water in the Norwegian, which completely inundated 
all tliQ houses bordermg on the stream. Part of the 
end)ankmentof the Cireenwood canal has been swepr 
away, below the aqueduct — and the houses on tlie 
Island were ail completely surrounded with water. 
'I'he families froni some were carried out wiien the 
water was middle deep. Tlie water completely sur- 
rounded Clemen's 2c Parvin's steam mill, and the 
wharves below the mill were washed into the basii!, 

" Aboiit fifty yards of the embankment of the Navi 
gatiou Compnny's' canahhas been swept away, oppj 
/ Tunibling rua dam, and about one huuiU'ed fv;CJ 


of the tiiihaiikn.icui opposite C. Lawton's wharl', car- 
rying away his sclmtes and the old lioat house, and 
the old hiidge connecting the new turnpike with 
Mount Carbon, was also carried oft'. The towpath 
bridge opposite Lewisport is earned away — and :; 
breach lias been made in the canal at ^Vdani's locks. 
Djibelli's dcini is also injured. 

''Tho Schuylkill bridge below this borough, is m-> 
much injured, liiat il is considered dangerous Id pass 
over it. 

•''At the lirst dam above Audenreid's mill, the water 
broke out and com[»letely surrounded the lock-lmuse, 
■carrying away the stable, undermining the ibiaida- 
tion ot'thc huiu-o, ajid the lock also, the walls uiboU: 
ot' which will jnouably lall down. About one liuh- 
■dred yards of ilie I'lubankinent of" the canal ha^ aKc 
been carried aAvay. A sick person in the look-l^'ure 
was rescued wiih great dillicully. 

" The railroads in this region are all more or k -^i in 
j\ui)d by die il( ^trnrdon of bridges, undermining, o^^. 
The townof Port Carbon was com])letelyinund;u:d- 
the water reached up almost as far as the baidi, taa 
two bridges are left standing. Mr. Kinsk'y Uv.i 
lost considerably, and Mr. Pott has lost his gard>j'.;-— 
an acre ka. 

. '* At SchuylkUl Haven, the damage has alsg been 
very great. Several of tlie coal wharves liave bmu 
washed away, and the balance irlled up. Mr. 
Lewis Daugbcrty, we learn, lost several railroad 
wagons. The coal has also disappeared from the 

"The Tuni])lii\g run dam narrowly escaped irjiv. 
being cuiied avv ay. IMie water had made a pa -age 
inside ii;e wiiig wall of the water-way — fortunately, 
it was discovered m time, otherwise the dam would 
have been swept away, and Mount Carbon wonld 
have sulicred 5ever( ly.". 

nisTOuy OF t.cnuYLKiLj, qounty. 


. JWi Carbon, a })osr uiwn, was first laid out in 
1826, l)y Mr. Abiahaiu I'ott; he first laid oil" one 
Imndred lots, of one acic each, Ironi tlie mouth of 
Mill creek to the Salem landing. In 1828, he sold 
tiie lois and tl;irty-four acres ,of his farm, to JNlessrs. 
Seitzinger and WclhuiiM, fur forty-five dollars per 
acre, who laid oli' iliu whole into suiUible town lots; 
and as the place Vw'as creat(3d by the coal trade, it was 
called Po7^t Carbcn. 

The first \ua-cm) bhiit in Port Carboii, was erected 
by A. Poit, ill ]8^(;, -adii i;, U) use hisown language. 
•'We had a real Ing-c d)in-raising." In 1829, MV. Potl 
sold sixty-four acres to Daniel J. Khoads, for four 
tliousand dollais, \v1ili afun'wards laid out Rhoads 
town. In 1829, JNlt. Poll laid out Irishtown, and 
sold one-half of it to Purd Patterson, Esq., and Mr. 
Joseph Swift ; still owning tlie half himself. In 1829. 
William Lawt(ni laid out Lawtontown. The same 
year, A. Pott and John P, Gardener, laid out Acre- 
town. Young's addiiion was made in 1828. 

From these five onuinal "starlings," viz: Port Car- 
bon, Irishtown, Ji/ifj(uistow/t, Latvtontown, Acit- 
town, and Young's Addition, now merged into one, 
arose a town, that numbered, at the time of taking 
the census in 1830, about one hundred dwelling 
liouses, and iiine hundred and twelve inhabitants. 
The })lace is no w known as Port Carbon. The place 
met with some reverses in 1831' and '32. " In the 
syncope," says a Aviiier of 1832, "which followed the 
extreme excitement in the coal region, many of the 
houses are at present (1832) without tenants; some 
of them unfinished, and falling to decay." " lint the 
site," continues tlio same writer, " has many advan < 
tages for a town, and as ilie shipping port for a larg» 
and rich coal region,, mnsl have considerable busi- 
ness. It ]ii.>! at llie cionilnence of Mill creek wid. 
tile Schuylldll river, uiid upon the head of the na\'i- 
gation oi' the ialiL-r. The pool here gives great facili- 
ty' fjr lading places, wluch are connected with i'ui. 



coal mines ou both sides of the river, by railways, 

—the chief of wliicli is the MiU creeic road, and the m 

Schuylkill valley road. The former extends up Mill ^^ 

creek. It has connected with several lateral roaclr,."' '|l 

The Schuylkill railroad connects with Port Carhoft || 

and Tusccjora. il 

Port Carbon is a place of considerable importance ^ 

It stands rauivalied as a place for shipphig coal. A 'H 

number of railroads center or terminate here, Irom .]| 
numerous coal mines. The Schuylkill valley rail- 
load, the Mill civm'I: railroad, the Port Carbon and 

Mount Carbon roads, (the latter connecting with the |J 

Reading railroad,) all centre here. JNlure coal n h 

sliipped luat; thuu at Potlsville. % 

Port Carbon c:unbi-,ls of rising one himdred dv/dl- j^ 

jngs; many of iliLin make a line appearance; six | 

taverns, tbntcen dry goods, grocery and feed stores;, *» 

a steam-nnll, owned by L. F. Whitney, Esq. ; iron i 

foundry and macliine shop, by T. II. \Vintersteii.: a g 

shovel factory, by A. 0. Ikook ; several warehon. e.s; g 

two clunclu;s, f:;igli--.h Presbyterian, and Cerinan | 

Ueformed and Lutheran ; also, a pidjlic school house. | 

There are several coal mines contiguous to it ; one 
owned by Midia.el McDormut, worked by Charh^s 
Ellett, wiih a blope t>ix hundred feet deei), and vv/o 
stationary engincts ; one immediately above PortCiir- 
bon, on the North American company lands, worlced 
by Mr. Chillas. This mine was set on iire bonie 
twelve -years agi >, and burned for some time •, but 
has been again le-opcned, and now successfuily 
worked under the sujierintendence of Mr. Ilodgkiss. 
It has a drift uf thiofj hundred and lit'ty yard.s in 

'• We do not know/' says the editor of the ^'Jn/ :, u ■ 
K'.ile Gdzvtte.f' '• a n.orc busy or industrious jMij^ola- 
■.ion, tbati thai coiilaiued iii our sister boio\n b a!' 

' Poi'.jV'ille, iM-.iy 11, IS-ii. 



Port Carbon. J3cing a dopot of considerable impor- 
tance in tlie coal region, throughout the business sea- 
•onj it exhibits one unvaried scene of enterprize antl 
active labor. Loden cars of coal from the various 
mines, extended along eight miles of the Schuylkill 
valley railroad, arc continually pouring tlieir iiselul 
freiglit into the boats at that place. The continual 
clatter of unloading, shoveling and screening coal, 
fesoiinds from morning till night. The chink of the 
blacksmith's hammer — the lium of machinery, and 
deep-mouthed breathing rf the powerful steam engine, 
are all wonted accomp:\n;iiients to the labors of th«i 
day. Every thing denotes energy and activity, and 
lazy men are scarce connnoditics in that neighbor- 
hood. 'I'he fav(.rablu change which will be brought 
in the increase of iii-juilation, business, and facility, 
after tlie compl«.lion of ih.; iVlount Carbon aiid Poit 
Carbon railroads, will add greatly to the already line 
prospects of the district. Port Carbon presents a fine 
site tor a large town, and we contidently anticipatt-, 
that the day is iu,l iar distant, when all the fint 
building lots, v.uh \Jiitli the valley abounds, will 
be covered by good and substantial edifices. It will 
yut become (and t/tii prediction may be recordetl 
against us) one o^ the greatest and most iinportanl 
points in the Sclhiyllall county coal region. 

"The business now done in the borough, apart 
from the coal trade, is considerable. There are already 
large stores engaged in selling merchandize, all doing 
a good business, deriving their custom, not only 
from the immediate neighborhood, but principally 
from the numerous mining villages, located at diti'er- 
ent points along tije ronies of the above mentiuneil 

"In speaking of Fct Carbon, we liave taken in 
the several additions l:newn as J^awtontown, Irisf- 
town, &c,, as diey ;ue ;dl comprised within a short 
limit, and are, in iiiet, always considered as the pla •« 

1". -h'" 

296 iJiaroKV of schcylkili. countt. 

Coarjuennac, in Norwegian township, two mill.;: 
above Port Carbon, on Mill creek — is a regulaily laid 
out town, or two hundred and twenty lots, on a iract 
oT land owned hy the Ncirth American coal coni]/any. 
Little Wo]r creek passes through it. It contains one 

St. tV^///- is one mile above Coaquennac ; oiisisu 
of several dwellings, one tavern and a st0!(.'. i\ 
powder nnll, o\nii/d by Messrs. Frack and ScUzec. 

New Cu.\[h [>, ;. post-town, in Norwegian lov/n- 
ship, on llie .Siaih.jry turnpike, situated ahoat ibiii 
miles north-west of Pottsville, in a narrow volley ef 
Mine hill. It was laid out by Lewis Kllmalc;'; ami 
Others, in 1S"0. Il is a coal creation ; it contiiiii? be- 
tween liliy and sixty dwelHngs, sonre of winch art; 
substantially built ; one tavern, three stores, and a 
public school lion:;e. The population exceeds four 

Coal Castle, in Norwegian township, qu tin Wtit » 

7i ranch of ihc Schaylkill river, and on the raihM.ut. i 

at the foot oi ihe Hroad mountain, is a chi.tcr ni I 

seventy small liouses, or a uiiners' hamlet, itb^nit \ 

three miles abi^'/e IMinersville, > 

"A little wevt of this place, at the "jug:ular veii:/' I 
in Broad mountain, a coal mine on fire in the win > 
t^3rs of 1S.'3S '3i), and has since defied all atlen:|)ts to | 
uxlingnish it. It has e/en roasted the rocky strata 
of the mountain above it, de.stroyirjg every trace of ! 
vegetation along the line of the [)reast, and causing | 
vast yawinng chasms, where the earth has fall'^n iti. 
from which i^..?iie hot and sulphurous tumes, as from * 
a, volcano. The luiue was ignited by a careli;^s mi- 
ner, who, (0 moderate the temperature, ])lacpd a. \ 
hanging grate at fhe mouth el the drift. 'J'he tirb j 
coianituiicated to tlie props, and then to the raihjad \ 
arid such a heat \\t:\^: caused, thai it nmst have Ci'acked 
olf lumps of coal lo feed the flames. It seenis scarcG 
possible that the cumpact vein itself can be on fir»i^ 


although such may be the case. Two unfortunate 
miners ])erishc(l in the mines. Tlie lessee, Lewis G. 
Douglierty, after (rying various experiments to ex- 
liiiguish it, abandiiiird it, with a heavy loss." * 

Mackeysvillc, t\vo miles west of Coal Castle, is a 
miners' hamlet, consisting of some tliirty small dwt;!- 
lings. The mines are wuiked by Col. G, C. Wyii-. 

•Biiy'sni:.. Col., p. OIJ. 



mSl'ORY OF COAL, &c. 

'1Iavi-n>.. giviii a brief topographical sketch ol' mo 
several towuhliips and towns in this comity, this part 
of llie \vui]{ may be a])propriately closed by giVing a 
liistory of the di.M:ov(;ry ol dial, and coal o])eraiioi;3 
in this regivjn. 'J\j do this, place is given to the lirst 
and latest annual wuavl ul' the Coal Mhhng Assl cia- 
tion of Schuylkill i..t.iinly; the I'ornier )nadc by the 
board in ISD3, and die latter in 1815: 

The BcKivd (if Trade deem it proper, at this,tbr ; ii 
iiual mci'iing of the »' ('oal Mining Associatio;» ui 
Sclmylkill ('ounty," to take a review of the slate ol 
the coal trade, iVoni its commencement in this county. 
\o tlie juesent lini"; and iidve their views of (ho 
Intnre pi\'speeis cf the miner, together with mcI'. 
oomi)aris(.ns and inferences as may be thought r. ia- \ 
'vent to the suliject. | 

So early as ITlHi. coal was known to abou:id i.. ^ 

tliis county; bm, it being of a dillerenl quality inac j 

ihatknowu to o'jr siniihs as bituminous coal, and be- ] 

mg hard of ig.iilion, it was deemed useless, until j 

about the year 1 "; i;i5, when a blacksmith, named Whel .i 

stone, broadit ii iMo notice, by using it in his t.!'>iiii- ' 

ery. Ills succcs.s iiiuiiccd several to dig for cord, and i 
■.vhen found, to atPi.ipt the burning of it; bui tlvj 
diiijciilty A^/as so great, that it did not succeed. 

iiboni die year 1800, a Mr. William Moiiis-,, 
who owuLd a laifre tract of land in the neielibuibo'/d 


of Port Carbon. procur'jJ a quantity of coal, and took 
it to Philadelphia, but he was vinable, with all his ex- 
ertions, to bring it into notice ; and abandoned all his 
plans, returned, and sold liis lands to Mr. Pott, the 
late proprietor. From that time, to about the year 
1806, no lartlier eiforts to use it were made. About 
[ that time, iu cutLitig the talc race for the Valley Forge 

t on the SchuylldlK tliey struck on a seam of coal, 

f whidi induced David iJerlin, a blatksmith in the 

neighborhood, to make uial of it ; bis success was 
complete, and from tliat puriod, it has been partially 

In the year 1812, our lellovv citizen, Col, George 
Shoemaker, procured ;i ((uahlity of coal, from a shaft 
Slink on a trad he IkkI recently pnrcliased on the 
Norwegian, and nov/ owned by the North American 
Coal Company, and known as the Centreville Mines. 
With this he loaded nine wagons, and proceeded to 
Philadelphia ; nmch umo was sf)ent by him in en- 
deavoring to introduce it to notice, but all his elForts 
proveil unavailing. ThoM' who deigned to try it, de- 
clared Col. Shoi, nialvi t lo I.e an impijstor, for attem[il- 
ing to impose stone on them lor coal, and were 
clamorous against him. 
Not discouraged by the sneers and sarcasms cast 
fi upon him, he prnsisnui in the undertaking, and at last 
11 succeeded in disposing ol" two loads, for the cost ol 
|iL transportation — and the remaining seven he gave to 
1^ persons who ])romised to :ry to use it, and lost all the 
If coal and charges. 

Fl . Messrs. Mellon and Bisliop,.at thoearnest solicita- 
^^ lions of Col. Shoemaker, were induced to make trial 
if of it in their rolling mil! in Delaware county, and 
■Jt finding it to ans\i er fnlly the character given it by 
m Colonel Shoemidvcr, noficed its usefulness in the 
tl Pliiladelpuia papers ; and trom that period, we may 
'*■ date ihe Iriimiph of rca^-on, aided by perse vera in l 
over prejudice. 

A' this }>eriod, ii:e mountains were butpartially e \- 

300 unr onv of sohuylkilI} county; 

plored, and the scant, but hardy population of th'; 
county, depended in a great measure on liunting, i'vA 
their immediate wants, and on huriber, for supi'lyina 
tliose articles of foreign product, that were reiniiied 
fur then- cono'orls or necessities. 

The Itindicr, jirocnred during the wintei, v/as 
formed inio rafts, and sent down when spring frushets 
rendered the river navigable. By this unceriain, and 
nt all limes precarions mode of conveyance, the pro- 
duct of this county was conveyed to marku'i. until 
the cauud v,ais cr)niiilcled,in the year 18i25. 

In the year \6\4, a few of the Uiost enterprisijig ol 
the citizens projected a canal from Pliiiadelphia to 
this i)lace, undur an impression that the inmber of 
Schuylkill county, and: the grain of the counties ho;- | 
dering on the Snsciaehanna, would rind a V(,iu. avul | 
ultimately aiford a dividend to the stockholders. I 

At that period there were a lew who loolit d for. 1 

ward to a time, when tlie coal from this county w.-nid I 

be the ]irinci|Ml article of export, and M'ould'liiji oni<; j 

an article of g 'ncral use ; but the mnnber wa^ Muall, | 

and a vast majority looked on tiie formation of a caiuil 1 

through this wild and mountainous region, as a chi- \ 

merical scheme, more futcd for speculators in a sioci: | 

market, than fjom any benefit that might result lo tlit i 

stockholders, uc the jniblic. ] 

Bat, with all the discouragement attendant on a I 

measure so opposite to public opinion, the stock v.cs ; 
taken by the enter]. rising capitalists of our metro]. njis, 
and the work ]»n^hed with vigor to a com]'letiori, 

which was so ntr ai eomplished in the sununer of ] 825, I 

as to enable bunts lo ])ciss from Pottsviile to Pbiladeb ] 

phia. I 

_ As was to be LX])ee,ted, from a work of sucli jnng- 
nitude, being uideriakcn and finished under . ii.di dij- 
coiiraging prospcct.s, the canal was in many places 
detective ; and owing to the embankment being iiew, 
brtjachcs occui'red so Irecpiently, for some rifle] 


'llint it was at all tiuios <m aucertaiu conveyance, un- 
'til, by the lun-cinitliiiu exertions, and laudable and 
piaisewortiiy\'era)ice of the Directors of the 
Navigation Company, liie work was, last year*, 
brought to that statu cf perl'tiction, that warrants the 
ossurance that tlic naviiiati(»n may now be depended 

'■ 'It has been ingc!l a.-j a coMiplaint against the Navi- 
gation Coni[)any', thai the tolls reqwired are higher 
than they should h.'. iiiid U> enable us to sell coal as 
low as the citlz'iis ni'iMii .\ilanticciUes require of us, 
lliat a reduction sli^raid be made — but when we take 
into view the heavy aminmi that has 'been expended 
by the eomj)any ; an;i ihat On- many years no divi- 
^dend had been luadi; ; un.l lul iVoni the commence-' 
inentoi" the work, up to the j<i\-sent time, the dividend 
on the stock will not average more than one-half per 
•cent. ])er annum; in addition to which, the projected 
jmprovemcKts, for the coming and succeeding years, 
•are of such magniludi;, as will absorb the greater 
part of the reveuiu ; i. caniuii, in reasvin, be asked of 
lliem (o reduce iho rak of lolls ; and your board can- 
not withhold from the tiireciors of the company, the 
•expression of their a])probation and praise, for the 
liberal and enlightened course they have pursued, in 
bringing the work to so ]ie:fect a state ; and they feel 
gratitied in anticipathig the profitable return that will;, 
ere long, be made them for their capital, so long un- 
profitably employed in a work that requires such un- 
tiring -zeal and perseverance, as has been seldom dis- 
played in this or any o:h(;r country. 

■ Tn making the foregoing remarks, your board have 
Ijeen led some years in adwnice of their sttbject ; but 
feelittlue to the Nmigatiun Company, to give a view 
■of their operations, lo corrc:! mis-stalc-meiits made of 
them, and to yAacc the snbjo:i in its tru(3 liglit before 
4he associ'.iiitU'.. 

'I'lry "-.vill iiu'.v proccjd to give a brief outline i»i 


die coal I ;iyi,iicss. frum the best information in ilieir 

In tlioyoLir 1813, several small openings weru ijiadc 
in difrcrcKtj.vcris oi' (Jie county, by sinking shalty: and 
the coal la!s( u out, was vended to the smiths and 
others in ihr- mighboiliood, at twenty-five cent,, ])cr 
bushel, or ilirec dollars and fifty cents per ton, in the 
pit'c>nioinli. 'I'liese shaftG.were sunk but a I'uw I'eet, 
in the crop of llie v(.:in, and the coal raised by nieans 
of the common windless and buckets, and so snoti as 
they attained a dn|.di where the water became ti'iibk- 
some, (which ^ddom exceeded thirty feet,) the ^hali 
was abnndoniMl au'i another sunk, and the sanir (tro- 
cess un<l('igo!ic. 

fn the yuar i-^'Ji. an improvement was madem dn, 
mode of woridiii^', i-y substituting horse powt i and 
the gin, l(U' the \/indless heretofore used j by v\ bjch 
they were eiudied lo clear the water from the .\iialt^ 
witli great fiiCidty, and to sink farther on the wAm. 
IJut with tins, (as it was then conceived grc ii iin- 
provemeiil) (h^ y were only enabled to run down lik- 
vein tor a shnit distance; and the coal, in point oi 
comparison, was interior; as experience lias sifjoe 
taught, that tli;; crop is not equal to the coal thai is 
taken oiu luv.or; and when the roof and ilooi- have 
attained die rci^ularity and liardness, iio neces.s.ay ui 
uiisiu'e good co;d. 

At the perioil alluded to, railroads, were unkaoivii 
aniongj5t us, ami the mode of trantiporting was by 
common wagons, ovt-r roads at all limes bad, and 
through a ciJiiuiry, where, from its moimiainous 
character, llir iiois,.; was able to do but, little, in coin- 
parisoii lo what can bo done on a plain and levoi 

Y<r vvilh idl these diificulties, the. work v;as ooii- 
tinned: and the price attained, (owing to il.(. heavy 
expense of workmg) atlbrded but a scanty pittuncfc 
to the men .3vnployed, v/,ithout, in any manner, reim- 
biasiiig ihuov/nor of the land for the loss of th. 



•rtmber, exclusive of llic ifupoverishing- of his coal 

■As far back as 181 l,diUts had been, run on ihe 
heads of veins, iu several i.laccs, and the coal broughl 
from them in wheelbanows ; hue it was not till 1827, 
that the railroad avus inlrculuced into drifts, and from 
tliat period to the present, drifts have been the univer- 
Bal mode. ImjM-ovomenls iiavc been making from 
that to the i)r.sont li,i;e, and it is believed they havt; 
attained that deqrcj of ixL'rfeelion, which lias so lung 
been desired, and Piicli a^' !•.. enable the miner to work 
on the best and ciieapL.-t p!;in. 

Tiie introduelioii o\ i lih'.'ads into this county forma 
anim]iortant era in tiu hisiory of this district, and de- 
serves the atteniion oi' all wlio are engaged, or in 
any manner interested in mining \ as by tlieir intro- 
duction, those distant beds of coal, that, a lew years 
since, were believed to be loo remote to aduiit of be- 
ing worked, but. were held as a reserve, for a future 
generation j and were supposed to be luiavailing, un- 
til all those beds lyiii-; uu die canal were exhausted, 
'and which are now l)i. Might into active use, and, tht; 
wholly region, foiniitig a district, averagiiig eighteen 
miles in length, front oast to west; and in breadtli, 
from north to south, four iniles, is traversed or inter- 
sected by railroaiks, and is rendered capable of beitig 

. Previous to the ereciion of. any. of the public rail- 
roads, our enterprizhig fellow citizen, Abraham Pott, 
constructed a railroad from his mines, east of Port 
Carbon, to that place, Uiaking half a mile. This served 
as a model, and may be tinned the. beginning, I'ronii 
which all originated. 

. The JNIill Creek railroail was 

begun hi 1829, and finished in the ? . • 

same yuar , ii is a single track, 40 

inches, and extend.'^' from Poit 

Ctul i^i 10 the Ih'oad iiiouiitain. Ii- ' ■ 


is now intended to l.r/ a new road 
to iiitersecl. the J),>nvillL; road at 
the Broad niouiuain, which can be 
done at a small ex[ninbie. 'J'his 
road runs liinnieii tie coal region, 
from cusl to v/i'st, and cost, origi- 
nally ^5,000 
'J'ho 1 iler.ils itnuli.ig into it, cost 4,000 

^11,000 ! ! 

The Schuylkill Valley railroad 
was coiijmci'Ctd iii IS^'), and iin- 
ished in 1830. It extends from 
Port Carbon tu Tuscarora, is ten 
miles long, with a donbic track of 
40 inches, and cost. 

Add to whirh, laterals, that in- 
tersect it in every tiirection 

The Norwegian and Mount Car- 
bon vailroad, wliich is designed to 
form a part of' die Potlsville and 
Danville railroad, was connnenced 
in 182i), and linished in 1831. 
Abont one nnie above Pottsville, 
it branches and runs up the east 
and we;>t branches of the Norwe- 
gian. For three miles it is a double 
track, filiy-six iiiclu'.s and a half, 
built in the m( sulistantial man- ^ 

ner, and cost 97,000 

Its laterals C(;.-it about , . ' , 3,000 


Tire next in ortier is the Mine 
Hill and ScHuyllcill Haven rail- 
road, which extends from Schuyl- 
kill Haven, (o miles below Potts- 
ville,V to the Prriad ♦nountain, a 
distance uf II miles, a'ld with the 
'IVest West r>nineh connecling 


lIloTORy or SCHT.'i't.KILL COUNTY. 305 

with it, forms a liiiC of 15 miles, 

ai a 'cost of 182,000 

To this road tli.Tc are several 
miles of lateral, C'.-.^iing 20,000 

— — -202,000 

The Liltle Schm/JkiU raih-oad, 
extending from Poit Ciiiiiuu to 
Taniaqua, a disKi):ce of 22 miles, 
touches but for a small distance 
on the coal region, until it ap- 
proaches tlie valley of Tamaqua. 

^ The road is at present laid down 

witli a single track, fifty-six inches 

and a half; but as it is not y^L 

-. completed, but is designed for a 

■ doable track, calculaied for a loco- 
motive engine, it will cost, when 
finished 260,000 

'i'o which may be added tlie 
roads and laterals connected Avith 
mines, immediately on the line o( 
the canal; which, at a modeiatc 

I titunate, cost 2,000 
■;■.! .> ■ 


Making a total of railroads, of $G5G,000 

■ The amount invested in lands and build- 
ings in this county, is estimated at 6,000,000 

Tiie amount ex[)ended in openirigVeins, 
•fixtnres, cars, &lC., Lc, coimecited \vith 
•mining 200,000 

To which may be added 500 boats, 
aTCi-aghig i!^500 each 250,000 

Making a total of money invested, 
^amounting to iS7,106,000 

Although mining v/as earned on here from 1813, 
it was not until tlie canal was completed, that any 
correct account of Dig coal ient, could be obtaiuci- 

30t» in.<Touy ok sciiurLKiLL county. 

UudtT lliut pciiod. arks and river boats were iisi.d ; 
and till! ([iiPULitv' sjiit down was small, and Um. dilFi- | 
culty in selling was great at uny price. ! 

Until lilt; year 1620, wood was the only fne! uscJ | 

in Plnladel]jliia; but, from the innnenso quantity j 

reqnirtd to supply the city, the forests in the neigh- i 

bonrhooil M-ere la.'^.t disappearing, andia means t)( a | 

inture sn|;i)ly laid for same time occupied the alien- j 

tioii of Tlio ocoiioimst aiid philantln-opist. I 

The dis(.(;very of coal, in the counties of I.t/higli 1 
and Sehi'.ylKiil, .ijiiujarcd to offer the long ipjsired i 
mode of furnishing a supply, when the forests wi;rc | 
exhausted ; ai' I as wood had attained even ;;u that 1 
date, a high ]uice, (being frequently iVoni (i;u te | 
fifteen dollar:^ ]ier cord, daiing the winter, wjimi ihc; | 
navigation was clc.*^d,) a.tid evpry year increasing, 1 
the introduction of coal, as a sulistitute for wood, mms 
attempted ; but it Ixjing of a quality unknown to mosl 
of the citizens, great dilliculties were to bp overc(»me, 
before it could be introduced to any extept... 

To lliisi object, it was necessary to t;oni- I 

bat and remove old and long established habits and 1 

prejudices; and tu satisfy the public, tliat a saving I 

would be made. In addition to the habits of the | 

people being fitted, all, the preparations, for cunsu- | 

niing fuel were made for wood, and before coal could I 

be used, grates inust be substituted (or the open fire \ 

places, ai a heavy expense, which was thought too | 

great to be hazarded lur an uncertainty. 1 

It was a loiig .tnae befar.e grates wer§ brought tc 1 
that degree of perfection, sutficient to satisfy thu pid> 1 
lie that Anthracite coal could be used ; as the oarly | 
friends of the jvicasure, in their zeal to, introdnae it ] 
into general usG,,held om, to the public tfie idc>, that 
so small a quantity was sullicient to answer f i heat- 
ing rooms, that many, acting on their suggestion, had 
tbeir grale-^ constructed on so small a scale, ihiu ihey 
•v'<cve Ipuhc} totally inadequate, for the purpose, and 


were tlirowu aside by many in despair, and wood 
was again resorted to. 

Tlie experiiaeiu, after repeated trials, succeeded ; 
and, in 1825, they were brought to sucli a state as 
to satisfy the public that coal, as an article of fuel, 
could bo used ■\</ith safety and economy. 

In addition to other causes that operated against 
the general use uf .'Inthracite as a fuel, its general 
hardness and want of bitumen, prevented its easy 
ignition, and rpquircd some practice to enabJe the 
cilii'.ens to mak<j their fires; and it was considered 
quite a recommendation for a servant, if they were 
able to make coal fires. 

The year lfc:25 may be considered as the era frou. 
which we may date the fair introduction of Anthra- 
cite coal ; as grates v/ere then brought to perfectioj; ; 
and from then to tlie present date, the consumption 
lias gradually increased. To bring before the Asso- 
ciation at one view, the increase of the trade, we 
annex a statement cf coal shi[iped from this section 
from the year 1825 to the present date, with tlie price 
paid at this place. 

per ton. 



tons at 

$3 08 




2 80 




2 80 




2 52 




2 52 




2 52 




1 50 




2 37 

From the foregoing statement, it appears that fron: i 
1825, the increase lias boon gradual, and at an aver 
age price of .11*3,51 per ten. 

From documents in possession of the -Board, u. 
appears there were sent to tide water during the last, 
season, from oil souices. 373,871 tons, and. from the- 
b.est 'nformaiion we are iibb to collect, the supply or 

508 H!-:tokv gf Schuylkill countf. 

hand in ail our cities, when the navigation open*:, ^ 

•will not exceed 20/JOO tons, wliich wiU leave for die !r| 

last year's consinnption, 353,871 tons. As it is fair fe 

to inter diat ihe increased consumption will keep m 

pace with that of former years, we may put down p 

the demand for 1833, at 480,000 tons, of which h 

20,000 are already in market, leaving 460,000 loi.s p 

to he supplied from all sources. Of tliis quantiry it || 
is possible the Lackawana works may be able to I'ur- 
nish 90,000, and tliC l.ehigh 100,000— leaving tj be 
supplied from this county, 270,000 tons. 

Agreeal'Iy to the circidar of the Lehigh Company. 
they will bo alio to iarnish, the coming season, 150,- 
000 tons; l>ut, ;is thuy have for some years hen in 
tlie liabii o[ e^aimating their capabilities at 100,000, 
which they have ne\er realized, and as their nicnn'*; 
of transportation will be no greater next season than 
they were last, it is believed 100,000, tons will bo the 
maxinunn of ili 'ir j)roduct. The l^ackawana, from 
tlie opinion of experienced engineers, is able to fv.i- 
insh on their present road, no more than 90,00(i : ui 
which amount Ave have rated them. | 

Assuming 270,000 tons as the quantity that will 

be required ftoni this region, the next enquiry i.^, art I 

•we capable of frlrni'^hing that amount? and for v/liai | 

price can it be delivered in the boats.' j 

It is the opinion of the Board, that the quaniiiy | 

required can be furnished, if the drifts, now in order » 

and about being [)ut in order, are worked vigoruusly: ■ 

hut, should ])Uichasers be backward hi giving tlieir j 

orders, that (piuntity camiot be liad, as it re-^juived i 

strong exertions to yield the cpuuitity sent last .reason, j 

although more than 3u,000 tons of that quantity was I 

of Old stock that iiad been mined the year ])!■ viou?; I 

but, owing to the depressed state of the trade, ar,d die • 

consequent low price in 1831, had lain at tie: inities. \ 

until a price .:ould be obtained that would .s.v.die j 

•jwiiers from ios^j. : 






, , It is believed iVoui Ihe panic that pervaded the 
<1etilers in Boston, Now Vr.iii; and Philadelphia, that 
the orders in (ho spring \^'ill lie lindted, and thai l)Ul 
n §uuill business wiii l)e d( no in the early part of the 
season. Should this be the ease, the quantity mined 
will fall far short ol' tliat JCipiired — as t'roni the na- 
ture and situatioii oi' Jiiany of our openings, there is 
not room to stock up a large quantity — and, in con- 
sequence, the work's nuist be suspended, or worked 
weak handed. In either case the operators will be 
(breed to seek oilier *jmi)loynient, and become scat- 
tered over the cimntry., and when vranted cannot 
be had. 

It appears by tlie siat<Mjient heretofore given, that 
the price of co;d deli\'ero I on board the boats, prior 
to ISol, Avas $2,70 per ion; and that the average 
from the commencement of the business was $2,51. 
i To those at [\ (hstance that sum may appear lai'ge\ 
I A slight acquainiuncL' widi the business will satisfy 
I every unprejudiced ujind, that it is not more than 
I sullicicnt to relud)ur:^e i\w collier lor his capital em- 
ployeil. 'I'o the uiu \[)erienceLl it liears the appear- 
auce of a sale and lucrative business — and, were 
I fire-sidc calculations to be relied on, this assumption 
would hold good. 

Hut to those who have had' experience in mining, 
and have known the actual charges, the sum hereto- 
fore charged is kno\'iai to- be no more than a fail 
profit on the capital- invested. Coidd all the vein^ 
opened be relied on, and were there no I'aults to be 
encountered, coal would ullbrd a fair profit at S-,00 ; 
but as these are cases that none have realized — htU, 
on the contrary, all veins are not only liable to, but 
'actually are troubled with them, it cannot be consid- 
ered as a conipensatioii. 

It is well knuv/n to ail of this association, that 
foults have occurred at times when least expected, 
and when every pvei),ua(ion was made tor doing a 
iiiK:*; business; and that it is no luicornmoii occiii- 

310 irrsTOK'y of schuylkill county. 

rence to meet ihoni when every appearance indicii- 
ted a fair and |)rosperous issue. Weeks, and some- 
times monllis, lire required to cut through the.M; iauUs, 
hefore a ton of coal can he again taken Irom the vein ; 
and hreasts are ayain to he opened, shal'ts sunk for 
ventikitioii, ;iiid a hong time spent in preparing. Be- 
sides all tliis, tlie constant wear and tear of v.-agons, 
.fixtures, !ko., forjii a series of items, together M'ith 
numerous etcetera^ that cannot he taken into i rdcu- 
lacion, urjtil actual experience has pointed ilicm out. 
To afford the collier a fair profit on his inve- 'Diient. 
and euablo l)ini to keep his works and lixiav;;s in 
order, die Ifjarff feel confident tliat nothing ksj than 
S2,50 per ton :!t Pi.ltsville or Port Carbon,"and ^■;2,75 
at Schuylldil J hivai, will he sudicient. Tlu' dilTor- 
ence of 25 o-als between Poltsville and SclmyDdll 
Haven is a j'air allowance, ae the increased flistanc, 
'tliey are re(pii -cd lo haul on the AVest hraii' h rail- 
road will re(pi' c all that sum ; and as the dhi'L^Miico 
■in freighi and toll between the places is 25 cumls in 
favour of Schuylkill Haven, the places, hy this diif-r- 
euce, art hrou.dil lo a perfect equality. 

The hoard have seen, with astonishment, the charg* | 

of mono|)i)ly biought against llie colliers of this region. \ 

and the Ingh price of coal, in our Atlantic cities, .atlri' /| 

huted t< the grasping spirit of colliers here. They ! 

woidd pa^s this uumerited charge hy as unwtii'iby oi | 

notice, hut that the- accusation liaving heen .so icaig | 

made, and undenied, has induced a helief in niaiiy | 

tliat there is foundation for it; and, under a h(;lief of \ 

the truth of tliii aciatsation, petitions are ahout being * 

presenied to ('ongr(;6s, praying them to reduce or j 

aholish tlie duly on foreign coal. They hav«.' sfxn, | 

with e^jual astoni;,l;ment, that the Board of Aldi^rrnen i 

of the city of New York, (under an impre.s:.ioD, as 1 

they presume, tliai the charges against us arc found- J 
cd in fact.) liave also, as a hody, petitioned Nu a re- 
peal of duties. 

A cnai.'Ae of ;jo irrave a nature, cominL'- i'rini so 


respectable a cjource, requires from us a firm denial; 
as well us proof of the uiijustness of the charge. We 
jiave already shouni that, with tiie exception of the 
year 1S:J1, coal was uov(;i- sold lower than it was the 
last yeiir ; and it is wi;ll known to all engaged in the 

'trade, that liic [Jiii:.; ol' 18U1 Wds far below what the 
, article cust. The ]iricc of tiiat year was not sidli- 
cient to pay i'ni (jiu labor of taking the coal from die 
mine, and deiiveriug it oii tfie landing, and the owner 
received uotlung I'or his coal. 
■ It is a w( 11 known fii't, that a ])erch of bnildinL 

^toiic, or 2 1.) i. ulijc ilj<'l, cosis in Philadelphia from 
$1 to $1,25. ]t is (jiiarriud from the mines, two niilcj' 
frojiithe city, irMi'l i.- known u» be much easier obtained 
thnncoal; it docs not rc(|Lnrc onolburth the labour. 

• and is of no intiin.sjr vaiiio : whereas a ton of coal, 

*ir 28 cubic let t, is bauhnl on an average 10 miles. 

■and was delivered in l&'Jl, for $1,50, making a dil- 
ference in the cost, of i.ot quite one-third of a cent 

\per cubic foot more for ( oal, than ibr binlding stone. 
This I'act needs no t annient,and must, at first blush. 

■satisfy all. 

The true-cause oi coal costing more last season at 

'tide water, than of right it shordd do, Avas not owing 

•to the price at which it was sold here, as we believe 
we have fuliy shown it was quite as low as it could 
be adbrded, bnt was owing to the extravagant freight:^ 

'that were paid for carrying it oir the canal. 

The depressed suite of the trade in 1831 discorn- 
aged the buildiirg of hoats, and when the canal 

•opened in 1832, it \vas Ibund there were irot suili- 

'cient to carry to niarkei the quantity required. In 
consecpiencc, freight oj'ened at ^1,50, which was- 
deenretl, by tlie dealers hei(;, a lair rate; and as it 
paid a good pj'afit lo d.c boatmen, it was believed it 
would have a beneboiid ell'ect, as all our boat-build- 
ers were ]nit in rctjuisilion, and there was a fair prt.'S- 
pect that 'tlici e wordd, m a short time, be a snlli- 

■ •! •ngy, aia]. ibai wo ''ould safely depend on lieigl.ts 



going no higher. This might have been the 
had noi ilio ciiolci':i appeared in Philadelplna ; but, 
so soon us lii'it scourge was known to have niiuJe iis 
appearance, the boatmen became alarmed, and many 
oi' them drew otf iheir boats, and the few who con- 
tinued, were only induced to remain by the in<;ii'asc'd 
wages they received. From $1.,50, freight w.-nt up 
as high as $3,75 ; in the meantime, boats were being 
built' at every yard, and it was confidently anticipa- 
ted by those who rre engaged in mining, and \vhoh.e 
interest it is tod(liv;er coal at the cheapest )K)s^ible 
rale, that, aj; soon a.:; the alarm should subside, biiii- j 
iiess would resume its usual course, and that \':cm\\l | 
would come down to a fair standard. But tli.; pan- | 
tial stop put to shipping, and the conseciucnl small j 
shipmcnis, caiv.ud pnrchasers to instruct theii' igcnt], I 
(many of whom have no interest farther thru tiio | 
couimissiou tlicy receive,) to forw.ard, as fast as \>os- I 
sible — in consoiiuciice, a oompetition took place lie- j 
tweeu the agents, of who should do the most. 'J'ht | 
boatmen took advantage of the contention, aiui ;'! | 
hopes of rcdncmg freight to a fair standard, wtc'. dis- J 
sipated. In coirse(|uence. of this, au average of ir'i j 
was paid for ireight, more than should have been ;j 
done, and that sum was added to the cost of ei);il ai ii 
tide water. It is bidieved by your Board, thai ll-.tre { 
will be a sulticijut number of boats on the line, at rlio I 
commencement of the coming season, to carry all the - 
qoal that may be required, and that freight may be j 
had, the season tiirough, at $1,50, provided ibat j 
agents of houses ui our cities be instructed not to | 
raise on each other. ^ 

As a great portion of the evil may be traced lo die ^ 

unlimited orders given to agents, we would soggest ^ 

die propriety of eacii member advising their custom- ( 

ers, m select from amongst our citizens, a conaiiiltee, ^ 

who sliall serve as advisers for agents in all eases; , 

fiiul it is boUeved an arrangement may be made, tiiat ] 

i/id iasuie a fai; i^rice to the boatmen, and, at ih'. 1 


wime time, save lln; dibLmt purchasers from ex 

From iiifoniiatiua ilenvcdfrom sources th^t may 
be relied on, wo ibol Av^rruuted in saying there will 
be 600 boats on the canal, at the opening of the sea- 
son, and as the a\^erago burtheu.last year was neax 
35 tons, and embraced a largo number of " Union 
Boats," and as all the new boats are of 45 tons and 
over, it will be safe to :'.verage the boats for next sea- 
son at 38 tons, mahiug a tonnage amounting to 
22,800. Allowui.^ l!i trips for the year, they will be 
abie to transport ".iiit^^OO; but, as a portion of tlu; 
boats will be used for iransporthig other articles than 
coal, it will be sale to '-liniLite at 270,000 tons lor 
coal, Avdiich is the auiouni that will be reciuired, and 
|. ; as we may conclude $1,50 as the highest freight, the 
f, \. cost of a ton of coal, di^livered at tide water will be : 

■ Delivered in the boris a I Fort Carbon, $2 50 

. Toll on the canal, • 1 ^'^ 

; Freight to rinladel^dua, I 50 

<<■•:.■ S5 00 

At which price it will be the cheapest fuel that 
can be used, and belaw which it will be impossi- 
ble to deliver it, with any i)rospect of profit to the 

• collier. 

It has been urged on the public that if the present 
duty is taken otf, coals may be imported from Eng- 
land, and sold at prices b^low what they are now 
gelling for. To those engaged in mining antbracito 
coal, it is of little consequence whether there is any 
duty on the article or not, as it is confidently believed 
by your board, lliat the superiority of our article lur 
domestic purposes, ns well as for generating steam, ih 
40 great over bituminous, that it can never be brongh:; 
to compete with it, even if sold at a lower price; as ;i 
must be cvideat to all, that those who have oncp 
H.srd anthracito, will nover willingly abandon iL.l.a 


biluminous. jVlh cs there are large beds of liiiuiuiii- ^ 

oils coal in tlii-3 hlate, as well as in Viruiui;i, tliui fi 

might be aliuctcd by a reduction of duties, it may be '^ 

'well to exjiiuiiie mlothe truth of the assertion M 

It is w.'il l;ii()\vu to ail mercantile men, tl.oi il:r S 
principal jian, if not all the coals brought Iron' Iilng- « 
land, are brought as ballast; and if the shi]u»\vnei i 

•can reidize cost I'oi the article, he is satisfied tu luso § 
the froigbt and charges, as, I'roin the nature of ihe | 
articles brought from l^lngland, ho is comjuiltd tr 

■ take coal or s;.h:!;s iiallost,or purchase stone oi oaidi, 
which is utterly u-^ck-is when brought to this ( juhIi/, 
But admit fu- <i moment that the whole country is li 

"be sup[>!iud Iloiu !:'iigluiid, it must be eVid.ait dial a 
large liimilK/i of vessels will be employed, if :. 
fair freight is ))aid, so far from reducing tlu' ;ii'iicio, 
it will eidianc; tin price, exclusive of rendering it at 
all times a liu<:uuilmg article. 

■In the year 18:j{), a committee was a])poinl>'U iV< h: 
both brancbi ^ of ilic Hritish Parliament, to (■vaiKim 

•into the .state ii'tln; coal trade, and report, 'ria' (;im:i- 
mittee was aj'poinlt'd on the petition of the. cil)>a ho ■.) 
a district, who considered themsolves agricvci hy 
a tax or charge on coal, to the extent of less tbnn wiio 
cent per bui^Lcl ; but with that prudent foresiglit tlial 
has always ciiaracterized that island of merchants, 

-they exaininc'i, with minute care, into every liraiich 
of that important irade, and after an investigaliua ol 
near foiu' months, the committee of each bran 1. p-.e- 
sented a report; which comprises 390 quartu J'.ue.s, | 

•and were of upinion no alteration should be made, i 
whicli o[)inioii wa-; adopted. 2 

We find, by rderring to that report, that tl.c prjcK ? 
of coal ot New-Ca;>tio-upon-'J'yue, in 1829, was ^3,10 ] 
per ciialdron, transporting from New Castl- lo hon- 
don, ^2,40, and delivairing from the vussli-: [o iliC 
.purclifisers, $'3.,05 — and, that with all charg.:S ;ulacd 
it co^t the ^jonsunicr in London, in the year Ih-'?'.), fov 


«one chaldron delivered in his cellar, J5ll,25, equal to 
;?10,3'2l per ton. To tran.siJort the supply of London 
ifrom New Castle, it rctpiired 7021 vessels. 

From the foregoiiit,^, which from its Ihgli official 
'■character may he relied on, it is evident, that no reduc- 
tion hi price can he cxpe'led from a reduction of 
duties, or a i'rea tiiide. 

' ■ The British governmeni lias, for many years, 
looked to the coal trade, as a linitful source for sea- 
men, audit has v/iih truth, been CLilled the nursery of 
'their navy; that eiliciDit arm of the nation. We 
may, from the gradual, hui sure increase of coastiui-, 
■vessels employed in tiunsiu/rting our product to the 
■eastern states, look \\'iil) etjiud certainty to this branch 
of trade, for a sure tapply of our hardy seamen, 
Avhen their country may ie(|uire their aid, 

! ';• Your board could^ ]>y v;oing into detail, adduce 
•proof suliicient tosati-^ly ih m most inveterate advocatt* 
of free trade, that it is cuniiary to the interest of the 
nation, or of tlu iiidi\ Iduals composing it, to reduce 
the duty on coal, out tl. y d. em the ibiegoiiig sullieient 
to satisfy all, v/ho ar • not, from interested motives, 
wedded to the principle of free trade, and should not 
have deemed it necessary to have said any thing on 
the subject, bui from die respectable character of the 
association, who now stand most prominent as appli- 
'cants for a repeal. 

With a district of country embracing all the variety 
-of anthracite co;d — with u elass of individuals of the 
■■most i^ersevering industry — we may fairly challenge a 
competition with the world. Here, the city dealer may 
be supplied with any article to suit the taste oi 
■opinions of his custo'fU:is. He may have it of all 
degrees of hanliies.s, and lujin the pure white, to tlve 
bright red, and of a [^luity, surpassed by none ir 
the ui-iverso. 

Widiin the 1;'^/. tv/o yeai.-^, the business has settloo 
• do'.vii lo a kdr taid regular trade, and the caie be 


Stowed in clc>ai-iiig the coal trom slate and oiLer iir.: 
purities 1ms increased, and Schuyllvill coal i.s ileserv 
e<ny esteemed aljove all other, and will, at all timc-i 
command $1,00 per ton more than any other m ilni 
eastern marl;-t. 

'Vc )Hc.^!;r\ e the high character we liave (l.iaincLl, 
ihe heard earne.stly enjoin it on the as3e)cialioii not t'; 
re-lax in tiicir eiuloavors, but to continue their exer- J 
lions, 10 add :-till larther to tlie character of ui;r staple: 
and by close attention to the interests of tho.^e vrlr. 
confide ill tl,'em, lo merit and retain a characie: ihoi 
will warrant die loreign dealer in placiiig ceiiiidi'iif^ 
iu them. 

As the exi'cnlive of the association, the Ix-aid jioiii •: 
themscjves iMupared, at all times, to render all ll'.- ail 
aird as.dstaiic_; in their power, and it will air.,.il theiii 
pleasure, if iliu experience they have had in tniniiig, 
can he rendered serviceable to any naembei of the 
assoeiaiion, (.f any person, in any manner hUercstcl 
in the trade. 



r ^-v 

REPORT OF 1845. 

■.The period has ymw arrived wlien it becomes tire 
iluty of the Jkjavd ul" Tr.idi; to yiibniit to the Coa] 
Aliaing Association, ilicir aiiiiiuil Keport. 
:-. In the perlbrrnance of tliis duty, they Avill briRg 
into review the coal operations of the past year, thu 
ttinproveijients immediately connected with the busi- 
ness, as well-as those in progress and in expectation ; 
and also the routes of transportation to tide water. 

Tlie amount of anthracite coal sunt from the mining 
<listricts, during the year ending on the first inst., will 
"le seen by the following taljle : 

I'loin .'•i 




By canal 
•• Phila. and Reading 




1 3,067 

From Lehigh 
"" Lackawana 
'• Wilkcsbarre 
" Pine Grove 
"' Shamokin 

Adding remaining on hajid first of April 

1, 0-31, 669 


1 Deduct arnonnt sent uy lailruajfrom Jan. 

1, to April ]. ' 52,240 

1, 029,4 2 y 


ill making up the above table in the usual ivuvniier 
jiicludiiig in ihe iirst place, all the coal sent dowii 
i'rom JanuHiy to Jannaiy, and adding the anio;mt oi. 
hand on iho 1st of iVi>ril, it then becomes necessary to 
deduct the quantity sent I ly railroad from Jaminry 1st 
to April Isl, in o'der to show the correct an.ouni ii; | 
the mainft. 

The fc.ll.u/ing table exhibits the quantity of co;.. 
mux. fi'oni all the anthracite coal basins of I'cur.syl- 
-vania, since the commencement of the trade ; rogediei 
with the annual increased supply, consumpiion, and 
quantity rem;iiiiing unsold, and also that di. [»os( d ci 
m the line, of oiu' canal and railroad. 




Exhihitini^ the. ,/uaniilij of Coal sent from all the 
Anthracite i^oal JUt';iiis of Pennsyluania since 
the vonii)ieucc»ival cf the trade, \c. Sf-c. 




























3 1, 3(H) 



































432,04 5 
























491,602 49,2110 




417,058 230,237 




398,443 441,49i 



5.r.87,93o[ 72L01cir G,308,94t 

\ 2,773,65. 



















] ,078 










■J 8,0 17 


















1 1 1 ,777 

























1 18, 171) 





192, ■-•no 









1.1 (.8,001 







18 11 







1 182,354 






INCRLAfc'i;, (JONSI.'.\trTION, &c. 

i> - — — 






i VEAK3. 

1N( Kb;,\.tfE. 


Ai'Kir. 1. 


. _ 


f. 1820 

1 1821 


1 1S22 


! 18i!3 


1 1821 
fr 1825 



[ 1820 



1 1827 



1 "1828 






; 1830 









298, .871 






V' 5,000 












, 1830 

























I 1841 






i 19,)il2 





15 5, 5 3b 




: 1844 





322 aisi'oRV op Schuylkill county. 

TliCio nppcai:^ to be 90,000 tons of coal cli.stil.ntL... j 
along the line o( our canal and railroad; nd Ironi | 
Wilki'sburrc, Pincgrove and vShamokin,thLTL npj.oaiv ^ 
to have been about 70,000 tons disposed of on jIk; litic-: j 
of canal [hrough whicli the coal passes. And tlit 
most reliable accounts that we can get poss>:asi(>u oi, 
we believe the quantity sold on the lines of irausu 
from the Lehigh and Laclcawana mines, may be sot 
down at 90.000 tons, which will make a gross amouuii 
of 250,000 tons sold on the lines of transportation j 
leaving l,381,0ti;) tons of anthracite coal, that Vv' as 
sent the past year to the terminations of the canals 
and railroad over which it was transported, there to 
be consun( d or shipped to other pouits. 

The amoiiiit ..I'coal sent from this regioii ihc pas. ^ 
year in boats, through the Schuylkill, and Delaware | 
and Karitan canals, direct to , the city of New York* 
and it;, vicinity, appears to be 111,521 tons, which is 
8,451 tons. less than in the year 1843, and is owing 
to the large iunount carried liy railroad to Richmond 
thence tbr....-h the Delaware and liaritan canal tr. 
New York. 

Tiie number of steam engines and amouiu c. 
macliinery ai the collieries, is steadily and ra]>idly m- 
creasii:-i, aid wr now have twenty-two colhcrics un- 
der w.ifer kn'cl, at which there are erected twenty- 
eight engines lb?: raising the coal and draining the 
mines, the ai^grcjato power of them being equal tc 
1,100 horsesT And there has-been erected w ithin tht. 
past year thirteen smaller engines, equ^l to 178 horsu 
power, for breaking coal ; makhjg the whole mmibe! 
of engine;, in tlu; region, employed in pumiMng, a]id 
ill raising an.l breaking coal, forty-one, with an iig- 
gregate pov/cr of 1;278 hojses. 

la addiiiun to the forty-one engines employca 
about the mincLr tliere are fifteen others, rated l&G 
horse power, eUif>loyed in other busnr is in the 
covinty, making a total of fifty-sjx steam engines, w\[Y 

iiisrour OP schuylkill county, 323 

an aggregate power ol" 1,464 horses, employed in the 
coiimy ; all ol' which, excepting four, have been built 
by our own machinists, and these machinists have 
now fifteen engines in the course of construction for 
our region. 

The iniroducLion into this county within the past 
year of machinery for breaking coal, may justly be 
considered as an acquisition of vast importance to the 
already extensive means and appliances for econo- 
mising manual labor. 

The machine in general use was invented by 
Messrs. J. & S. ]jattin, of Philadelpliia, and was first 
gut up in their cnal yard in that city about a yeai 

^^ : The first in this county was^erected by Mr. Gideon 
IJ* ' Bast, on Wolf creek, near Minersville, and since that 
'*j time they have been put u[» in various places, and are 

found to answer the fondest hopes of the inventor, 
-«-|, 'and meet most fully tlie wishes of the coal operators, 

inpeifurming tho work at a very reduced cost and 

less wastu of the coal. 

This machinery, whh the circular screens attached, 
and driven by a twelve horse engine, is capable of 
breaking and screening 200 tons of coal per day, 
which is fully equal to the work of from forty to fifty 

Port Carbon is now connected with the railroad to 
Philadelphia, through the Mount Carbon and Port 
Carbon railroad, which was opened on the 1st of 
December last, by tlie unyiulding perseverance of the 
engineers who were actively engaged in urging the 
work to its completion wiihin the time required by 
the charter. 

The Schuylkill Valley r^^avigation and Railroad 
Company, jiave a large ibrce enjployed under A. W 
Graven, engineer, in straightening and grading thr; 
V roiit' Ibi laying down a new road from the termiiiou):: 


of the ]\iouni CarljGii and Port Carbon railroaa at 

Port CuiIk))!, (o Tusearora, a distance of nine niiles. ^.^ 

This road is to 1)C laid with heavy iron rails, and ol || 

tlie same width as the i)rincij)al roads in the United |^ 

States, whieii is ibur feet eight inches and a half he- |^| 

tween the )'aii.'?,and ii is cx])ected to be e<]aal to any >,* 

road in the coin.tiy. M 


Judging frorii die lorward state o( tlie -w^ofk. liiid fi 

tlie dcterniincd enei.';y ui tlie men who are inlur* sied p 

in it, there cnn f-i' liiile or no ilonbl of its being ready j^ 

for the transport. aioii of coal by the 1st of May next: ^l 

and a part of ii wdi I'roljahly be in use beldji ili-u U 

time. M 

The W(jric f,r gr..:liiig, and relaying the JMiH Cicl-k 
and Mine IliK i-aih-./ati, Avith a wide tj-ack, and )ioi! 
rail, and (■onn"'Jnig it with the Mount Carboji and 
Port Carbon i\< id, has also been commenced, Avith 
the intention of having it ready early in the eoiuing 

A bridge i.s m jirogress of constrnclion ai I': .; 
(Jlinton, that will c(jnncct the Jdllle Schnylkill r.oiri.',!! 
with the IMiilailelphia and Poltsville railroad, :i\'i[ ]■.• 
less than six mimtlis from this time, Ave shall oLsj dW 
the raihocids of the coal region, ibat dischartif Th'jiv 
immense ireicht thiongh the valley of the Si.lmvllcill 
connecteci widi llio main aitcjy, llial lead^^ to die U<\i: 
waters ol' tin; i)(dav\'are Kiver at iiichnioiul. 

The railroa.d to Plnladelphia luis been in snnidv 
and successfnl o[»cration dnrijig the past year ;' and 
iu October las^ \\u', laying down of th(3 second Irai.k 
was corjipletrd, pri senting now two tr;icks >■■{ iru;. 
rails tlivoiightont ;'iie whole distance ot' nnn-iy-fonr 
miles, whioli is not to be seen on any oth^-r -oad in 
this coimivy. 

Tbu hue impiovement iti the con8tructi(jn id b>r.o- 
niotive engines^ by winch they are enabled lo drav 
two or three times as nmch as formerly, is c dcalnuji 

fk . 


to cheapen ilie co>t ft irai;;.portation on railroads to 
an extoiit t!iat low^ if iuiy, ot' us had ever imagiueil. 

■'The im])rovei)i(:ijl.s by Ijuldwhi & Whitney, in eon- 
iiectiny ^ix ^vllC(•l:^. ;iiui u.-iliy ihcm all as drivers, 
with the \'/eiL^lii (n' i\v.:. oji.^ine bearing equally on 
them, has incii-;iM:Ll liic jDwer of the engine im- 
mensely, a.s \v\\.^ <:lc.iiiy siii.wn by a trial in October 
last, when 75Ci Ions of cu;.t was drawn hy one of 
these engines, i.iid luiic; Ihat time, they have been 
making regular trij ,j w'wh from 4 to 500 tons. 

Tiio.'iO engagi::.l ju )jiuju;g and transporting coal, 
have preferred ibe raiboad to tlie canal, at the rates 
charged upon each; ,\ii I ib^; advantages hy railroad, 
were considered s(i fai ■ ui^aior to iJiose by canal, 
tiiat the cars on ilio ii-.-.d wcr(; in eonstant demand, 
while the boats were lyiuu: at oin- wharves waiting 
for cargoes; and wltc piiiiripally loaded at Port 
Carbon, from whence tlie coid could not be sent in 
any other Av^ay llhiu by canul. 

lint the ipiiol of llii' btj;iis has heon surjiassed by 
the inortnoss of ibo uinal company for some time 
past, Ijy which ilu;y ai\: liki^ly to lose a large part of 
the coal trade for a time ; at least until they improve 
the canal, and put it in a condition to adnrit of trans- 
portation on it being diuio as cheaply as on the rail- 

We believe the canal company liave come to the 
same cijnclnsion; and fjarn that they have decided 
on making the canal sntlieiontly large to pass boats 
carrying from 150 to 200 ions ; and further, that some 
individuals are so tliorongbly convinced of the advan- 
tages of steam pi>wer on canals, that (bey have de- 
termined u])on trying it ibe coming season. 

We are inily saiisfted diuc ihe enlai'gement of the 
eanal and ib.: application el steam, is the true and 
undou])ted ]jlan for cluiap'iunig the transportation on 
&his frc oi inipiov..-ment, and in perusing the repoii, 


of the president oT that company, we have Ijlch g 

much gratified wiiIi the clear business style of tlie w 

document, and the ability with which these advantii- |' 

ges are set Ibrlh. ^ 

When such a navigation is completed, that boats; |s 

or vessels carrying iVom 150 to 200 tons, can load at f| 

our wharves, and proceed directly to New York and 1^ 

other distant ports widiout transhipment of tlie coal, || 

and be propelled by steam, we think the cost of trans- jp 

porting must be rednced to one-half, or perhaps, one- % 

third of ihb cost in [hi present boats drawn by bcrscs, |i 

When this eniaigement of the canal is comijloted, M 

we shall have a line of canal and a railroad, extend- % 

ing from this place lo tide water, not surpassed by |i| 

any in the countiyj but it must necessarily re 'niro «^ 

some time to place the canal in this position ; and in t 

the meantime the loiaiage of the valley of the Scluiyl- ^ 

kill, which in the past year exceeded 1,000,000 o[ I 

tons, will be steadily increasing, and in a very I'r.w f 

years will number 2,000,000 tons of coal and .^ r- >■ 

chandize, i? 

Thus it does ;ippear that the large amount of c:i}'i- 

tal expended on the canal and boats, railroad and t 

cars, is intended to meet tlie requirements of a tmsi- * 

ness already very large, and which will, in all hu- ^, 

man probability, be suthcienl in a lew years, to give f 

active and profitable employment to tlie millions of ; : 

dollars expended lor its accomniodati(»n, |; 

Five years since, the manufacturing of good iron V 

with anthracite coal, was believed and asserted by | ; 

some to be practicable, doubted by many, and posi- h 

lively denied by a majority of the iron masters ol '^ 

this State. And iiox^-- tliere are 13 blast furna< es in .■- 

operation, using tbis fuel, and ])roducing the best t 

(piality of fonndry miital. The furnaces are i.T dif- ^ '■, 

ferent dimensions, ])roducing from 30 to loo ions .j ; 

each, of meiai per w^eek, and making in the aygre- ' '' 

gate ab.'UL 70u lon-i per v/eek. These 13 funiacos r 

, I; 


cannot consunie jless than 70,000 tons of coal per 
anmuu; and the additional nmnber that is expected 
will be put into operation within a year, will increase 
the consumplion of coal lo at least 100,000 tons per 
annum for this purpose only. 

f Another means of coi!sinning a large quantity of 
our coal is, in its- application on boats and vessely, 
traversing canjls and rivers and also the ocean. 

, Tliere are now ihiny-five steam boats and vessels 
plying from the city of Philadelphia, to different points 
an tl)i; Delaware audits Iribntarics, and to New York, 
which consume annually about 45,000 tons of anthra- 
cite coal. 

From the best iiifcrruiaion we can get, the steam, 
boats and vessels running from the city of New York 
in various directions, eonsinne annually considerably 
more tiian 100,000 tons uf anthracite coal, making the 
whole amount at these two i)oints not le^s than from 
150 lo 1G0,000 ions consumed annually, for generatnig 
steam for the propulsion of vessels. 

From the decided economy and advantages accord- 
ing to the present experience, arising irom the use of 
steam in vessels ruiniing through our large canals 
. and along the coast, we arc led to the conclusion that 
in a few years a vciy large- portion of the -coasting 
ti-ade, as well as that to the more contiguous ibreign 
ports, will be done by steam vessels, and will neces- 
sarily use a large amount of coal. 

' The rate of toll on the canal for the pa^t year was 
reduced to thirty-six cents per ton, on coal, Avith an 
allowance of five per cent, for waste, and we are not 
aware that any chaiigu in the charge is contemplated 
for the coming season. 

Theaver.'gt t'reiglit lor iho whole boating seasoii, 
■was 77 cents lo Pbiiudflidiia, and 5^2,1 G per ton (o 
■New York. 

O'lie whole i;ijurge per ton of coal by the railroad. 


328 invroKi' of schuvlkill counts, 

was i^l,10 iu llic winter, and' $1,25 from tlie 1;,l o, ] 

July, until ihe Isi ot" December last. \ 

The cnual v/as open and ready for the sliijmiciit .., j 

coal Oil tlic iiGd vif March, and notwithstanding,^ thv: ] 

miprecedcni-J dry weather, there was n(j intt'JiU|inct' j 

in business, I'liiil ii was closed by ice on the 1 !/(};, oi j 

Deceiui'ci', I 

Tlh' nnioiiiit oi coal imported into the li'-ifcu 1 

Stales I'or dxj yeiM- ending the :_K)lh of Jnne, KSll, i^- j 
as lullov/s : 

in iViuc.Lun vessels, 40,i}()'J j 

In For, -u do 37,161 

'J'Mlal, 87,07^ i 

If wl; <'id(l 10 ih :■ prochicls of 1841, the inLM,:iSO ii. | 

that of .mihiacitc! coal over 1813 as a giiidc io' ; 

the prithahlij :inniiiiit iixpiiredto be produced llic; ot.:'i)- I 

iug season, wi; shall lind it to amount to nearly '3,000^- \ 

000 id" tons; ;.nd some of om- ojierators are uuil.;);: j 

adculations ihal .d)ont this aujo^mt must be ;■ ,ii i>.to j 

iiuirkL't to ii\cy:l the deniand ; but we think, this i-sl- ] 

mate may be somowliat too higii, and trust that ihosi i. 

engaguti in niinin^^ will carefully watch the state oi | 

the maik'cl, in order to guard against either gn it ex- j 

cess 01 (bJii:)i;ucy in the supply, and thereby [li-m^ent \ 

heavy lasses 1(1 ifti producer, or great iuqreaseii cost | 

to die consul. ':;r, foth of which will be avoii|r:»l fr \ 

steering hciW'. -u lu*j two extremes, and steady piiccs j 

preserved; which is always desirable to the t'oHier. ! 

In the re]jui1 nl' liie experiment^ made by Pri;U;s- 

3or W. Ii. Ju] 1 1 INI. 1 1, under the authority of Uong.'o,^^- 1 

at the Navy Y;ail in Washington, on many spccin^erii | 

of andn-n.cilc ana bituminous coal, we find in the i 

lubl'..' exhibitiiit!- thi quanfity of steam lirodii.j'd l./v I 

one pound of I'mf dial the coal sent from this rcgior.' i 

stands bef jre all die other anthracites exp^ linienied | 

ij-pcai; and s(:-:x,u.\ oidy to t\,vo .spcciujciis ..i' buit- ] 


minous coal sent iVom tlvj west branch of the Susque- 

We deem it iioccssary to call your attention to the 
lYiovenicnt.s again inaile in 'tnr lcgi;slatnro to impose 
a tax on coal, as an ovi!::ilirnt lor increasing the pub- 
He reveiuie ; and m tins lasi movement they seem to 
have forgotten, or pia-poocly avoided bitnminousqoal, 
hy havcing specilied uuthraciic. 

<i One of iht; argununit.s u^cd in favor of this mca^nre 
is, that a large part of tlic, debt of the state was incui'- 
red for ijio pii.ip>-,i; ui' > . i .trncting canals for die 
flccommodation oi dn.s l.adc; and if this is the case, 
and the jtidjlic wojks d<- acconmiodate the coal trade, 
we cannot sec ti.i; nucis-iiy :)f imposing a direct lax, 
separate and disiiii.a fj;.!ii di ; lolls; because if the tolls 
are increased, thure will b(; an e(]ual probability of 
an incr(;ased revi-mie, ^il icli can be more readily col- 
lected than a separate aiid (iiruct tax, and done too 
•w without any additional < lliccrs. 

'"■ If oiu- legislature tlm.k tbat an increased charge 
'• per toni>n coal lokI ail odicr nuacbandize, i)assing 
over the public work;,, :s calculated to increase tlic 
annual revenue llowing uito the public coders, we are 
i\ perfectly satisfied that sacli a course should be pur 
: sued, because it v/ould operate equally and impar- 
V. tially. 

^ But we canpot see the justice of laying a direct 
tax on anthracite coal, v.-itlunt at the same time im- 
posing it ui)on all the oilier products of the state, in 
proiJorlion to its viilne. 

The heaviest jjuilion oi' this tax Avould fall upon th* 
coal sent Innn tliis rr^ioii. for \vdii(_h the common 
wealth has never LXpeMii^ d onu dollar to construe', 
a canal or railroad by v.-)a(di \i couM be carrieil to 

Tlio in,;il 1,11'ds here ai'; v>dned at high rates anc^ 
lieavily laxi.'d: iii.d imf i'v.w cwimiies in the state ua\ 
more l.x Lhaii the Couniy of h'chiiyllall, 

330 History of schuylkiHl county. 

If, however, il. is necessary to raise more TevenuSj 
the landljolders and colliers of this county are always 
ready tc bear tlncir jtroportion of any tax that ij laid 
witii a duo regard to even-handed jnstice ; but we 
must be v/arclif:il and constant in protesting against 
this system of unequal taxation, than which there is 
nothing more certainly calculated to breakdown and 
destroy (his Luancii of industry, which has bceu 
fost(n-ed inlo its present gigantic size, by much indi- 
vidual euUaprize and very lieavy pecujiiary liisses. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 



{Frumd'i Atuhraciic Gazette.) 


, Previous to euteiing upon a particular local de- 
■'scriptioii or iiistory oT llic alevclopiiiciits of this 
'region, we shall give a rapid and condensed view of 
"tlie various lluuu'ics hy which sideniiric na-n account 
for the cxistenco of the valuable unneral which lnaket^: 
'Our wealth. The subject is a curious one, and will 
possess nuicli interest for tliose engagetl in mhiing 
operations, while, in. connection with tlie future arti- 
•cles of this series, ii will be serviceable as a chapter 
of reference, I''or Iho many scientiiic and practical 
facts end)raced in the following, we are indebted to 
several rare and laie JCnglish worjxs, but more par- 
ticularly to our fellow townsnuui, Samuel Lewis, 
Esq., who, from among his valuable store of itd'orma- 
•tion and experience, iias Ivindly permitted us the use 
•of many notes. 

There arc [lerhaps btil few subjects wdiich have 
;given rise to iiKne cnnjeclLU'e or opened a wider held 
for the most liy[)othesis, than that which 
involves the origin of coal, and among the many 
questions which call intij oi)eration the ingenioi.'.- 
'Wui kings of huiiirji leason, there are none more 


diflicult ot cniijp!(;to lucidation than this. Tlie ..uly ] .: 

ratioiKtl (?0(iri;e i!i;a wa can pursue whilst cognizant of | | 

this difficulty, i-^ to lay l^clbre our readers the A^aricua - ^■ 

theories as tljcy jjiive arisen, and after givin;.; the -^ A 

proofs advanced in favor of each, leave them tu dc- .J ■■ 

eide upon uial wincii a])pears the nrost reasonaljlc!. ^ ;. 

From aii^nng the many opinions which hav(.' jicon ; '^ 

proponialcd wi'di r.:.-3[)cct to the origin of this .-.ub- | .• 
stance, we i.'nmnciaic the following five: 

/Vri-/-— Tliat il i., an earth, a stone chiefly of jjic 
argillaceous ge):ii.^-, penetrated and impregnatcil u'ilh 

Second — -Is the ; pirhrju of Mr. Kirwan, v/lio ccii- 
sidered coal and hnnnien to have heen d(.'rive(l tVnni 
what he d('sigiiati;(l, ^-the primordial chaotic jluid." 

Tlilrd — 'V\\Wl it i:> entii'tdy of uiarin(:; formation, and 
has originated (ri>ni the I'at and unctu(.»us malle.r of 
the numcrons iiihoo of animals that once iidiaoiiod 
the ocean. 

Fourth— 'V\\.'X il is a marine fossil, formed in a 
manner .simiiai \u the reefs of coral hi the pre.seii! 

Fiftli — 'i'hat it is of vegetable origin; that the vu- 
getablr hodics ha\e, suhsequeutly to tlieir being bu- 
ried under vl;..1 >tiata of earth, been mhiera!i/ed by 
some'w'ii |n; rcss, of which sulphuric aci.l iias 
prohalily beei; \\w princii»al agent, and that by means 
of this acid the nhs of tlie ditferent species ol" "wood 
have been ctjnven 'd into bitumen, and a coaly :-:iib- 
stance has been formed. 

The liL'st o])mi.i'i as (putted above, has been fnlly 
demon:.t rated to be inefficient from the lact 'a 
muriber of ciKos are Jbrmed, wliich are entirrl^ devcii] 
of biiumen, and abio tliat the (piantity of i arlhy or 
sleny inatter in fn- most bUmninons c lal beais no 
pnvp'iiiion ro dean. : 

'fbe oiher 'hre,. opinions must be lo( . ed u[ian a. 




altogether speculative, and imaginary, although sev^ 
eral scientific aiid choinic:il arguments may be ad- 
duced iu dieir h"!i)i)orr.. 

We are thus throv/n U|)Ou the most prevalent as 
well asllie mosL reasonable opinion, viz: '• That it is 
of vegetablo origin,, derived as hct'ure stated, Irom 
Veo-etahles." In tliis i.-.ti'iiry we shall use the argu- 
nwiits pertaiuing lo Ih. l.ewis' notion oi" the nuUter. 
'< All are UijW agici d Uiiou, what is indeed an un- 
deuiaiile laet. thai^ nnncr.d coal is priucii)allv com- 
noseu oicari.ou; .■od ii i.. a legitimat.; conclusion 
drawn fromtlic i;re.v, nt su,te of geological and chemi- 
cal knowledge, that c-rljou existed, either sunply or m 
some state of eoniLnnliMn, previous to the deposr^ 
Uon of the coal Nlr.M.i. i'or so far Irom this period 
being the time of ih- .aeiiUuu of matter, it was pecu- 
liarly the age of hre-daiig up its old lornis and re- 
arranging theui anew: ihe whole amount oi the d)l- 
ference then helweeii'lwo oinnions, is reihiced to the 
simple point, whelh.:, the carbon in the coal strata 
Was siniidy juv 'iiMLihil from ^olne cheimcal soluUon 
or comhinatiou nU. us piceui form of coal, or whe 
ther it iiist passed (hrough the lorm ol organizeu 
vegetable mailer, and was subsequently reduced by 
some unknown procp,ss to its present form. 

'' us adopt which of these opinions we may, we 
shall find upon close examination, that the subject in 
by no means unincuu-ibenid with dilficulties, and thai 
it is by no means easy lo arrive at conclusions th:_il 
I I will bear striet scruliuv, and on which we can coni)- 
dently rely, it ii. llierefori; slrletly in aecovdaiiev 
with the spirit oi inanctive i)hilosophy, to adopt thai 
theory whieh serve, io explain the. greatest mnnber 
of facts, and iviUe'iily lo waU uuiil a sulli-denl uuiil- 
ber of observations aijd evifeTimeiits shall have l)eei! 
made to draw sati'<nu'tory coLiehisious on llu^ suhjtvt. 
If I mistake noi, th,e li'.e.a-y of ihe vegetable origm 
of coal bcf answers to ihose conditions. It hetlei 
[eeordsv.'it deductioU'j drawn from the most accn- 

334 nrsroi.r of schtjylkill countt. 

rate and t!xr(;nsive ol)servations — presents fewer dn" | 
iiculties, and requires fewer suppositions tli;in v.wy * 
other. It is duo that we are ignorant, and firobably 1 
always shall he, of the place from whence such Viisij 
accLuniiUitioiis of vegetables were obtained, how ihey 
were disposed in sncli regular strata, and allerv/aidi ^ 
convcrud nilu und. But the same may bo ^aid oi j 
each o[ ibe secondary and transition strata, tbat in [\ 
great measure compose tlie crust of our globe. Foi j 
instance, w-ho can tell from whence was derived tlic | 
great variety ui" ['cblilcs that go to make up the cou \ 
j^domeral.; or j/iidding stone of the Sharp hioimtain- 
liow tliey were broken into small pieces unci triuiro.- 
ted and rounded into their present shapes, aiid thoi. 
eollectod loaodio/ and dej)osited in layers as we now 
Ihid tlioin. iiai because we cannot tell all iliis, docs i 
any onu, who lias fully examined the subjeot, believ" ' 
that it has not bapi)ened. I 

"Geologists ha^^e divided the strata composing tht ; 
orust of the earth into five series, as follows, viz: | 
Primary or ]Mimilive, Transitien,. Secomiaiy, Tyi- i 
tiary and iJibivial. j 

"The primary class are princij)ally composed cf j 

chrystaline matter, without the admixture o[ iVag- I 

rnents of othur rocks, and do not possess a distinct | 

and ro'^ular stratification or disposition in layers. ' 

They are wlislly destitute of organic remains Jhat is^ j 

no trace or impression of animals or vegetables i^ \ 

found among tliem, and hence they ailbrd no evi- ; 

deuce that snsii existed at the time of their formation. ■; 

" It is further remarkable that no carbonaceous mat ■ j 

tcv of any value Ibr fuel, nor any considerable quaii- } 

tity of any land has ever been found among these j 

rocks. ' 

'• 'I'he next in cider is the transition series; these ' 
rocks generaliy he in contimious beds or strata more \ 
or less inclincil Tlie lower beds liave a sena-chrys- 

raiine appearance, and often contain the frai<uicnt.s of \ 


Other rocks. 'Jlie vippcr leds are frequently conv 
posed ill Avliole or in part of ])ebbles and fragments 
partially roundi'd and cemented together. In these 
rocks we hnd tliu iirsi evidences of the existence of 
animal and vegotublc organization, thus indicathig a 
transition or cliange from a pure chrystaline and in- 
organic state to that of fragmentary composition, and 
of organic life, ;ind hence the name — transition. The 
lower part of this scries contains only the remains of 
marine animals of the lowest order, while the upper 
contains the remains of land or rather of marsh vege- 
tables, plainly indicjiiiig a transition from water to 
dry land previous to the deposition of the coal beds. 
The upper part of the series contains .our antlmicite 
coal beds, wluch arc cunsi<]cred as dividing it from 
the secondary, it also cuntains immense quanlitie? 
of the casts and impr'^sioiis cf plants, which fully 
prove that they existed at die time in great numbers, 
whether our coal beds are made up of them or not. 

"The rocks of the secondary series are less chrys- 
taline in thoir appearand; than the transition, and 
S€ein to be composed of the fragments of other rocks 
ground up and comminuted, and then deposited fron* 
some sus])eiiding medium. They appear to owe their 
formation more to mechanical than to chemical means. 
The bitnminous coal measures form. the lowest beds 
ttf this series, and the challc the highest. They con- 
tain immense quantities of the remains of vegetables, 
and of marine and land aiiimals of the higdier orders- 
and the most gigantic sizes— plahily indicathig the 
increase of dry land. 

" The tertiary series are principally made up of tlie 
precedhig, ami only coutaais the imperfect or brown 

" The diluvial is merely the effect of currents pas^ 
ing over the surface of tije earth and sweeping avva- 
the debris of rocks and cdier formations. Peat ui 
turf belongs to this foriiiatiou, if it can properly be 
sni'l '.o lielong lo auy. 

.? '* 

536 insiouv or sciiuylkill county. 

"TlieroL'ks loiinoi] in the first geological age n.ra 

conceived t^ owe ijicii- ju'esent state to the conibijied ' » 

eliects of imnionsvj lu at and pressure, and thus to be j i 

chemically nniied. !ii the next, or transition age, 

they app'.'Mi- to have het;n deposited from some sus- | ^ 

pending uieJiiiLii, and to owe their present state pari- \ 

ly to tiie action oi'clifMnieal and i)arlly to mechanical 

laws; Avhile in the s.'coiidary series Ihey are wh'>ily ] 

]iiechanii:id. exci.'jil .-^vi iar as they arc held together 

Ly llic rJtraolioi.i oi' (ihcsion. * 

. . . 1' 

'• (larjjoii is Hi'K.i i)|-(»hahly an original ingrcvlicnt ■ 

m the composiiioa of our rucks, and was not (■.■/,l;7- |' 

nal/i/ fonoi'd by any |)rocess of vegetation, h is |- 

iound in ilie jji-uuary limestones and other ])riiiiaiy | 

]x>cks, ajiii ill many liani>ition rocks that wi're (i,,'iiiod i 

jjrevions lo ilie i?asli.nce (jf plants. In limesloiK's it 1} 

forms aliout onoci'aiit ot" tla.'ir weight. (Jonld the |i 

carbon be sepaiaicd from the limcNttJiie in the caica- | 

reoHS ranges ol' da; Jnra and the Alps in Europe, it |j 

would form a li. I td pure carbon of nearly one tliuu- U 

sand feet in iliiri n '-^^j tliroughout the vast extciii ni ^' 

those inomiiaihN, 'J'he ^^'hole formation of the irau- | 

sition and ])rinr,iy limestones of Pennsylvania may ^ 

cover an area oi' ten thousand miles, and will perhaj'S .' 

average loivr tli.)iisaiid feet in thickness. 1' ho carbon | 

of this would fmni .. hed ol" more than Jlvc Imncliecl |' 

leet thick uv'er ;he a hole extent. All these lock's 

were formed ])ni/r t<. the existence of plants. Carbon 

exists in tlajse reriv^iii the state of carbonic acid C(.ni- 

hined with lime m- i,dier bases, and it is sonievvhai I 

remarkable, thai wiih the exception of the coal [jeh;. ) 

it is nowhere tbnnd ia an uncombhied state. i 

" Neithci du »ve ]>iiuw of any remains of l)ed.s ol 
its combinalioi's, i.eni wdience it could have been 
Idierated by any uf ibe agents that have been insti-n- 
niental in jOjini]];.: (be rocks that envelope; il:..- i-eal 
beds, so far as r.aa Jvnowledge of tli(js(; agehi.s ax- 
teiids. Heai will e rj-el the carbcmic acid li.a'i its 
jumbiiianons with Jime or other earUis, ineiais^ i.e. .; 

^ ii^ 


"but it requires some other process, some other agency 
to separate tlio CLirhou from this combination witfi 
oxygen. We know of nothing that will etiect this 
but the process of vegetation ; it having been proved 
by direct experiment, that plants, during their growth, 
absorb carbonic acid, and give out oxygen, thus re- 
taining the carbon whioh manifestly forms a great 
portion of their ball:. 

« Admitting therefore, as we cheerfully do, the prior 
existence of carbon, it does not assist us in the inquiry 
how the immense masses of carbon that constitute 
the coal strata were collected together, unless we re- 
sort to the agency of vegetables. How they are 
formed from these, we are in a great measure igno- 
tant, and perhaps always will be, but wo may at least 
be permitted to otrer a coiijecture. 

" Carbon may have existed in the interior of the 
earth, and have been expelled from thence by the 
great internal he;it now generally admitted to have 
existed id the earlier stages of its formation, in the 
form of carbonic aeia gas, (the common choke damp 
or black damp of our mines and wells) this may have 
sb filled the atmosphere as lo render it unlU to support 
animal lite, while it furnished the most suitable food 
ibr plants. It is also very probable that much less 
mould or earth may have coveted the rocky strata in 
those early ages than ut present, and that plants must 
have lived more by absorbing carbon from the air 
tlirough their loaves, than from the earth through 
their roots. That such was the primitive condition 
ef the atmosphere, and that it was gradually purified 
by the growth of plants, seems not to be improbable 
from the circumstance, that previous to their existence, 
the animated races were confined to the water, and 
were of the lowest orders to whom a breathing ap- 
paratus is not necessary 3 to these succeeded reptiles 
and cold-blooded animals, which can enjoy and en- 
dure an atmosphere that v/ould be fatal to warm 
•blc: 'led animal?; and to man. These reptiles did not 


appear iintii aULi- tlie deposition of tlie coal ^iraiu, 
and it is iiirtlicr proljable that it required many gen- 
erationtj of plants to render the uir respirable lor biiLls 
and beastS; as it is not initii long- alter that any ves- 
tiges of theso races are found. These were the im- 
mediaio precursors of the human race, the sovereign? 
of a woild which they underprise, and of which they 
little know the wonderful structure, or the sui;pasing 

" xVt iJic epuch of the coa.1 formation, the vegctatiou j 
that covered the earth was of the most JuxuriaiU | 
growth and gigjiutic size, as is evidenced by their !«- i 
mains found in the adjoining strata. Plants^ such a? | 
ferns and equisiti, \vhich are at present classed witli | 
the gra.ssc.s, then attained to the stature and size of j 
trees. It consisted, in the temperate ai'd coldei ; 
countries c^ iLurope and America^ of geneia and* 
species of ph nts now only found in the tropical coii!! | 
tries. We can at iliis day scarcely form an idea of iL } 
amount of vegetation armually produced by the cuni- ' 
bjned iiillueiii-e ci heat, moisture and carb»'»iiii; aciii I 


"In the u})per or diluvial formation, we find peai 1 
whicli is uuijuesiionably of vegetable origin, a,^ it is ] 
now forming from vegetables in various parts of the j 
world ; and yet i'ully formed peat has as Httle the a^- 1 
pearance of vegetables as most kinds of coal. It is s 
also remarkable (hat the further peat is removed from \ 
all traces of vegetable organization, (within cevtair | 
limits) the bultei- it answers lor fuel. In peat we \ 
have an instoiico of the formation of luel Jrom vego- | 
tables, but v.diich has no trace of a vegetable kft, ly ] 
a mincrahzing pjocessi that is just as little uiider.stoii!], j 
and IS just as inexplicable as the process by whicli | 
vegetables have been converted into mineral coal. | 
Would it tlicn l)c reasonable — would it be j.liilosoplii- | 
cal to deny the vegetable origin of coal, meicly be- ' 
cpu^e we aic imable to explain the proce.-:;? by wLici! \ 
it has been leduciid to its present 3|ate? \ 

HIST<aiV or Sf'Ht.i-J.KILL COUNTY. 339 

■r "Owing to the groat o^'ucity of coal, all attempts to 
examine its struotiire \)y the aid of the microscope 
proved abortive, until lAIr. Witham, an English ex- 
perimentalist, kiiely siiggLsted and practised with- 
stngular succeis^^. the method of cutting from fossil, 
stems, transversely and longitudinally, thin slices, and 
having them cemeiii^cd to glass, polished them,' so as 
10 render their internal structure strikingly conspicu- 
ous under the niicroscojie Slices of coal treated in 
this manner, exhibired in some parts distinct traces of 
woody texture, in others where the texture of the 
original plant cnuki not he di:>tinguished, cells fdled 
Avith a light yellow^ colored matter, apparently of a 
bituminous nature and veiy volatile, were percepti- 
ble. The number aiid appearance of those cells vary 
with each variety of ctjal ; in the finest portions, 
where the- chrytitaline structure, as indicated by th^ 
rhomboidal form of iu, fragments, is most developed, 
the cells are completely obliterated ; the texture be- 
ing uniform and compart, and the whole arrangement 
indicating a more j)err.;el union of the constituents, 
and ii more entire der,irneti^>n of the oi-iginal texture 
of the plant. TlKise cells are conjectured to be de- 
rived from the reticular texture of the parent vegeta-- 
ble, roimded and confii-^ed by enormous pressure. 

"The extreme rarity of the impressions of plants, 
in coal when pioperly considered' is no proof that it 
is not of vegetable origin, but rather one of the 
strongest arguments ni tavor of such an hypothesis, 
when takeu in connection with the prot'use vegetation, 
of that period. Vegetablus at the time of the coal 
formation were principally of the,' vascular, crypto 
gamic class ; thai is, allied to reed^j flags, ferns, &c., 
with but few of.a woody siructure,- It isstated that 
out of 260 species discovcied in the coal measures, . 
only forty, were of the latter class. All traces of ve- 
getable texture would be lifeely to be destroyed iu the 
conversion of a mass of cUcli vegetables into coal 
Foi il lio.s been formed froiri vegetables, it wa^ 


by some nniieiaii'/ing process, that has, inconjunclioi. 

with enorniQUS pressure, destroyed the vegetable Isx- j ■ 

tare, particularly of the soft and vascular plants, * \ 

hence it is ooiy {win some peculiar conciu'rence of cir- | ' 

cumstances tliat impressions of vegetables have been ^ | 

retained, ^Vhere^9, if it owes its t'ormation, like the •' » 

rocks that .siirrouiid ii, to the mere i)recipitation .uid • ^> 

consolidation of its component parts, and like them '' i 
been derived from similar materials in another tbrm, ■) 

we ought roasonal^ly to exj)ect to find the same iin- i i 

pressions of plants hi. in the surrounding shales. AIj ' ? 

were once equally solt alike, and ouglit therefuio to r ' 

retain similar impres-:ion.s. * | 

" Thus we have die fullest proof that the subject is ^ .' 
capable of, in the present state of our knuwird 
that in all ihe Lliifcjent varieties of fossil fuel iVoni 
peat to anthracite, vegetables did exist at the time ot 

tiieir formation ;'.nd in immediate contiguity with u\e I 

beds. 1 1 

"The mriteri>ils composing the strata above and || 

below the coal, are comi)osed of fragments of rocks | :!; 

that previously existed, or of the same materials with p 

tiiose rocks. ,^^ 

" Specimens of th<; same kinds still exist — some ot jj 

them in the greatest profusion; but we have no re- f] 

mains of beds of carbon in the older rocks, fjom *) 

whence uin- coal b(;ds might have been derived. Nei- |; 

ther do wc know of any process m nature, except ^l 

vegetation, by wdiich carbon can be liberated i'rom i) 

most of its condjinations. Vegetables are iu a i^rcat \ 

measure composed of carbon, and so is coal; some I 

kinds of coal show evident traces of woody texture: I 

and as before obserV(;d, we have the most abundajil I 

proof thatplants nourished and fell in immense nunn- ^' 

tities at the time of the coal formation; the siiopiest i 

and plainest, ai\d therefore the most philosophic in- | 

ference is, that it is derived Irom this source,- ' I 

All these argununts, wdiile they evince m\u;li .re 

i -i 


t^ search and labor, l.ear tho impress of sound philoso- 
'''' pliical ruasGuiui^, and address tlieniseh^es to the con- 
sideration of scientific and practical men, as being 
free of hypothesis and possessing less of a theoretical 
tone than the nian3'" odicr suppositions, which at dif- 
ferent periods have been forced upon the observation. 
'^ To continue die arguniunts iiL support of the vege- 
table ori<dn of coal: 

" There Can bono question t.hat the Bovey or Brown 
coal, finuid in Great liritain, is composed principally 
of the inudvs and branches (jf trees, as in some spe- 
cimens the vegetable libre or grain of the wood is dis- 
cernable at one end,, while the other is reduced to coal. 
Almost all the varieties ofihi.s coal contain, besides 
carbon and bitumen, a poiiion of resin and other un- 
altered vegetable products. This brown coal, if pow- 
dered, and put into an iron labu, covered with Stour- 
bridge clay, and dien ^ubmiUed to a red heat, will be 
converted into u subst:ince having all the external 
diaracter and chemical properties o[ mineral caaiy 
and the clay will be CDuveiUMl into coal s/tale. This 
experimeiit has been tried with sj)ecimens of thecoal 
having at one end of the piece the complete remains 
oi'the wood. 

"Every coal district has its peculiar series of strata 
unconnected with any other — while there is a great 
resemblance in the n iture of the ditferent beds in 
each. A district with its peculiar series is called a 
field. Coal fields are generally of but limited extent, 
and the strata frequenily dip to a common centre, 
l>eing often arranged m basin shaped concavities, 
which appear in many cases to have been originally 
detached lakes tliat Cvere gradually filled up by re- 
peated dei)osuions of carbonaceous and mineral mat- 
ter. In soiue of the larger cual /ields the original 
form of the lake cannot be .so distinctly traced ; their 
present furm seems rathcrte be owing to the up-rising 
of the strata on which the coiil measures rest, and by 
lyhi h ihey aie, as it were, enveloped. Thus in oui 



own rci^ioii, if we admit the strata to have been oii | 
ginally depoi^iterl iu a horizontal position or iioarly so, j 
(and we can hardly conceive how they could hav<! ' 
been deposited in any other position) their present j 
inclined sitnation must be owing to tlie suiiso(ineiil I 
up-rising ol" the rocky strata tiiat compose tlio Ihn.'d \ 
and Sharp mountains, l^ut in many of tin; .suiuliei ! 
ones the h:.sin shape is distincdy preserved. ! 

'• rho coal strata were doubtless dej^osi. :d in ihb S 
vi(iinity of extoiisive tracts of dryland contaiixingj 
rivers, marshes, fresh water lakes and mouuiaiiis.— 1 
The marine beds, which are the foundati;)n of the j 
series of coal strate and also surround th-m; luiisi 
therefore have 1)een .raised Irom the hotioin oi the j 
ancient deep before the vast accumulations ol'vegeta- | 
ble matter constituting the coal beds could h;: ve been .; 
formed. 1 

" The reinains of vegetables found in the coid strata 
belong to families of plants tliat abound at prest'nl I 
■chielly in tropical countries, snch as giganiil^ lin'is ' 
and (Hiuisitiiins (or horsetail) with jointed stems lik.; \ 
reeds, and hence called calamities; and lycojjodia, or \ 
plants allied to the tree. In some instances, (he coal 
is decidedly formed of such plants, and lioia iheii j 
sometimes l)eing found erect, we may inter iliai they J 
grew near the place their remains are now \ 

"Another inference from these facts is, ihat tJic | 
earth luust have jH)Sse.sseda nmch Idgher temperature \ 
at the time of the Ibrmation of the coal than at the J 
present, and hence vegetables may have grown in \ 
the most profnse abundance and of the most gigantic j 
size, ^hjl•^' muv have been piroduced at cne cro]) i 
then, than in ten at the present day. And thiougt; | 
the influence of the greater chemical energy that nit- 
doubtedly existed at that time, may have been pre- 
served from the rapid decay which takes i^lnco atthu 
present time, and hence great masses — the proauft 
of many successive crops, may liavebeen ;>;- 


ed ready to undergo tl.c imknowu process by which 
they were converted into beds of coal, when tlie ap- 
poiuted time came Ibr tins to talce place. 

■ Havin- thus unv... our renders by way ofintroduG- 
\i^^e mor^local ameleswluchwUlloluW, many 
vZable fa.ns in respeci to the origni and tormatioii 
:S;hi^hl-c^u--^y^t been published,^ w^ 
lui p oceed in our next to describe the pecuUarit es 
a. d developments oi^the coal Holds, as ar as the care- 

my collated exi-erLne. of otbers, added to onr own 
■observation, will enable )is. 


Under the head of '' The Coal '^^^^^'\;^^:' 
a lo.i- and earefnlly written essay upon the or g n 
Ld fonnation of coal, the point of winch wen to 
n-ove that this valuable staple wasorigmally a vepe^ 
■lible substonce. We n/i-ht eontmue the reasoning 
^ v,.,..i, l)ul ;.-iluscina-se wonKl beinesonte 

•to that matter. 

The pou.tAve .hive «t, and tlie r<'-="»'^"'iff '"™- 
,ione<l is .cco.,,.anyins the coal l;""'" -'I'- ,^ >[ 
iliveptlv 10 all ilio amhracite coal haU in Ui^ suit , 
2 a 'iheJe a.tiele. were wHUen for the •ptn-pose o 
mote lamiliarly nUroaucing a I'-"-; »-' T^^ y" ! 
of our own region, nsnally dcnoninuitea the ^<-» "Y 
kiin'orpieia:" we shall r„llo„, out the. mention l,e- 
haps abruptly. 

It may in the nrst place I e well to ^^^^'^'^ "^^^^^^^ 

bv b.e disturbaiJC'^, oi ihe L'X'derlaymg stiata. 


That part CcJlcul the Schuylkill Coal Field, of whic|j 
\ve now intend to speak, is about sixty-five miles in 
length, ii. lid about iovu- miles and a lialfiu its greatest 
breadth, which is in the vicinity of Pottsville. Thi^ 
basin resembles in shape a long eliptieal or oval 
trough, narrowing if toward*, the ends with thf ev- 
Geption of the western portion which is divided Intiy 
two narrow prongs, ThiS' basin is bounded by the 
Broad mountain on the north, and by the Sliarp 
rnoumaiu on the s;mtli, which boundaries are cut 
through, or ponetraiod at ditferent })()ints by varioiH 
streams which pass through them-into the coal ibrma- 
tion. Beginning at the eastern portion, it is penetra- 
ted first by the LiUle Sduiylkill at Tama([u;i — the 
Mill creek at Port Carbon — the river Schuyjkill at 
Pottsville — the Wc^i; Branch of the Schuylkill at 
Minersville— tlxo Swatara creek at Pinegrove—aiid the 
Wiscomsco and Siuny creeks at tlie extreme w^.'slerrk 
portion of the elipsis. These creeks and- streams af- 
ford admirable natural outlets ior the coal, and favo- 
rable sites for tho location of railroads, whieU :\vv 
already laid down, and m operation through n^ rly 
all these passes. Of these, however, we shall ^q>Luk 

This coal fieltl is everywhere surrounded and rests 
on a thick stiaiuni of reck composed of and 
rounded jicbbles', cemented together, commonly eaDcd 
pudding stone or conglomerate, which forms, as it 
were, an outer bed, or trough, inside of which are 
the various seams, or as they are.inore connnonly 
called veins of coal. These veins or beds of coal lie 
at about every angle, from horizontal to perpendicu- 
lar, but most goierally, in the central part of the fields 
dip at an angle varying from twemy-iiye to i'oviy de- 
grees with the horizon. They are separated irom 
eiach other b^^ ditferent stratas of sandstone and slate, 
Avhich are of various thicknesses. 

From examinations made across the centre ui diu 
iield, aid'^.d by the number already worked, it? a>i;e.r- 



teined that we liavj in tiiii basin about ninety-Jive 
veins or strata of coal, ai'J it is probable that we have 
\ not yet arrived at sullicieiitinlbrniation, by wiiich to 
V ileterniine the exact number. These veins run in tlK) 
i; direction of the lengtli of il»e regioUj and vary in 
thickness from two feet to forty or fifty feet-r-ncarly 
all of them extend for many miles in length, and some 
of them, unquestionably, extend laider tlie whole coal 
fipld. Lying inclined, as they generally do, one edge 
reaches the surface of liie ground, where it is called 
(he "out-cropping'" ol the coal, and the other extends 
to an unk'uown depih in iIh' earth, These beds, or 
veins of coal, form as much a part of the rock forma- 
tion of the coal hold, as strata of slate or limestone 
' (Jo the rock forma tiori of odicr })aris of the country, 
! and are cm little Ukily to be exhausted. Both may 
!' be worked to a defvth tlvit \n\\ cease to remunerate 
the operator, but the part taken away will, scarcely 
be a fragment of that which woidd be left. If we 
suppose the whole number of veins to be equal to 
fifty veins of six feel thickness, fifty miles in length, 
and extending to an uni uown depth in the earth, 
some idea may be foiinLd. of the supplies our coal 
field can furnish, and tlic little probability there is of 
exhausting them hi o\\x day. 

Our coal field is situaiud on the head waters of the 
Schuylkill and the Svvatara, and the surface may bo 
described as broken into high hills and deep ravines. 
Many of these cross the country in a direction nearly 
at right angles with the com so of the veins of coal, 
hence rendering access tu tin ui very easy. 


To procure coal fr<nn one of these veins, a point; 
is fixed upon where it crosses a ravine, and an 
opening is iiiade in ihe vein at such a height 
t|iat the waWv coming out oi it may freely pass olf 
ijito tUi; adjoimng' slream. This opening may b<^ 


346 riisTOHY cr schuylkill' county. 

about si>: er seven i'eet square — is well secured by 

timber and is cmuinued liorizontally througb ibfe I ; 

earth and solt coal, rvhieh is usually found near tlie ^j, 
out-crop of the vein. In tliis opening or " driJV' ;ts 
it isteciinicailyc.alled,a railroad is laid and continued 

alter the workmen, as thoy proceed, and when ihey J.J; 

■have penetrated so far into the vein that the coal is i: 

fotind hard enougb. to be transported to nuukei, ibe ? 

inining commences. The methods of anining vary i' 

according to circuinslances— ^we will describe one. * 

The reader Aviil imagine a bed of solidcoal, say si\ j' 

feet thick iji cross sections, lying inclined in the earili, j 

at an angle of thirty degrees, resting on a grey ^laiey | 

rock, call'jd, '• b(.-tl(.jn a/dfe," and covered by a bed | 

•of black slate, calli.d •' /op shile'' — tliis latter lo con- i 

sist of one immense contimiuiis mass, with but few I' 

fissures in it. These strata of coal and slale, i)r( .serve t 

tlieir thickness or \);irallelism, or nearly so. Inio the .^. 
bed of coal an opening, or " drift " has heeu m;;.l(-, as 
above described, say at the do])th of 200 feet bel. v 
tJie " oui-crop/>!Hi('^ of the coal on the top of lln' hill. 
at a poini on'!!.' ^i^le of this drilt towards the rue ..f 
the\;oal. An upt.ning is cut into the coal six 1"< et 

wide, and extending iVom slate to slate. This o\m\- ^^ 

ing may be conlinued u]i lifteCn I'eet — it is then v.-iden- ^^ 

ed out to forty led, and a trough or sc/nife of plank, ^^s 

Siiy lour feet wide, is laid in it. The lower < nd of h 

diis trough is placed higli enough for a small or drift f 

ctir (usually containing about one ton of coal) lo pa<:s | 

under it. The coal is tben loosened by cutting aw^y ^ 

a portion of it next to the bottom slate wiib small I 

picks, or as it ofien liappens, there is a thin straunnnl f 

soft carbonaceous slale near the bottom of tbe bed t 

which is cut away, mstead of the coal. This ;.pora- V 

(.ion is railed underndning, and is extended livr o'^iv | 

feet under ;hc body if the coal (whieii is icm;'>'ni'-;ly j 

3upi)orted by snuOl pro])s)or as far is thougbi . ife bi,? 1 

The workmen. The portion of coal thus unde-niineil. ^, 

is tben brought down by means of wuh.s vUifi || 

• '.evGi-s, and iVequendy by blasting with jcv.der ^ 




AVlien it is broken siifliciently small, to be handled 
with lacility, it is placed in the plank schule, down 
which it descends by its own gravity — is readily 
passed into the car, and diawn out to the moutli of 
XXxQ 'drift by hojsns or iniilcs. Tlie '■^ to/j slaie," or 
roof of the iiiitio is ]ic\){ iVDin scahng off or injuring 
the men by placing woodL-n props at suitable inter- 
vals, and the space fToin which the coal is taken as 
much as possibli; fjled np with refuse matter. The 
■portion of ihc Acin, above described, winch we calletl 
forty feel wide, is (tcinauinated a working or 
•^'•breast,^' and is ieii! rally (ij)eraled in, by three oi 
four men, and the co:d is usually taken out as far up 
'i\iQ breast, as it i;, ni';ii-liantal)le. As'soonas the coal 
lias been mined iVom il l<ir a few yards in the up- 
ward direction, another may be opened at the 
distance of forty Ibet.aud ihe work conducted in pre- 
cisely the same manner. If the drift before mention- 
ed, or '' gangiva)/,'^ as it is some times called, hai 
been carried sulilcienily in advance, the breasts may 
be opened one after another, sd that the gangs of men 
working iu them may appear like a large eompany 
vof mowers, cxtemiing t'rom the drift or gangway int-o 
the extreme upt)er jm ii. This kind of mining is tech 
ideally termed '• working above the water-level." 
The water-l(3vel, meaning in miner's language, tlie 
lowest point in a bed o( coal, from which the watei 
•will run into the adjacetit streams, and must of course 
vary exceedingly witli the diiferent localities. It nmst 
'be evident that by an airaugement of this kind, a great 
number of hands can be t;m))loycd in a nnne when- 
'Bver the demand for coal will warrant it, and also 
•tliat it can be M'orke;i by a very few. .Vs was belbre 
•observed, there aic sevuial oibm- ])lans of mining 
suited to the Ciiciiinslanc: ^i of ihe iliU'erent veins oi 

In mining below the wiua-level, after deciding u}'- 
'dn some suitable jinint J.r the works, an inclined 
■fih.i'', or ^' .Aopc,,'^ as it iii c^junnoidy called, is worke<3 


down the Led of coal to any depth thought desirabli.-, 
(which wo i)iay state at 275 feet,) and wide enougli 
for a double tiaci: railroad, and pump barrell, say 
eighteen feet. Ai the top of this slope a steam eriginc 
must be erected of sufUcient power to draw up the 
coal and })ump up the water. Near the bottoni of 
this slope, drifts or gangways, are worked izito tho 
coal, to the right and left, in which railroads are hud; 
and the whole process of mining, &c., is conducted iii 
precisely (he same manner as above water-level, ex.- 
cept that the coal is hauled by horses to thu botloni 
of the sloi)e only, and is afterwards drawn up into 
day-light by the steam engine at the top. 

Having t;uw -Avcn our readers, as preliihiiiary, 
sullicieni iijfurniation to induct tliem into thi3 pLCuli- 
arities of our operations, we shall proceed, in conueu- 
tioii with tin; toj;(-graphy of our region, to giv'3 a 
partiqulur dcrcriplion of the ditferent mines. 


Tl)e coal lii s in veins between the red slialu of iha 
Broad mountain, and that of the Sharp mountain. 
The Avidih of ihe basin decreases materially as it pro- 
gresses cast, carrying out coni})letely the form of 
an 6lip:bis, which ci)cles about at Mauch Clundi, wliera 
the coal is found at the narrowest point, in one coni- 
j)lete mass. 

In undertakijig a description of this coal field, we i 

have taken, in only that portion, for our present arti- ^ 

cles, which rcscsbeiween the hue of the Little ScliUyl- \ 

kill Couipany's land at Tuscarora, and the Swataru. \ 

We shall then conunence at Tuscarora and folUnv the \ 

range of veins in a westerly direction imtil we hava 1 

com] titled our task. l 

The Schuylkill Valley district is penetrau-d ia i\ 
direction almost parallel with the veins for a distanoo 
of ten mitos by Ihe river Schuylkill. 'I'he canal ceas(:'i 


tit Port Carbon, and die ouly way of reaching the 
boats with the coal, is Ly means of the Schuylkill 
Valley railroad, which exiends along the course of 
the stream the wiiolo length of the district. Tiiis com- 
pany was first chartered in 1828 as a Navigation 
Company, to l)e styled, "The Schuylkill Valley Na- 
vigation Company." The act authorizing them U:) 
lay a railroad WHS not passed, however, until Janu- 
ary, 1829, and the road was not commenced until 
some time during that year. It has always been sup- 
posed, and no man v/ho r.nderslands the topography 
of the district, can doabi il, that this road wdl in a 
short time become the inrst important and valuable 
in the whole dihlrict^ und the reason for this opinion 
is easily explaiiKxI. 'I'Ik; railroad follows the direc- 
tion of the stream fur U.n miles as before stated — this 
road crosses fmm twelve to fifteen natural ravines 
which penetraie the whoK^ basin at right angles with 
the veins. Each ravine will thus develope nearly as 
mucli coal field as either of the Other railroads in the 
county, and all that is requireil for the ])ur[)ose of in- 
ducing this con.-,o(pn IV e j:. the construction of a good 
hnd permanent railway in the stead of the present. 
Up these ravines are laid several railroads, of which 
we shall speak in their order— but to proceed with 
our intention. 

The first colliery at the eastern eud of the district, 
is at the head of the Schuylkill Valley railroad— is 
worked in at the foot oil the LoCust mountain above 
Tuscarora, and is culled 


The property upon \vli..ii these collieries are loca- 
ted belongs to the Schuylkill Bank— it contains about 
406 acres, and extends in width from the Sharp lo 
the Locust mountain, and reaches in length about 1 1 
miles on the range of the veins. The distance from 
tl>i ^:ioath of the diift to the shipping point at Port 

350 lii^roity of Schuylkill county. ! 

Carbuii. i.-s icn ij.ilcs. Tlie openings, as we boh ! 
stated, are made iu the Locust mountain, and tI;,; \ 
veins arc supjxjsxd lu be tlie sameasthose Ibundin tb.r \ 
Broad uioi^nLdi,, at New Castle. These veins (thr j 
JuguL'.r avA Daniels) follow the course of the; Broad 
mouiilaiu e;>,>i\vardly to Patterson, where it intersects ] 
with tlie mountain. The Broad mountain at i 
dial i)oint l>;,iv(^ the direction and takes a n.)ril!-onst- I 
crly cu.iisi^ and iIkj ].ocust mountain, being ibe rec'i- 
lar prnionaalion, carries the same veins on to 'i'aina- 
.|ua. Tbo opening ui)on the veinsismade by a iun- 
nell, wbi.di ;^ i 7 3 yards in length, and crosses thiv- 
veins--tbc (irria Vein, another'White Ash Vein, and 
the Tuscarnra \ cin, averaging in thicloie.-s feot 
each. The iaitci ol' these veins, is the ]jriiir-ij>al cm 
now Wdikcat— ii has been oj)erated in for 12 y^cn^'. 
by Wallace ic Co., who have driven the gar;gv/av 
for 900 yards and have taken out from it an inHnehr>e 
qiiantuy of excellent coal. These mines aro ijov 
leased by Mi\ James Palmer, wlio in 1842 and 18-13 
mhied from it about 6000 tons yearly. Mr. Pabia- J 
inform., us dial if tho vein is in good order,, and d.<'i | 
atate of the iiiboad such as to permit it, be roidii ' 
mine and bciid to market 10,000 tons of coal annuCl- | 
ly from the Tuscarora vein. These veins all pitch | 
soutli about 3 degi-ees, and conmiand about 1,'Ofeo: | 
al brea.-.iing ad!o\e the v/ater-level. 


These collieries are located upon the Valley raib 1 
road, about one nnle west from 'i'uscarora, and nine I 
miles fium i\.n Carbon, near the point wlicie dir ) 
railroad iru.^/es ilir SclmvlKiH. The tract, whi'di be- \ 
longs to Sanmei B.ll, Esep, of Reading, ci.nt.vins be- 
tween 400 and 500 acres. The veins have a nerd. 
puch of about 80 degrees, are from 4 to 7 feet in 
thickness, and ccnnnand about GO feet breasting. 
Tbcs.; roiues arc apcrated in by Aquilla Boli':u.E;.^(i., 

mSTOUV Oi o.iICYLKil.i COUNTY; 351 

and'arciJi fn'st rate working order. There arc al- 
ready opened v\^o\\ iliis Iraet two veins, in addition 
to wliieh live more iiave lieen proven, which can be 
opened at uny time when ii may be deemed advisa- 
i ble. '1^1 le openings have been made a distance of 350 
: yards on each vein, in addition to which is abont 40 
? y^rds of ti.nnei cmiing across two veins. Tlie dis- 
•taiice between (lu; venis is about lU yards.. The 
range of veins extend:-; through this tract for abont 1.1 
^ Utiles, and jndging iVom ihtrnnndjer ah'eady proven, 

f' along with' their eWfut, ilie supply of coal which 
might be denvid jtuo lii'.- land is almost incalcula 
m ble. There can be mined from each vein at present, 
30 tons per day, and with ihe proper encouragement, 
fe and a good raih'. ad, tln^ ;, mount might be increased 
to a nmcli grealiu- ratio. Mr. Jiolton is one of om 
jnost enterpriznr<j<,iM.iaton,has been for many year^ 
engaged in the business, autl is the proprietor of sev 
eral valuable collieries m this district, of which we 
sliall speak in their, turn. IVY'S i;()ij>ii::Rncs. 

. The next muios in order is a new, working., com 
menced by Mr. Hugh Kinsley, of Port Carbon, upon 
the llobb & Wiiiebi-riuer tract, about Ci miles fronr. 
Port Carbon, in a spur of die Sliarp mountain, called 
the ]3ear Kidge. The atuunpt was made a nunibei 
of years ago to work this nnne by B. Patterson, Ks^., 
but as the vein ;ippeurcd to be very small, the work 
ing v/as deserted. 

The vein, as Mr. Kinsley has now opened it, i? 
about. 4 feet \\ncK, and of a south pitch, lie lias 
made about 7n yards 'n dril\ into the vein, and has? 
about 120, f<;et Iruasiiug. The coal ia a red ash, and 
is su Imposed lo bo the Snclni Vein. The reason f ( i 
Uiis belief, in addidcn lo ihu qiudity and appearam-.. 
of the coal, which i', i.dci.tical, As the existence in th a 
tr.; ;tj of a siuaulni r:;;uurj, w^ch oidy av.'Compani. ? 


tiiat vein. This is a small vein of coal, not moietl' 
9 inches thick, which always overlays the main vc' 
and Ircqueutly serves to disliearten operalor^ v'i 
the bchet that they have Ibmid the principai vi i 
It was this veni, or « the Leader of tiie Sr.uhii " -^ 
IS called, which occasioned the desertion oi'ihi'^ tru 
many years ago ; the miners mistook th.; Av/, /,./,; 
the principal vehi, and abandoned it on arcmn 
Its unprohtableness. Mr. Kinsley has about 1 20 y.,,- 
of lateral road to connect )iis mines with the nrn 
road, m addition to wlii<-h he has alread-/ ]aid"=\'' 
feet of plank f,;ad,and 101 yards of timlnnV-^d j'li 
length ol ra.n-(. ujjon the vein is U' nnlco. 


_ Proceeding down the railroad, 'the next opr,aM.,i 
IS H .small working made into the hill, on ibe north 
tli'eroad,wbont j mile above ]\r:ddleport,and G} nCw 
from Port Carbo.i. This operatioii is carra d ,n U 
Mr. Patrick Freeman. The vein is called th. .S,,,,!,: 
Vem--van.;s m thickness from 4 to 7 fed, and is .", 
a south pilch. This work was first commencul a bon't 
twelve years ago, hut abandoned; it wa5 rL-coni 
menced in 1S4;3, by Mr. Freeman, who has now pen". 
etratedthehillto the extent of 200 yard- and ha. 
taken ironi ilie vein a coiiMdorable qnaniuy of^ood 
merelrantable coal. ' " 

Between Pre. man's mines and Middlepoii thr-i. 
are no nitervcning collieries. At Middlu.oit tlicr- 
occurs a long ravine, at right angles with die vein? 
^irough winch runs the CascaAViUiam creek. iMessr'^' 
Olwme & Davhs laid a railroad along this crck, about' 
/ive years and a half ago, winch is now in lolerall-^ 
good order and .erves as a medium ibr the iran.per' 
i^nion ol all tlu. ,„,a ji,a,ed ni its course. ^ 



' i 

* 'r\\e i\r'.it cnliior> we arrive at in passing up thib- 
road is that wurkoa by Mr. Herny Uren, wlio lias 
opened tu-o diitis ujion the Si)ohn & Lewis veins, 
at a di^lanco ot abmit luilt" a mile from the valley- 
railroad. Thcso M^ovkii gs were connnenced in the 
fall of ISl-j. and have licen continued successfully 
and i)roritaLly ever iinjo. The Spohn vain, at tin,':: 
point, averages in thickness from four to eleven fei,!, 
and the Lewis vein, I'rui/i four to four and a half feet. 
Both workings arc in excellent order, and the quality 
X)f the coal is uiioxceptiouahle. The height of breast- 
ing upon the Sj^ohn vein is ninety yards — upon the 
Lewis fifty yards. The gangway has been driven ui) 
the Spohn, to a distanci.-. of 300 yards, and on the 
■ Lewis about iiOO yards— hoth veins are of a north 
Jiileh. Ah-. Uicn irlU n ihai if the demand woul<5 
warrant it, and llu; ; lilioad to Port Carbon was such 
as to permit it, he coidd mine and send down fri>ni 
•each vein, at sixty tons per day. This properly 
t)elongs to the Vdllry Furnace Tract, and is leased 
"by Mr. Uren. 


The next colliery in regular order as we pass up 
'the Casca-Williani ruad, is 'I'hompson & Pennman':::. 
who are operating ou th>'. ,dJ(un Siahl tract, in the 
Veins which were .spjiu :i by J. C. Circovius, about 
four years agn 'l'ii!':C v'. ins are supposed to be Ih-.': 
Peacli mountain vei.;s- ihe coal is red ash, of su|)l- 
•jiof ipialiiv., ;;.nd 1.;'-:; a hijh reputation abroad. Ti ■ 
pitch of the vcui is incguk.r. Messrs. Thompson k 
•Pennni.ui ar;^ now working the drifts, desigtiaied .s 
No. I, and No. ;d. Tiicyliave penetrated about :jr.a 
.y , J ; into u;..cli, Mud are t.king out beautiful coal 



These ;|ic cumcd on by Mr. John Patrick, \vliO : 

connects v/ilh the Casca-William's road, by about \ 

half a mile of lateral railway, and is about one mile \ 

from Miildlcport. Tac vein, which is hi good ordrr, _ 

and producing exocli' ut coal, is about 4^ feet llji:;l:, \ 
cMiimanils fiO v^ird., /f breasting, and is worked in. 

by gangway, 'to tli. distance of about 200 yr.r'ls . 

Tlie property upon which these mines are locn.ted, •; 

belongs to Mei*rs. 'I'nms & McCanles, and is estimat- _ 
cd as valuable. 

As we proceuvl up the Casca-AVilliam's road, ili'^ 

next and L.ol colliery we arrive at, is ' 


These uunes ii:e worked ))y Messrs. Spayd & hv., 
iher, at the extitiuie end or head of the Casca-Wil- 
liam's road, 2 nnles from Middleport. Th^ 
term "Music Hall," origmated thus — one of fne 
houses buid upon the land was occupied by a nLira- 
ber of GermaUN, who papered one of the rooms, (ai: 
unusual thmg in diai district) and anrused tliemselves 
in that ro.nn v/itl. .arious rnusical instrumenl^— 
hence the name. Messrs.. Spayd & Luther are wnri,- 
mg but one vein.— it is first quality white ash, aiMl 
is known as the Raven vein. Tliis vem is twent/ 
feet thick, jdiches nearly perpendicular, and is v, ork- 
ed difl'erently fn-m miy other vein in the region. 
They have already penetrated into the vein a distaiic^i 
,)f about lialf a miic. and taken out irom it , in im- 
mense quantity of excellent coal. Messrs. S lv L. 
Jjave Greeted a plivtform at their mines for bn .king 
oal, x4M\ u done ujon a large iron l)lale, about 6 



'eet by 20 I'cet, havii^g octagoiuil holes the size of the 
oal they wish* to prepare, There are scliutes ar- 
ringed above tlio platform for the purpose of distri- 
uting the coal fairly over it, and the wliule arrauge- 
neiit works adinira.bly. We are assured tiiat 20,000 
ons of coal amuially cau In; mined from the Raven 
vein, if the dcniaud siiould warrant it. Connected 
With this colliery are 18 for miners' dwelhngs, 
along M'ith olbur necessary buildings. The tract con- 
itains al;oat 2ii acres, nnil is owned by the operators, 
I'here are several other 

Messrs. Spayd lii Latiicr, 
,veins u},'OU it, of boili reil 
never yet beeir oi;encd, 

uul white ash, which have 

r:ulroad is, in whole lengtji, 
ivupt in good order by the 

riie Casca-AViiiianr's 
about two miles, aiul i.: 
operatives who use it. 

Passing down tbe Sehuyfkill Valley railroad from 
Middleport, v\rhich was the last point mentioned, we 
meet with no collieries luitil we come to Lick run, a 
distance of -l.i miles fro;ii J'>.rt Carbon, and Ij nnles 
i\om Mitldlcjxni. A l.itci'.il ruad is laid up tliis run 
for a s^)ace of 530 yards in length, atthe extreme end 
of which we come to 


These veins belong to tiie Valley furnace tract, and' 
are leased to John Curry, Esq., who leases to Whe- 
lan & Co., who are no vv/^ working tliem. The veins, 
which are two, are called Peacock" and Peach moun- 
tain. 'I'he distance bcLwocn them is about 20 yards, 
widening apart as the vems enter the mountain. 
Messrs. W. & ('o. arc now wording the Peacock vein, 
by means of ic level nbout 50 feet above the first 
opening. 'V\\c iTiscdiift was driven into the Peacock 
vein, wlien, after having entered the hill a short dis- 
t-unce, a tunnel was cut across obliquely hia southern 
dirci'u )ej wliich siruok tlic; Peach jnountahi. Poll: 

356 iri^TGitY or schuylkill county. 


veins aje oT a souih pitch. The thickness of iLo j 

Peacock vein ia from Ih te 9 feet, and the Peach | 

mountain from 6 lo 7 feet. The height of breast from | 

the lower to the ii)Ji)er level in the Peacock vein i? } 

about 150 feet, and about the same height from the ^ 
upper level to the dut-cropping. Tliis would give 
100 yards of bre-islmg to tlie Peach mountain /eui, 

which is about the lieight. These veins were iirst > 

opened in February^ 1S44 — the operators have just ; 

got fairly under way, and their prospects now look > 

quite llatieritig. The lateral road, which is in good I 

order, wa,^^ laid b\ Mr. Curry, who has a lease upoil [ 

the veins lor 10 years. The lease authorizes a range ; 

upon the veins of one mile in length. ^ 


Returning again lo the Valley road, we hnd no eel-- ^ 

lieries between Lick run and tlie Silver crei'l: rail- ^ 

road, which con.pri^es an intervening distance (jI b.alt ( 

a mile. This l:itter road is laid along Silver cix-ck | 

for a distance of Ij miles, in nearly a northerly di- ^ 

rection. Passing up Silver creek from the Valley r 

road, the Iirst v/orking we anive at, is \ 


This colliery is located about 300 yards froin die ' 
Valley r;n[road, and is worked in the hill m an east- 
erly direction. The vein is called the Palmer vx'in., \ 
from the fact that it was first worked by that estima- 
ble and enterprizing pioi'ieer of the trade, Dr. CI. G. 
Palmur. The vi'in was first opened by Spen :er Iv 
Lawler, about five years ago. It was then lea!:;;;!! 
by DougliLity ^ Coialian, who operated in till last 
March, '«vlien Mr. Kinsley connrienced working ii. 
The gangway lias been driven east a distance of 1 3(^ ; 
yards, and commaiids about 150 feet of breasting llie ' 
whole of that distaiM.e. 'I'he coal is an exceinii re'! ■■ 
asl], and at prjs>ent is 3] I'vct thick in the br. c'Suiig. ' 
The property is ov/ned by the ValU-y fiuiiu ' /.•om f 

HUTOir/- or bCUUi'LKILL COUNTY. 357 

pany, and exteiiJ.-s in a range with the vein to Lick 
' run, a distanco oi'abuu SOo yards. 

The next collif.iy vve arrive at wliilst passing u{' 
t Silver creek, is 


Tliis is located at the VaUey furnace, ahout 200 
yards above Kinf^ley's, and inniiediately wliere th;^ 
stage road to AiiddU-port crosses Silver creek. Tiiis 
vien was opened many years ago, and was abandon- 
ed. It was leased by the present firm, about two 
years ago, and they have been operating in it since 
that period. They liavc but one opening — the co;d 
is red ash, of good quality — three feet in thickness, 
seventy feet lieasting, and pitches south. The vein 
has ben worked to u distance of 2S0 yards eastward- 
ly, and commands an additional range of about 600 
yards before reaching Lick run, which is the boun- 
dary. AVUhains .iv Davis lease this vein from tli. 
Valley Furnace iraci. 

Between this colliery and the head of the Silvei 
creek railroad, there are several new openings which 
have been ialely made by Mr. Gideon Bast, ol 
Schuylkill Ikiven. The veins are red and white ask'. 
ai-e in excellent order, and promise to become valua- 
ble and prohtable ccllienes. Mr. Bast is busily en- 
gaged hi perfecting the operations, and making all the 
necessary improveni.ents for the purpose of getting 
them fairly under way ; and we shall therefore deiet 
a more lengthy notice until such time as the arrange- 
ments shall be ■,one!iided. The property upon whicli 
these veins are located, is owned by jMessrs. Anspacli, 
of Phikideiphia. The next vehis we come to are 
those located at Die head of Silver creek railroad, nud 
known a^. 

35S insTOuv OF schuylkill county. 


These collieries arc can-ied on by Messrs. i\Iyejs « 

Si Allen, of Port Cm bon, and are valuable and e\tcn- | 

sive workings. TIkj disUince from the mines to the * 

Valley Rail Road, is 4' miles, making tlie wlmlc di;i. | 

tance froni the })oint of shii)nient (Port Garhon) 54 | 

miles, Messrs. lUyurs & Allc-n are workiiij- iluec | 

veins, called the Skidmore, the Raven, and the Silly- * 

man veins. Thuy all pitch south about 80 degrees, V 

and are workeil in the same manner as tlatter vein?. ^ 

are, viz : in breasts, by means of propping, &ic. The | 

height of the breasting on the Raven and Sillynun r'? | 

about 100 yauls — on the Skidmore about 83 yaius. ^ 

Tiie length of j.iijgu upon the veins, according to (he I 

lease, is aboui if miles. The Skidmore vein is the I 

farthest north on this tract, and the Sillymau tiic | 

farthest south. Tlie Skidmore is worked in a Tresi- | 

ern dirociion 11 om the ravine, and the other two are f 

worked in an Last(^rn direction. The Skidmoru ]s U !> 

feet thick— the Raven 17 fuet, and the Sillynian x^2 | 

feet — all in excellent order, and producing ul | 

the best white [ish coal sent to market. 'I'hc Slrid^ | 

more has been worked to a distance of five hundred I 

yards, the Raven live hundred yards, and the Siiiy- I 

man, six handn:d yards. The produce of the two ;' 

latter veins is all brought out through one upQU- f, 

ing. They having l)een reached by tunneling. The | 

distance between t!ie Sillymau and Raven being Lni ^ 

11 yards, it requiied but one length of tunnel from I 

the openinar made m the former to reach the killer. I 

IVTcssrs. Myers & ililen have M miners' 1ious'j.:>, v/orlr f 

shopSj powder .magazines, stabling, &c., &lc., ;at;i,c]ied i 

to the operations, which appear to be carri(;d on in- | 
dnstriously ;ind niJihodically. We are assnrvd tiuu 
.'f the demand would warrant it, these g..'.;nluiue!.> 



: Eed to thc'-Vall.y Furnace Tract, and is Ica.ecl 

of tliat coi.ipau/ by the preseat operators. 
L We now rri.uii lo .Ke junction of tlie Silver creek 

! ironi Port CarboK, an , pa.. down ^^« J^^^ J'^^ 
' for one iDile, to tks ir.icl known as he l^'^^'ow & 
■ Fvan^ tract. The veins ai this ponrt, liave nearly all 
[ S w kcd out above v.ater-level, and with the ox- 
; ce^Ln of two opening., wh.ich are worked ioi Mi,. 

toct without the aid of stationary enguies, and we 


, These collieries aro now worked ^^y'^^^essrs. Wib 
Hals &8illynian, who le..ed the tract^tth^^^^^ 
die of February, lS-14, (roni the Mes^is. lunsity 
The veins aredie Spohn and ^^^^^^ ^^^^r^^'^ 
worked below the w.ter.-level,by ineans ot a^^f ^lo 
Tv en-ine, which islocated about hal way betwee 
Sre twS openuigs. 'inns engine was irst put np by 
Aden & LawtSn, for the purpose ot working th 
Lew s vein, do wn winch a slope of 70 yards has bee j 
w^ I Some nine alierwards a perpendicular siaU 
va sunken on the Spolm vein, (which lies about tO 
•^ "unah of the Lewis,) and the engine was i.v 
Ic rod. for the purpose of working both veins tu. time. T.His shaft was put down under the o - 
: P of TW3.. J. Riag..ayjr., an cxpeueiiced euu'- 


neer of this caiKity, and is found to work admirably, 
It is about 120 feet ])erpendicular, and the coal is 

raised to tlic top of the shaft, which is about 40 feet I? 

above the raihoad, by means of chains and pulleys, | ' 

worldng from a drum in tlie engine house, 'i'he I 

chain is 345 feet in length, and is made strong, and |.: 

capable of bearing a heavy weight. Tlie lessees loll |^ 

us that the chain, broke some time since, w.hen the |. 

car laden with coal was about — from the bottem of |^ 

the shall, and the crash was tremendous, the car be- 1* 

ing broken into a liiousand splinters. No person. |. 

however, was injured, and we are assured by the op- |v 

erators that they have not had the slightest accident r 

to occur aliout thqir mines, from tbc period when they 1:. 

first topk charge .,f tlienu 'J'his we thought rather |^ 

singular, as the lust impression was, that (he working U 

of a perpendicular shaft would be nmcli more da nger- p 

Qus than any cnher. lioth veins will average more U 

than four feet in tliiekness. They pitch south of the |' 

Spolm 25 degrees, and thp Lewis 3;3 degrees. The t. 

Lewis vein is now idle and nearly tilled with waier. 1 

The oparalives may choose to work it again at some |; 

future day, biif dp not design doing so at pn^scnt ; }' 

both veins have been worked about 530 yards in | 

length, and the whole length of range permits a U 

working of JJOO yaids The coal liom the Spobn i 

vein when brought to the top of the shait, is unloaded! | 

ipto a scljute and by means of screans, brakers, &c., I 

is prepared for shipiuent by the tipie it reaches ihe ^,. 
bottom. Tlie engiiuj used for hoisting and i)umping, 

is of 30 horse power, \Yas made by Haywood & Sny- [ 

der, and is said to bo one of the very best pieces of f 

machiuei-y in the couniry. I 

The surrouuding liouses upon the tract, make qvatc; | 

a town ill ap|)earadce, and the place is better ki;ovvn f- 

in this eounty by the Welsli name of " Cun.bola," [. 

than any ether. \* 

Oil lb., same (raet, about 200 yards north of ^V!^ J 

ijams & S!llyina!i.'s weaLs, v/e hud another ei.'ilierv 1 


36 J 

vrorked also b)' a stalioiniry engine of about 40 horsu 
power. It is cu the Clarkson vein, and the slope was 
put down ill 1S38 or 1S39. The slope was sunken 
and the engine erected hy the owners, who leased the 
property to W. Wallace & Co. These gentlemen 
worked the \'ciii for dnee years, when it was leased 
by Aquilla Jiolton, who is now prej)aring the mines 
for rnort! exteusiv^e operation. The vein is a mo.^t 
excellent red-ash coal, from 4 to G feet in width, and 
is a soiidi pilch of 35 degrees. The tract comprises 
an extent of n bout 300 acres. 

Mr. Bolton is als'j woiking the Spohn vein, above 
the water-level upoii the same tract. 

The next tract ol coal land west of Cumbola io 
known us the liohnont tract. It is owned by James 
Bell, Es(|., of Reading, and contains about 650 acres. 
This tract comprises within its limits a number of very 
valuable veins among which are the Salem, Rabbit 
Hole, Faust, Ttmnell, Black Mine, North and South 
Gate, Lewis, S[)ohiK Palmer, Chas. Pott, and Clarl: 
son veins. The ci^mpleiion of the Port Carbon and 
Tuscarora railway will add greatly to the present 
Tahie of the tract. 


This colliery is Avorked by our fellow-townsmar!^ 
James C. Oliver, Esq., who leases the veins froi!i 
Samuel Bell, Esq., the owner. The vein which Mi. 
Oliver now works, is the Lewis vein, and is about o 
feet thick. It is in hrst rate order, and pitches soulii. 
The coal is a prime red ash, and cannot be surpassed 
by any vein m ihe district, for qnality. This vein is 
wofketl by means oi'a slope and a stationary engine. 
The slcpe \v:is ]'nt dov/nandthe engine erected son^e 
Ciin;' in .laiiii;iiy, l.s41. The length of the slo^)'; is 
about 115 yanK. 'J'he (jiigine, which is about fuiv; 
l''Y-j'. po\\'er, was made by Maginnis — it is an e\' '"1 

So!i IliST.-.i/ (!i^ SCIIUYLKir.L COUNTV. * ; 


but piece f.l inacliDicry, and the engineer teiLs as |^ , 
there is no brtier in tiiu country — it lioi.sts tli^ conl J ' 
and w'o/ks ilic juuiiiis at the same lime. The i;;'.iig- * 
way lias bciii drivi'ii m all about 440 feet, that is >' 
about 22lj ("ect (iacli sid(! (j1' ihc slu])e. This vein has | . 
been ciitii'ly work- I out abovu tlie water-lev 1, 1 y 
Messrs. Bell and Hulton, who have ojterated ilare , 
for a number of ycirs. d'he S|iohn vein, win; h i? ? 
also inchidiMl Ui Mr. Oliver's lease, lies aboui. luO 
yards Jiurfli oi ih'; [^tnvis. It is from -1^ to o feet i ■ 
thick, and is iii g\Miil order. This vein has also fiou \ '■ 
worked i-ut .diinc ila; water-level, by JUdl & ll-iiMn^ ■ 
many ycais a2i). Mr. Oliver intends working i,; by V 
means of a tnui:';!, v.hich he will drive from his {<rf- 
soiit gangway iu!i> it, and will thus be enabled to | 
work both minis, aiid draw up the produce tbrougli I 
the same' ..f^pc, imd by the same engine. The liji:glli ? 
of range njjon liasu veins is abmit 1200 yards. '. 

Mr. Oliver is ;d)ont erecting one of ]3attin's bieair- J 
ing machines ai his ''ulliety, which is one of the n.-S' I 
conjidetr we ln\e i.-ver seen, 'i'he engine wiiiv-h > 
drives ibi' roiiii ^ is t>f x^O horse power, made by Abi- '^ 
ginnis. Tlit;ic ;irc two setts of rollers — the tci Ji of ' 
the upi)er set b(;iug much wider apart than the leclh " 
o{ the lo\v(n-. Mr. Oliver has iniproved upo.i ilia 
usual mediod of screening, by having a double .screen ■ 
instead ol one long screen, as is most generally ado'pt- 't 
ed. These screens are fed, each of tltem, with a liop- ? 
per, deading from the breaking machine, and dicre 
(ian be no doabi but that it will work admii;diiy. j 
The coal, which is thus i)repared, is of all sizes, fr.nn ' 
pea to broken, 'idiis breaking machine is biiiii ou I 
the side ui ihe jailr.Mil, and is immediately over die f 
slope, \viii.'ii jiii.Jie. south in a dir(;(tion mider it. * 
As it is die ce;;i this slojie which Mr. Oli^';i ui: • 
tends lu';, lii; has through necessity, hii niuai n J 
curioiLs nietlind ')'' renie'dyiug the matttsr. 'll;e w.i- ; 
£'ons are lii.iv, n npM the to]) of the slo[)e, win ,\ diey | 
iT:sf; u'loii ii iu.oveabl'j nlatforni which rises f'/". i.uA \ 


the breaking machine so as to elevate the car upon 
a level with the railruad leading to it. The car is 
then drawn towards the machine by a chain attached 
to a drum, and v/orked h> the same engine which 
drives the rc^llers. 

Mr.Olivcr's mines arc supiirintended by Mr. Dim- 
can Weir, who is an cxcullcul practical man, and has 
derived a very vuhialil:; experience in the business 
from having bi^.'ii cucaiicd in mining on the I^ Hue 
Hill, and Scliayllciil llivcu niilroad. The dislanrti 
from 1110 .Hci.iiout r..jlii'.ii;:s to Port Carbon is U 
■rail OS. 

We now camo to :i ;<ui«: dtH'j) ravine, which extciid* 
fi-om lh« valley i, in a northerly direction, for 
a distance of about 2 miles. This railroad crosses 
the veins at right an-lcs, and developes a great quan- 
tity of coal land in it,^ course. It forms a junction 
with the Valley raihi) id, a short distance below tlie 
Belmont collieries, at Lf miles Irom Port Carbon. 
The first working now in operation on this road, as 
we leave the main a. ad, and go nordi, is by Mr. 
Aquilla Bolton, on tlie Spolm vein, lie is working 
out the ui)i)er level, and is at present engaged in r«- 
moving pillars of coal, &c. The Spolm vehi at tins 
pohit is from -U to 5 feet lliick— pitches south, and is 
ill good order. Mr. BoUm is also working another 
vein, a short distance above this vein, which is about 
the same thickness and pitch, and is a first rate red 
ash coal. The next working in regular order as wu 
.pass up the Eagle Hill railroad, is 


This colliery is locaiod .^u Ivigle Hill railroad, about 
I of a milu from tlie main irack of the Valley rail 
foad. T^Ir. IUeh.ards commenced these works aboui 
I years ago, and has taken out during that period a 

Vfv; fonsidt rable qnuuLily of good eoal. lleliastW' 


drifts Upon Uie s'lnic vein, each commanding aloiu 
50 yards ol" breasting. He has driven the upper level 
to the distance of 300 yards, and the lower as iar as 
400 yards. The vein, which is an excellent red ash, 
pitches south, and is -lA feet thick. This vehi was 
worked many years ago, hut was abandoned, until 
Mr. Richards took it. It is attached to the r^agiG 
Hill tract, and the leases are given by John G. Howes, 
Esq., of Port Carbon, who, is one of the owners, and 
9lso agent for the tract. 


This colliery is situated a short distance above d.c 
last mentioned place, and about one mile irom the 
Valley railroad. It is worked by Mr. James I'itz- 
Simmons, an enicrpxizing and practical business man 
of this district. AIj. Fiizsimmons is working a vein 
which is similar in appearance to the Peach n onn- f 
tain vein. It is froju a to 9 feet thick— pitches .yMUh, | 
and connuands about SO yards of breasthig. The f 
coal is a good r^d ash, and the vein is in good \/ork- | 
ing order. The vein is worked in to the distance oi | 
600 yards, and ihe length of range upon the vein i^ | 
about 1000 yards. This vein is also attached lo tiie I 
Eagle 11 ill iract. | 

The next colliery on the Eagle Hill railro .J, i- | 
about 200 yards abo\Ae the last mentioned (Fitzsiju I 
mon's) colliery, und is called | 



This vein is IrM.ed by E. Q. & A. Henderson, x^Lc ^ 

have been working it (or about two years. Tbi; vein f 

IS an excellent red ash, is from 4 1 to 5,i feet thick, I 

pitclies south, and is considered to be the real Peach f 

Cionntidii vein. There are two drifts ui)on tin.: vein li 

iipen diUcr'/nt 1. vds. each driit commanding aboiU 1; 





45 yards of breast. Tliey liave Avorked the gangway 
on the lower level to the distance of about 400 yards, 
■and on the upper level 250 yards. Tlie length of 
range upon this vein is about 1100 yards. 

This colliery is about one mile from the Valley 
i-ailroad, and about 2? miles from the canal at Port 
Carbon. The faciliii(;s foi transportation are there- 
fore very favorable: . and upon the completion of tlni 
new railroad, collieries in tins neighborhood will pos- 
sess an advuntageous location. The Messrs. lieu- 
derson's colliery is under the superintendence of JMr. 
Charles Henderson, brotinr of the owners, and from 
the manner in which iho cnal is prepared for market, 
we would pre(li>;t a coiUinaal and steady salr;. In 
connection with tiicc i].)U s we would state that a 
vein of argillaceous iron fjre, about one foot in thick- 
ness, is found overlayiiig ilie lop slate of the Peach 
mountain vein, and it is supposed to follow it the 
whole distance of the working. 

From Henderson's colliery to the extreme end of 
tlie Ivigle Hill railroad, liiere arc several collieries 
opened under die direction of .1. G. Hewes, and super- 
intended by Edward Perry, Joseph Green and Lle- 
wellyn JVlorgan. As these veins have been but late- 
ly opened, and as wo have failed in ourelfort to pro- 
cure the correct distances, &c., we are compelled to 
give them this passing notice. 

, Returning to the point v^^here the Eagle Hill rail 
road branches oif froni die Valley railroad, Ave then 
pursue our regnlar direction down the latter without 
meeting any collieries until we come to another la- 
teral road, which branches otf from the main road at 
H'ight angles, and coiUnmes in an easterly direction 
through a j>iece of low laarsliy ground, for about a 
quarter oi a KiiJo, wlien il reaches the western spui 
ofaliill ic.iown Ah die '•'J, ear Ridge. '^ This ridgt. 
contitUK s fiooi luis ()ui!,i i;: an easterly direction un- 
bi\!; ,:i as ia.r ;■. ; Middi.:-].!':. rl. It contains a iiuinbi ••' 


oi" veins, in tlio worlang of which a great deal of crq-- |. 

iial has been expenihid. At the spur of this ridy e the 1 , 

railroad teruiinaiL's ;it a working known as |-- 


Mr, Berry is worLing a low level of the Tnui-.i | 

vein. It IS 4f'oi ihi.'k, pitches sonth, and comnaiid.- ! 

about GO yaiJb' orid'casiing. The first opening v/as f_^ 

mad.; many years ;.mj by T. Sillyman, Esq. Tlic |^ 

railroad was l;iui by Mr. Andrew B. ^Vilile. ,vbc ^ 

owns the proj^oiiy. Mr. Berry has worked the gang- ^\ 

way to a distance of abont 1400 yards, and has aixjiu '^ 

800 yards yet to- go before coining tothe line — ii ? tia< i; 

been woiking ibis vein abont one year. ' t, 

Returning t(( ilr..' junction of this lateral road ^viii. 
the Schu}Hnll A^.-lley roadjtlie tlrst collieries we coni'j 
to, are 


These colbVan s aie situated immediately on ih: | 

Valley railroad, about one mile from Port CaiLa-n, ] 

and are worked by A. Bolton & Co. These gcnde- j • 

men havti made o])(.iiings here into, three veins -the ^\ 

JJlack Mine, RaLI)it Ifole, and North Salem. f- 

vary in thickness from 2', to 7 feet, and have a soatlt ! 

pitch of about 35 degiees — Uiey haveail been opened ; 

iliis spring, arc in good order, and with the proper ] 

facibties could be made to yield from 10,000 to 1 5.000 I 

ions per annum. They are all opened upon tiie ir.ict | 

belonging to Samuel Bell, Estp, but continue on, by > 

right of a leai-e, tluough the "Junction Tract." The < 

whole length ol" range is about 1000 yards. 'J'be j 

Coal is a first quality rod ash, and the veins are so ^ 
celebrated and well known throughout the trade. That 

all comment fronj us would be needless. The Me.isrs { 

I'olioi! haA'c made the usual arragementS; by laL.iir:. * 

I %. 


of breaking platc^, &c.. lu prepare their coal in first 
rate order, lor tlie niarlo^t. 

Between workiiigs, and tlie Eagle Hill rail- 
road, Uicie are oilier old openings, wineli liiive not 
been in operiilioii Cur several years. 'J'liat they have, 
been extensively wo'vlaid at some past day, is evr^ 
denced hy tlu- innivjusc li-ajjs of coal dirt, and refuse 
matter, v/hich remains piii d up about their entrances, 
and when our iij.'ders l;r r in mind these veiiis liave 
only been oiJ^nUcd in al.ovc water-level, they will 
uudeibtuiil how -^'r.i ;i mass of coal still remains un 
worked even in iLar >j/;(l;'. 

.'AboutaOO y.ud^ l.'io^y the Belfast collieries, uh 
come to anotnor iaili j:'(I, which niak»es an. acute an 
gle, at its junction widi the Valley railroad, and tra- 
verses in an easterh din.ction, the valley lying be- 
tween the "Boar Uilyc" and the Sharp mountain. 
This railroad is aljoin >>n'j mde in length, and was 
leased by Patterson & Sillymaii, about the year 1S3G, 
The lirst coUiei y upon this road, which is called the 
lower J5ear Kulgu liiilioad, is 

lli:EI5Ni:!i't:i CULLIKRY-. 

This workiuL': is i.^on two tracts — the drift is eon^ 
menced and driven in on land belongingto Mr. A 
B.White, but extends into a tract owned by Mi 
Moses Palmer, iVoni winch the coal is now mined 
The vein is the 'i'unn. I vein, about 4 feet thick, pitclu :' 
south, and connnands about 30 yards of breasting 
The coal is a celebrated red ash, of first quality. Tin? 
vein was first op-ned in J 830 or 1837, and was m 
commenced l.y Air. lieebnur, in the. spring of 18 U> 
The lengdi oi'inige upon this .vein is 1200 yards, ami 
the mine i.^ al present iii rxcellent order. Thisc(i- 
liery is under d.'c siiperirnaidence of Mr. James Ber- 
ry, who i^. a good p;;!eti:id man, and an excellent 
U'-ii, .■,-. 

3()8 in.-.Touy op schuylkill countt. 

Passing up the Bear Ridge road, we find Ini uim. 
■other colliery now in operation, which is situated al 
the liead of the road, and was commenced on Wednes- 
day labt, hy Hertzog & Guiterman, This vnia was 
opened many years ago by Thomas Sillyma:i; and 
remained idie for some time before the present I'-jSci-a 
took it. 

At this point, at; well as at Ileebner'scoUieiiLS, ai;- 
built a nurnber of miners' dwelhngs, which from then 
number and regularity makes each colliery appear | 
like u sniall villag." — both places must contait' nearly | 
50 houses, | 

Mr. .1 . G. liowes is also working a vein in tbu Shfirji I 

mountai'i, aiif ut a tpuirter of a mile from PuU Car- | 

bon, on tlie land belonging to l^ippincott (Si Kmh lnlpji. ^ 

The co;d is inought out of the vein throngha I'UDui, I 

whicli was driven t)y Mr. Randolph's direction, many | 

years ago. This mine has no lateral road connecting 1 

with the main roiid, and conse(piently the oi)erator » 

•is compelled in baid the coal in wagons and <:.iris to | 

(he landnig. 1( i.s a first quality red ash and dn^v^i-' > 

is in g(ji-d ord.jr. I 

The next codienes as we approach towards Pc.i | 

Carbon, are I 




These collieries are located about lOOyaid.sin ,1 \ 

northerly direction from the Valley railroad, .'nid \ 
about 300 yards from the landings, at Port Cnrbon. 

They are located on the Junction tract, formerly a « 

part of ilici |uo|<( riy owned by the Ncjrth Americait \ 

€oal Cjni[)any, iuid now held by the a:-.ignces\ | 

These colliei'ies ar^i now worked by David (hiilM^ ) 

Es(j., who is now working the Tunnel vein, undi'j | 
the direction, of T. ] bxlgkiss, mining eiiginet v. \v]\o h 
the coniractor for tluj getting of the coal, and Y,bi> n 
was iirst opened many years ago, and al' i diiieib 


This vein is a notable red ash — four feet in thickness, 
and is an excellent, pine coal, Tlie vein pitches 
south at an angle of about 35 degrees. Mr. Chillas 
has already opened ten breasts in it, which are all 
yielding good coal— the hiight of these breasts is be- 
tween GO and 70 yards. The length of range upon 
this vein at the water-level is 1775 yards, about 350 
yards of v/hich have already been driven by gang- 
way. On the present level at which the mines are 
worked, they will have a distance of 300 yards yet 
to drive, hut at the water-level the length will be in- 
creased as above. Tliit' vein, if properly worked, 
could be made to yield about 6000 tons, from now 
until the close of the season. The mines are in tirsl 
rate condition, and everything promises a favorable 
and profitable return. 

The next vein we crnne to is upon the same tract, 
about 70 yards north of the latter vein, and are 


This vein is culled the " Black Mine." It is now 
worked by Messrs. Bolton & Co., above the water- 
level. It is above 5 feet thick — a first quality red ash 
—and is in good order. This vein has been driven 
in by gangway, about 250 yards, and is yielding well. 
The height of breasts is about 60 yards, and the vein 
pitches south about 35 degrees. Messrs. Bolton will 
have about 600 yards length of range at the water- 

Independent of those veins already described, there 
are other veins on this tract, which will no doubt at 
some future day b.; v/oi'ked to great advantage. 

We have now ii/ti,shed cur pilgrimage down the 
Schuyikill Valley District, and in our progress have 
given our readers f^illdescriptionsof more than twen- 
ty ;u!:a/o ceUieries. ■. }u writhig out this account, vv*; 

370 irisTony or schuylkill county. 

liave beuii giiiJed by obscrvaliou and facts, aiTivtxl ai 
Ihroiigli our own ien^ics, and have avoided all llicsr: 
niinutia of nieasureniont and statistics, which would 
only serve lo confuse and bewilder the uninitiated ira- 
der. In oar notes Ave hive passed over, or tieatod 
with but a caisoiy n:4ice,the various o])enings wliich 
have been al> mdoued, or remain inoi)erative. There 
are new in d-ic space ot ground which hitervenes Lo- 
t^vccn Port Ci'ri.'un and the liead ut the railro^id at 
Tuscarora, many favorable and valuable locations lor 
coal opeiations, v.dii.di liave never been devclo}.ed. 
The reason fur 11, i ., lutherlo, has been a want oi'yuo- 
per facilities for ti-ansi)ortation. The i)resent railroad ^ 
is badly located — has lor many years been in nn>iTa- -* 
hie condition, aiid is entirely tao narrow between the t 
rails to enable cars uf sufiicient size to traveri^e it. | 
These objections have no tloubt aided greatly in de- | 
terring cai>italisls from venturing upon the route, hut | 
now when the survey of a new route is in progiass. | 
and all the arrangements made for putting down r- v 
new and serviceable roatl the whole distance, lo coi. . 
nect widi the gi'-U l\)tlsville and Philadeli)hia i.«:id : ^ 
we do not,dvnow in uur whole district a more Ivivor- > 
able spot for investments. | 

In our next number, we shall commence at Port , 

CarboUj and describe all the collieries upon the Mill [ 

Creek railroad wliich occur between that point and 1 

the terminus of the road at the liroad moantain. ., 


The next valley of any importance, is the IVIili | 

Creek Vtilley, winch extends from the landings ui: lite * ' 

canal at Port Carbon, to the southern foot of die | 

liroad mountain. The whole extent of this ravii:e is ■ 

tfaversedby a raiho;id called the MUl creek lailroad ^ 

This read was first commenced in 1829, by I', ancis 
li Nichols and Pienry Morris, li;sqrs., and was taken f 



Uli'iO'lV 0!' ^?CUl i'LKILL COUNTY. 371 

by the preseiil c.^iiipahy, SKine time iu the fall of that 

'year; it is four iiriley in Icngtli, and was completed 

■ so that coal was hrought over it in 1830. At the fool 

of this railroad, and whhin the limits of the town of 

. Port Carbon, we nicel with the lirst collieries upon 

J- it. They are eddied 


These culii( lies are located at the northern base of 
the Sal(in hill,.i narrow ridge which extends parallel 
with tiie river Schuylkill from Pottsville to Port Car- 
bon. Both th(; collieries :tnd the hill take their name 
fi^om the Salem vein. Avhicli is every where celebrated 
for its pmity and excellence as a red ash coal. TIh; 
workings are carried on by Mr. Cliarles Ellet, who 
leases from the estate of the late Robert McDermot. 

?^:; - Tlie tract, winch is very valuable, contains about 230 
acres, and fm-nivhes.a range upon the veins of 1,800 
yards. It was first opened by Mr. Ellet in 1831, 
. above the watcr-level, on die soiitli side of the Salem 
hill, and the old wucking may still be perceived on 
the road between this place and: Port Carbon. Tliis 
drift was worked for about four years, when it was 

I abandoned, and Mr. E. had a slope sunken on the 

north side for the. purpose of working the vein below 
the water-level. The lengdi of tlie first slope which 
■ ' was put down ^vas 300 feet. An engine was erected 
^' for the purpose of hoisting and pumping, which is 
still in operation.. It is from the workshop of Hay- 
wood & Snyder, and is pronoimced an excellent piece 
of machinery. The vein was worked by means of 
this engine fur tbree years, and' in that space of time, 
the coal was lain-jd out for 1,200. yards west of tlie 
slope. At this time, in conLicqiience of the increased 
and extended operations of the collieries, it was found 
necessiny to put down a GOdiurse engine, to be used 
for pumping aloi-e. Tiie slope was then sunken te 
till ;ici:di of I'OO feet, and both engines are now ii 


active operafioTi. In iKe lower level the coal lu.s 

been worked cut biu -iOO yards, which leaves the | 

operator now about 700 yards of 600 feet breasting;, V 

and 800 yards of 300 breasting. This ensures a | 

heavy and extensive business for many years to | 

come — a business which is perfectly safe and secure, * 

in consequence of the vein having been thoroughly . 

proven through die upper gangway. The Saleni j 

vein at this point is four feet thick, and pitciies to the | 

soudi ui an angle of about 33 degrees. | 

At il'.e lime Mr. Eilut commenced driving down f 

his slope on ttie nordi side of Salem hill, he also made | 

a tunnel through the hill, in order to connect the col- i' 
liery with tlie canal by a shorter route than that ho ■ 

would otherwise have fjen compelled to take. | 

This lumiei is !iOo feet in length, and decreases the ? 

distance to die canal about 600 yards, while at the I 

same time the construction was advisable, as the tun- | 

nel and other landings could all be elfected upon { 

\)roptnty belonging to the tract. There are four \ 

landings widi bchnljs, ollices, and railroads all buili \ 

at the souilurn niuuth of the tunnel, and are nov/ 
used for the continuel shipping of coal. A connec- | 

tion was made between Uie railroad leadhig through i 

the tunnel, and the Mill creek railroad, which enables , 

operators on the latlcf u» bring their coal by a shoriur ; 

route to the Lanal. tlian were they to ship it from the \ 

old landings. The construction of these landings and 
tunnel was accomplished at an expense of from S to 
10,000 dollars, Mr. Ellet has made an arrangement 
at his eollieries for the breaking of coal, upon perfora- ; 

ted iron plates, which seems to work very well, but is ; 

hiferior we think, in cheapness to the newly invented [ 

b^'caker of Battings. At Uie time we visited liic 
mines (on Thursday la'rt) every tlhng was in active 
operation, and we saw there tlie minutia of a 'v.'cli 
legul'ited and exicnsive coUiery — the steady pull' d! 
the two n.ighiy engines — the rattling of the coal .m 
tbc s' liUir ; — ;he flank'Jig of the hannncrs, and iiio 


rumble of car wheels, all tended lo impress us with 
the great importance of the trade to which these out- 
lays are necessary. 

The new route of ihe Mount Carbon and Port 
Carbon railway passes Mr. Ellet's tunnel, on tlie op- 
posite side of the Schuylkill, at a distance of about 
100 yards from the mouth. The connection will be 
made by a bridge across the river and canal, when, in 
all proLabilityjihe v/hole railroad trade from the Mill 
Creek district, will pass through the tunnel, and m this 
mamier, reach tiie main route of railway from Potts- 
ville to Philadelphia. 

In closing our notice of this colliery we would re- 
mark that the slope is the deepest in the county, and 
as the Salem vein is the most southern one, and as it 
consequently must be lower on the surface than the 
rest, our readers will therefore be able to understand 
the almost inexhaustible extent of coal which must 
necessarily lie beneath the surface, at points in a more 
northerly direction, where the distance above the 
water-level, nuist naturally be nuich higher. 

We mention this J'act to show the immense re- 
sources which our district possesses, and also to ])rove 
how impossible it is tiiat we should live to see it ex- 
hausted. When our readers understand that every vein 
of coal extends beneadi the surface to a distance never 
yet peneated, and may be worked out as far down 
as power can be brought to bear upon it, they will 
perceive the great and immense supply we can create. 
In fact the coal trade of this district, although heavier 
than any in the country, is yet in its insipient state, 
and we will venture to predict, that but a few years 
in the lapse of time will roll over our heads, before 
the Schuylkill County Coal Field, in mhiing and 
manufacturing, will rival I he most important district 
of Great Britain. 

In the foUoAving articles upon the Coal Region, wc 
shall funiish a descrij)tion, minute and particular, at 
ah the coUieiies situated on the Mill creek railroad. 





This vein was fust worked many years ago i.y 
Me:.srs, J. vV U. Voiuig. It was also ufterwurdr-, 
worked by Mr. Win. liasbyshell, on the Mill ou'ck, 
and by Mr.'Tlios. C. Williams, on the Norwegian, .so 
that the workings met. The vein has been com- 
pletely v.'orked out above the water-level, for tli; dis- 
tanee of 1,200 yv.nls. The gangways having met in 
the centre, there is ]iuw a complete and contiiiUCiis 
railroad passage thnmgh the hill which inierv 'liCS 
between Pottsvilie and Port Carbon, tlirongh wlu-Ui 
trains may pass I'rom the JNlill creek to the Muiiiu 
Carbon railroad. 

The present p; ojnietor of these mines, Mr. A. i;>-.. 
aldson, has had them in possession but a short inue. 
He has sunken a slope upon the Lewis vein, the dopth 
of which is about 3J0 feet below the lowest g mg- 
way — thii'iy (cot of this is nsed by the tank a!, die 
bottom, which leaves him a breasting of 100 yii,l.s. 
The vehi is worlced 1)y a powerful stationary engine, 
which perfoms the pumi)ing and hoisting. This en- 
•gine was put down in lh43, and the slope wa;- lirst 
sunken in Marcii, It; M. The thickness of the J .i;v/i.- 
vein at this point varies from seven feet to twelve : it 
is found m some jdaces te) the thickness of luuvb.en 
feet. Tlie lenglli of range upon the present level will 
be about 1.400 yr.rdj. 

Mr. i,'oi;ald.M:)u lias also attached to his v.^.irL: 
whieh are carried on in a complete and meiliedica.l 
manner, a broukiug n.achine upon the plan a. lop, ed 



by Messrs. Haywood tSi Co. The rollers are driven 
by an engine of eight horse power, which also turns 
the screens. 

Mr. Korudilsoii h;is the double advantage of sliip- 
,piiiy his euai eiiher fiuni Port Carbon or Pottsville. 
Siiould he u:ii)i tu send ;; train of loaded cars down 
by the Jicadiny raihcad, he can use the old drift 
^vhich opens oL a level Avith the Mill creek road, but 
a few yards riurti thu .schutes, and can transport his 
coal thruj-h ihu he;i;-t of the mountain, a distance of 
l,2U0 yards. Avheu it v.ill enter thelMeant Carboii 
road at the old woriiing-; ■t»f Mr. Charles Lawtun, at 
Pottsville. It is a icthous method, however, ami is 
but seldom us..d. 

The next opeiiii:i^- upon the MiU'creek radroail. 
"which we arrive at afler leaving the above mentioned 
colhery, is also worked f)y Mr. lionaldson. It is on 
the eastern side of I ho raih-oad, about 200 yards north 
of Haywood & Co's. operations, on the Lewis vein. 
Mr. lxon;ddsr)uat thi- imiut is Avorkiug three veins Liy 
means of ununliu^. 'I'lie luunel is iiUo the Yam 
vein— a tunnel from this point, 33 yards in lengUi, 
reaches the '* Spuhn"-— about 40 yards further north, 
it culs the '' Palmer" vi.'in — about 30 yards in the same 
direction, it will iiii;is<rt the " Cha's Pott'^ vein, 
and by another tunnel of 40 yards, will open into tlu) 
*'Clarkson" vein. Thus the reader Avill perceive that 
the product of live vein;, of coal, can -all be brought 
out (.)!' the same opening, 'ilie veins 'are celebrated 
for their purity and qualiiy, and average, at this point, 
about four ieei eaoh in thickness. In a very short 
lime Ave expect lo see r;n this sjjot one of the largest 
and most extensive eoiliejies in the district. 


These collieries are siinated on Little Wolf creek", 
• lb ) 'I three nulcb neu'th (jf Port Carbon, and /.re 


reached by a branch or lateral road one mile and a 
half in length, which forms a junction with the Mill 
creek railroad, at about one mile and a half from the 
landings- at Poit Ccubon. These collieries are w oi kcd 
by Mr. Sauiiiel Sillyman, one of the lirst and most 
enterpnznig operators in the district, and under his 
direction and management, have proved celebrated 
and profiiablo. The vein, which is a white ash coal, 
wellknoMai in all the different markets, is tivcntii-one 
feet hi tliickaess, and is approached by three openings 
or funnels. It is in good order and promises tu yield 
well for tlxe future. Mr. Sillyman is now driving a 
tutmel into a vein about 250 feet north of the }!resent 
working, which is ascertained to be ten feet in thick'- 
ness, and judging iVom the samples of coal t;iken 
from said vein, we have no doubt that it will busluin 
the high repulaiion which the Sillyman coal has justly 
received for the last nine years. The length of ranee 
upon these veins is about 2,500 yards. 

Attached to these rnuies are twenty-one comk.r'ia- 
ble miners' houses, the inmates of which appear to be 
liappy and cenaenicd. The stranger, in passing up 
tlie road, is siruck with the appearance of a sn.all 
village, possesshig all the outward marks of indu.'.iTy 
and happiness, and when he remembers that but a 
few years since, this spot was the scene of a coni|/ieto 
and silent wilderness, he will see and understand the 
great stride winch improvement has made in cm- re- 
gion, since the iirst di.scovery of that valuable mineral 
which constitutes the wealth of our district. 


These collieries are located on the eastern !-.idu of 
the Mill creek, near the village of St. Clair, Ii is on 
the same vein as the above described working-- is 21 
feet ia thickness, and although one mile west of ihe 
otlier, possesses all the qualities and peculiarities 
which attach to it. 'Wa vein is entered by three 
diiftsor gangways. 



This colliery it, situaied on the west side' of tlie 
Mill creek, in tiie ro.vine which leads from St.Clair 
to New Castle, and exiendj westwardly from a mile 
to a mile ajid a half. 

The outside fixtures at this colliery for breaking 
and cleaning coal are close upon the Mill creek rail- 
road, with which they are connected by a short late- 
ral road of iron rails. 

The veins are cut by a tunnel driven at half course 
across the ends of them. The first is a vein of four 
feet in thickness — the next nine feet, and the balance 
twenty feet — each of these seperated from the other 
by a stratum of strong slate of 12 feet in thickness 
(measuring at right angles with the course.) Tlie 
coal in all is while pure and hard, coninianding 
a ready sale at the btsi market price. 

Anotlier vein, 17 feet in thickness, lies north of 
these veins about 45 yards — nnd is now being tun- 
nelled to from the tiO feet vein above mentioned. 
Half of the di:<truice is already driven, and it is ex- 
pected to be finished assoorr as the first of May next j 
this also is a white ash coal of superior quality. 

Conmiunications aiti made at distances of from 
150 to 200 yards between the three first mentioned 
veuis by cutting through the intermediate stratum of 
slate, (at half course) (hereby saving turnouts, and 
avoiding the necessity of driving up to the surface 
for air, except m one vem only. 

The road in the 9 feet or middle vein is kept foi 
the p:;o.^:ing out of loaded cars, and is an iroir road so 
substantial and even in iis grade tliat one horse cau 
re.i'Jily Lruig out a train of six or seven drift car^- 


The drill cars used here are difl'erenlly consliuc.ied 
from any in the region — are very strong, easily re- 
paired, ;ii.d iiKiiiy of iheni have been in use seven or 
eight yoavs. In consequence of wanting sufiicient 
space to sLOH'^ away die dirt and rubbisli necessarily r 
occuring from a "business of the extent contemplated 
at this colliery., and als(j for the purpose of ]jr(j aiviijg ; 
the required eli;v;itiL>n lor breaking and preparing the 
coal for uiaiirct, an inclined plane has been con iriict- 
ed which iy 110 feci in length, at an angle uf '2[> de- 
grees, maldiju a h-'ight of 44 feet. This wor!: has 
been pat up eniiidy on trestles in the most sii'iitian- 
tial manner, and is highly creditable to the car]*uiiter, 
(Mr. J. C<. Swni oi our borough.) 'J'he coal will be 
hoisted up ihiri plane by agin with one horse, which 
is calculated tu lin and einply a car in three miiailes. 
Another gin is l-fijig cunbtructi'Ll for tinning tiiree 
screens w ilh (Ma; hdrsL'. It is not intended lc» u-o any 
'of tlie [Jieseiit. uia.lanery l\)V breaking coal, lor il.'C 
reason, as we luilurslaiid, that the ])roprietor will sell 
a much gveatrr bulk of what is called "lump" < ,wil. 
llian of any (.dua- Kind. That which is brokci , will 
be J)r(q);ued l)\- haiul on iron ]ierlorated platci. ij' 

dnaddldonin; before mentioned, another vtiii; f 

also oi' w bite ,i -h cual, about 3'50 yards north .,f (he \ 

former, i> laiw .djocL Ijeing o}»ened — the thickiie.^-.s of 1 

this vein has ;jr:[ JM-'u ascertained, but by trial with | 

shatts .sunk to liie ileplb of about 70 feet, ai lOO \ 

yards ap;irt, a', e ere told tliat its appearai;cc on I 

the boliomslaie marked it as a vein 21 feel in thick- ] 

ne&s. t. 

It is iiliendcd to lake the coal from this vein, or at | 

least fri 1 1 il;.; iv,',> u[)]H::r levels in it, by a railroad f 

laid along iiie side o( the hill, to the outside tixiure.s \ 

on the odier veins. The breasting on the 17 !( .,t vein J 

before inendumd, will have a height of SKJO fi i <Voiu * 

the gangway, ami on (be other vein (sui)pos';n n. U: '" 

21 feet in ihickurs-) diere will be a breasting oi' l.(-in { 

iVec frLin die third jr lowest level. * 




This colliery promises tu 1;ecome, in a sliort time, 

one of tlic most extensive; i;. the district, and we liave 

[? -heard it remarked j.y those wlio know the capacity 

of tlie. works, that it might be made more important 

•llian any other concern) in llio region. 


■ This colliery is situated four miles north from Port 
Carbon, on the west side of Mill creek. It is leased 
• and worked l)y Joseph G. Li'.v'ton. 

,; These mines are very interesling to those visitors, 
who desire to ex.iniiiio ihe mode of working those 
resources of wealth, and to witness where advantages 
may he obtained in the coal trade by a judicious ap- 
plication of labor. TIkj vein worked is tlie celebrated 
Mannnoth or Daniels vein, long worked by George & 
WuL Payne, about lour mile^ west of this colliery, 
and is known to yield coal belter adaj)ted to the 
munufaetnring ol' iron tl an any other in the regioji ; 
the coal being of iln.' b^^l wliiie ash, ])nn! ami hard. 
The vein at this i)lace varies Irom 1(J to )i2 feet in 
thickness, and pitches nt an angle of from 23 to 90. 
The coal is raised from die gangways by an engine 
of twelve horse power manufactured by our enter- 
prizing townsman, L. ^V. ArGennis, and does credit 
to his well known stdll. 'i'his engine, which by the 
' way is the iirst engine ereeted in the region in a 
wlute ash vein, for hoisting coal, raises the coal Ibrty- 
two feet above the level of the JNlill creek railroad, 
thereby giving ample height for the schutes which are 
put up on such a plan, fhal scarcely a shovel need 
;ess Ml' unloading, and loading 

be used hi all 


the coal. 

The ei 



large resc 






iron, ^v hj 

eh tl 

ij))'li(d svith pure water Irom a 

(;iii the valley biitweeu the Ihoad 

; liili, IVui.i [] to -100 yards distant, 

1 iron. Nvhich the v/aler :s coiulucted through pipes. 



which discharge about 1,500 gallons a day. AVii^ ; 
is not used after first supplyhig a trough at ih^ rloot^ 
of the stable, made in one of the exhausted brouytingil 
for the accommodation of the horses used in the mine, |, - 
which do not leave their dark abode except en Sun-i; 
day, is allowed to run down tbe side of the hill agaihV * 
to join those waters from which it had been separated j 
some hundred yards back. | 

The mines are drained by means of a tmmci:;boi",| 
one hundred and fifty yards long, which coni-j . 
menced in 1841, jiid driven at great expens'i mostly j ■: 
through a close grained conglomerate rock, which | , 
scarcely app ^-tred to yield to the elforts of the bard- 1 ij 
working miners, and was finished in 1844, ^ 

The internal arrangement of the mine is admirablv | ) 
calculated to facilitate business. The ruads are dl {> ' 
laid Willi heavy railroad iron— it being of tlie same j,' 
size as that used on the mill creek railroad, 

the sm face, f 
the mines is |i 

Holes arc made from the gangways to 
down which the timber for the use of ^ 

thrown, imstead of loading it into the cars at ihe he:id j 
of the slope, and thus causing detention. Y'^ 

The proprietor of this colliery is now erecting a !•- 
water power sufliv:ient to drive a saw mill, and break j 
and screen bis coal. The latter will be done or. the j; 
Battin principle, by two rollers, which lie thinks will y- 
be sufllcieiit, as it is not his intention to break mere j 
tliaii can pos:iibly be helped. He, like other dealers j 
iu while asli coal, has more demand for large or j 
<* lump/' than broken coal. J 






CllAr'L'EIi, V. 

^' , EDUGATIO>r. 

k '...Common Schools wrro ol" course encouraged as 

I '.won as the first settlers hnd cleared a field or two, 
|1 erected a lew houses, and inada such other improve- 
ments as their emergencies demanded. The School 
Master was ahroad. In some instances, especially 
among the Germans, as it A'/as an early custom 
among them, a person was employed who discliarged 

I f both the duties of the Pruliger unci Schuimeister. 

Sucli persons they hrouglit with them when they first 

emigrated to this countiy. Nevertheless, schools 

among the (Icrmans wciu ia u most dcplorahle cou- 

l dition I'or many years, Ou (he arrival of the Kev. 

I : Muhlenherg, in 174e,anil the iiev. Michael Sclilatter, 
ill 1746 ; the former a I.utlieran, the latter a German 
Reformed minister, uncensing efforts Avere made by 
I those fathers of the Germrai churches in Pemisylva- 
nia, to establibh schools in connection witii all tlie 
German churches. 

In 1751 an efibrt was nuxde which promised to be 
crowned with more than ordinary success, to estab- 
lish a school in Pennsylvania. About that time, or 
shortly before, the Rev. Schlatter, had returned to 
Holland, and on his reprcsenuition of the destitute 
condition of the Germans here, to the churches in 
Holland, a schemo was started by some noblemen of 
Europe^ for the insLiuciion of Germans and their de- 
bccndants in Pennsylvania. These foreign gentle- 
men v.'ii. iruly concerned lo find that any of theii 

382 inviuitr op schuvlkill county. 

lullow siibjLCLs, 111 part of the British dominiony, were 
not iVilly pvoviilod with the means of knowledge and 

salvation They eonsidered it a matter oi the • 

grcaKrst inip^jrlaiiee to the cause of christianiiy in | , 

general, and die jnotestant interest in partieiilar, nol | 

to neglect snch a vast hody of useful people, sii'iatcil i 

in such a d;iik., l:arren region, with almost iioiio lo I . 

jn'oteci liir.m. or riv.;ir helpless children, who ari- coa;- • 

ingfordi iu n'lilliuides, and exposed an easy jiicy lo » . 

the total ignorance of their savage neighhoi.. on ihe ■ , 

one liand; .md die eorrui)tion of their cue ' ^ 

Uiies, on uhoi:: ihcy hordered, on die othci 'ij)i(]: * 

and of whom dieie were always, perhaps, toe many ■ 

mixed among them. ]Moved by diese intercsuug j , 

considcrnuous, tlicse noblemen and others, did accoid- '■ 

ingly lake iln; good design into their immediate pro- '■ 

tection, and ibinied themselves into a society for the j 

elfectnal inan.igenicnt of carrying out the scheme ol ^ ' 
instrucdiig the lierrnans. 

Below there is. a detailed account given of 'ichial ' ' 
ter's success : 

'•A brief liistory of the rise and progress ui ih, 
charitable s<xaety, carrying on by a society of nol'f^- 
men and gentlemen in Jjondon,for the relief and in- 
struction of poor Germans and their descendants, 
mettled 111 Pennsylvania, &c., publislied for tlic inlor- * 
mation of those ^diom it may concern, by James 
Hamilton, William Alien, Kichard Peters, Benjamin 
Franklin, and Conrad Weiser, Esquires, and the Piov. 
William Smith. Trustees General, appointed for die 
management of the said charitable scheme. 

" For several years past, the small number oi Ke- * 
formed Pri)test;^ni ministers, settled among the Ger 
man emigrants in Pennsylvania, and tinding d;.' 
lifQvest great, but the laborers lew, have been dru^ply 
aiiected witli a true christian concern, for the ■.velfare 
of their distressed countrymen, and the salvaiiun of 
their ])r3ci.ous souls. In consequence of this, iLey have 5 


1 ;■ 


froni'timi; to time, iii i!)(- most solemn and moving' 
manner, enlreatod the cliuiches of Holland, to 
tliel commisseiate iheir unli.ijipy I'cllow christians, wlio 

in motnn under the d rjust atllic.tion, heing settled 
lot ill fi remote eorner oi' the world, where the light of the 
:ed gospel lias hnt laiely reached, and where they are 

to very mnch destitute of Uie jueans of knowledge and 

11., salv^ation. 




"The chin'che.s of lfi;lland^. being accordingly 
moved wilh fiie)i>lly e.Mii|M;,siun, did from time to 
time, coniiihile ;>:* lla; i>■,,))l"^■t of religion in these re- 
mote pans. IJut ii. ilu; year 1751, a very movhig 
^ representation of Jii-Mr .siale having been made by a 
p person, whose urwi ul -1 labns jbr the benefit of his 
dear countrymen hiv( Ijeen for sumo years conspicu- 
ous, the states ul' 1 lollaii'l aial West Frisland, granted 
2,000 gilders -per auiut}:<, for dve years from tliat time, 
to be ap])lie(] towards flic in.siruclion uf the said Ger- 
mans and their chiidieii, ill Pennsylvania. A consid- 
erable sum was also collecicd in the city of Amster- 
dam, and elsewheie, and upi n a motion made by the 
same zealcnis })ci:()n, ih ■ IJev, Mr. Thomson* was 
commissioned by die Synod of Holland, and Classis 
of Amsterdhm, to solicit ihe friendly assistance of the 
churches of England and Scotland. 

"WluiU Mr. Thanisuu arrived in Great, Britain, he 
found the readiest encoruaueinent. among persons of 
the first rank, botl) in clnirch and state. In this pe- 
culiar glory of the liritish government, equally to con- 
sult the happiness of all who live under it, however 
remote, wherever born, or of wliatsoever denomina- 
tion, wicked and inhuman lyrants, wliose ambition 
is to rule over slaves, find ii dieir interest to keep tlie 
people ignorant. But,, iu a vu'tuous and, free govern- 
iTianagement of the design upon themselves. 

"This pro])osal was readily agreed.tu bythose noble 

* Mr. T. is .1 ruiiiisler of (.t,e of ilie Wnglish churclies in Am- 
ajLsrdair, und a rn'Miibcr of said i^yiiod mid Olassis. 


mentjlike ihat of Great Britain, the case is far olhtr- 

wise. I3y its very nature and spirit, it desires CA'^ery 1 

member of tiic coinniiuiity enlightened with li'.eful \ 
knov/ledgc, and es])ccially the knowledge of the 

bless'jd gospel, which contains tlie best and niost f 

powerful motives for making good subjects, as will i 

as good njcn. Considered in this light, Mr. Tiioni- f 

son's design could not fail to be encouraged in uur • 

mother country, since it was evidently calculated to | 
save a multitude of most industrious peoj)Ie from die 
gloom of ignorance, and qualify them for the <Mijoy- 

mcnt of all those priv^ileges, to which it is now Ihair » 

good fortune to be admitted, in common with tli3 / 

happy subjects of a free Protestant government. | 

"Mr. Thoni.-ou having thus made his busniesa ^ 

known m Juighunl, I'lid prepared the way fur en- j 
couragement there, lie, in the meantime, went dovni 

to Scotland ; and, hiujself being known in that com- ^ 

try, he represented the case to the General Assembly | 

of the church, then sitting at ]']dinburg, upon which | 

a national collection was made, amounting to up- { 

wards of .i.'l,2()0 aterhng. Such an instance of gt ih ■ | 

rosity is one out of many, to show how ready that \ 

church has always been to contribute towards the :ul- | 
vancement of Truth, Virtue and Freedom. 

" Mr. Thomson, upon his return from Scotlar.d, 

found that his pastoral duty called him back to llol- \ 

land. lie saw likev.dse that it would be absoliUely \ 
necessary to have s(tnie person in London, not ojly 

to manage tlie n;oneys already collected, but also to ; 
solicit and receive the contributions of the rich and 

the benevolent in England, where nothing had yet f 

been collceted. and where much miglitbe hoped for. ^ 

With tint V iew, lie begged a certain number of noble- i 

men* and gendcmen. of the hrst rank, to tak. the i 

*Tl:fc first members of ihis society were as follows, ilr:u|^h , 

we believe several are added this winter, (1775,) wliobc 'lames \ 

hava noty.t been irrtii^'xiiKvl to us : ', 

The ?\\i\\\ lion. i;?.rl of fehartesbury, Earl of Morton, i'^rl ol r 



and worLliy persons. They were truly concerned to 
find tliat there wore any of their fellow subjects, in 
any part of the British dominions, not fully provided 
with the means of knowledge and salvation. They 
considered it a matter of tlie greatest importance to 
the cause of Christianity, in general, and the protestant 
interest in particidar.. not to neglect such a vast body of 
useful people, situated in a dark and barren region, 
witii almost nor.e to inslruct them, or their helpless 
cliildren, who are coming forward in the world in 
multitudes, and exposed an easy prey to the total 
ignorance of ihcir savage neighbors on the one hand, 
and the corruption of our Jesuitical enemies, on whom 
they border, on the other hand; and of whom there 
are always, perhaps, too many mixed among them. 
Moved by these interesting considerations, the said 
noblemen and gentlemen, witli a consideration pecu- 
liar to great and generous souls, did accordingly take 
the good design into their immediate protection, and 
formed themselves into a society for the etfectual 
management of it. 

"The first thing said society did, was to agree to a 
liberal subscripuon among themselves ; and, upon 
■laying the case before the King, His Majesty, like a 
true father of his peo}ile, granted ^61,000 towards it. 
Her Royal Highness, the Princess Dowager of Wales, 
.granted £J00; and tlie honorable proprietors of this 
provhice, willing to concur in every design for the 
ease and welfare of their people, generously engaged 
to give a considerable sum yearly for promoting the 
most essential part of the undertaking. From such a 
fair beginning, and from some hopes they reasonably 

Finlater, and Lord VVilloughb), jf Parhatn. Sir Lulre Schaub, 
and Sir Joshua Van Neck, Earonets. Mr. Conimisbion Vernoii, 
Mr. Chitly, and Mr. Fluddyer, Aldermen of London. John 
Bance Hoberi Fiirgason, and Nathaniel Paice, Esqrs., of Lon- 
don. Kcv. Beiijamin Avory, L. L. D., Rev. Thomas Bircti, D. D., 
Rev. Mr, Casper Wetstein, Rev. Mr. David Thom&on, and Re», 
Samuel ('haiKllor, Secretary. 



eiiteilaiii ofa more public nature, the honorable society 

doubt not oC their being able to complete such a i^ind | ; 

as may ellectiially answer their pious design, in lime | • 

coming. In the meantime they liave come to the fol- • ; 

lo wing general resohi tions, with regard to tlie manage- I ^ 

ment of Iho whelc : | 

"I. To assist ihe people in the encouragement of | "^ 

pious and ijidustrious protestant ministers that are, or ! ' 

shall be regularly onlained and settled among llie | ; 
said Germans, ov ilieir descendants, in Ameiica; 

])eginning tirst in INmnsylvania, where the waht of 4 

ministers isgreat'-'isl. wad proceeding to the neigl.bor- j ■ 

ing British ci^lonies, a^ they shall be enabled by 011 | l 

increase of llieir fund.;.. | ,; 

*'II. To establiish some charitable schools for the \ 

pious education of German youths of all denorniua- '\ 

tions, as well as English youths who may le- f^ 

side among them. Now, as a religious education of | . 

youth, while the tender mind is yet open to every f ;, 

impression, is the most effectual means of making a f 

])e()})le if/.M,', otrlu(m.\ anil happy ^ the lionorable so- | , 

ciety have declaied that ihey have this part of iheir | ' 

design, in a paili(n:ilar manner, at heart; it being- f i 

chictly from the care that shall be taken of the rising I \ 

generatiun, that diey expect the success of their whole ■■ ''- 

luidertaking. ; . 

"III. The said hoiiorable society, considering that f • 

tliey reside at too great a distance, either to knov/" * \ 

what ministers deserve their encouragement,, or wdial v ". 

places are most co)ivcnient to fix the schools in — and \ 

as they would neither bestow their bounty on any ^ ; 

who do not deserve it ; therefore they have devolved I- \ 
the general execution of the whole upon us, under 

the name of Trustees General, for the manag* nient \ ■ 

o( their charily among the Gemian emigrants in i 

America. And as our residence is in this pr(jvince, » .. 

where the chief body is settled, and where wi. may ; _. 

acquaint theia widi tlij circumstances of the people, * j 


the generous socit'iy hope that we cannot be imposed 
upon, or deceived, iii the cUrection or apphcation of 
their excellent chafiiy. 

■ " IV. And lastly, considering that our engagements 
in other matters, would not permit us personally to 
consult with the people in the country, nor to visit 
the schools as olien as it might be necessary for their 
success, thehuiiorable society have, out of their true 
fatherly cnre, ujipoiuted the Rev. Mr. Schlatter, to act 
under our direciioii, rts Visitor or Stipervisor o( the 
the scliooh;, knowing iliat lie lias already taken in- 
credible pains in tliio \idiolc alTair, and being acquaint- 
ed wit) i the people in all parts of tiie country, can 
converse with iheia on diC ;-;pot,and bring us the best 
advices from time lo tiniC; concerning the measures 
fit to be taken. 

■; « This is a brief hi.story of the rise and progress of 
this noble charity, till it was committed to our man- 
agement, under wliich we hope it shall be so conduct- 
ed, as fully to answer die expectation of the worthy 
society, and give all reas.mable satislaction to the 
parties for whose bc;iiefit it is intended. We shall 
spare no i)ains lo inform ourselves of the wants and 
circumstances of the people ; as will appear by the fol- 
lowing plan which we have concerted for the general 
■ examination of our irust, leavhig room to alter or 
amend it, as circumstances shall require, and time 
discover defects in it. 

: "With regard to that part of the society^s design 
which proposes the encouragement of pious protest- 
ant ministers^ wq shall impartially piOi)ortion tlie 
monies set apart for this par])ose according to tlie in- 
struction of the said society ; as soon as such ministers 
shall i>ut it in our power sc to do, by making their 
labors and circumstances known to us, either by their 
own personal application^ or by nieans of Mr. Schlat- 
ter, or any other creditable ])erson. 
'• ;') i to tlie important article of establishnig schools, 


the following general plan is proposed, whicli may- 
be from time to time improved or perfected. 

" 1st. It is intciided that every school to be oj)ciiea 
upon this charity, shall be eqnally to the benefit of 
protestani yourh of all denominations; and thcretbic 
the education will be in such thhigs as are geuerally 
useful to advance industry and true godliness. Tin 
youth v/ill be instjiicted in both the English and Gev- 
T'lan languages ; likewise in writing, keeping of ::on'i- 
mon accomits, siuging of Psalms, and the true prin- 
ciples of tlie holy proti'stant religion, in the sa^ne man- 
ner as the fatliers of those Germans were instructed. 
at the schools in those countries from whicli tlicy 

" 2dly. As it may be of great service to reUgio,; 
and industry, to liave some schools for girls, al>^o, we 
sliall n:;e our endeavors with the honorable society, ■ 
to have some lev/ school mistresses encourtiged, to 
teach reading, and the use of the needle. And tliough 
this was no part of the original design, yet as the so- 
ciety have MOlhing butthegeneralgoodofal! atluari. 
we doubt not they will extend their benelaclion fee 
this charitable purpose also. 

"3dly. That all may be induced, in then' ea:l) 
youth, to seek the knowledge and love of God, in 
that manner v.dii'Mi is most agreeable to their own con- 
sciences, the children of all protestant denominations,. 
English and Duich, (German) shall be instructed in 
catechism of sound doctrine, which is approved of and 
used by t\ujir own parents and ministers. All un- 
reasonable s)rt of compulsion and partiality is direct- 
ly opposite to the design and spirit of this vUarily, 
which is geneiPAisly undertaken to promcte uselVil 
knowledge, [rue leligion, public peace, and ChrisUan 
love, among all rar.ks and denominations. 

;'4fhly. For die use of schools, the s;veml cate- 
chisms that are now taught among the Calvinisf-L 
Luthcnms, ;ind other piotestant denoinin.jioijs, v;iii 


be printed in Eugiish and Dutch, (German) and dis- 
tributed among tlie poor, together with some other 
, good books, at the expense of the society. 

" 5thly. In order thai all parents may be certain of 
having justice done to theii children, the immediate 
care and inspection of every school will be committed 
to a certain number of sober and respectable persons, 
living near the place where every sucli school shall 
be fixed. These persons will be denominated ./ii- 
sistant or Deputy Tlrustees ; and it will be their 
business, njonvhly or quarterly, to visit that partciular 
school for which they are api)ointed, and see that 
both master and scholars do llieir duty. It will also 
be their business to send an account of the state and 
progress of the schools, at every such visitation, to us 
as 'Frustees General. These accounts we shall trans- 
mit from Philadelphia to the society in London ; and 
the society will from tiir.e to time, be enabled, by these 
means, to lay the state of the whole schools before the 
public; and thus charitable and well disposed people, 
both in Great Ihilain and llollaiul, seeing the good 
use that has been niaae of (heir former contribtuions, 
will be inclined to give still more and more for so 
glorious and benevolent an undertaking. 

"This method canrioi fail to be of great advantage 
to the schools, since the Deputy Trustees, being part 
'Of the very people for whom the work is undertaken, 
and having their own children at the same schools, 
they nmst have an interest in the reputation of them, 
and do all in their power to advance good education 
m them. Besides this, being always near at hand, 
they can advise and encourage the master, and help 
; him over any dii]i.:ulties he may meet with. 

"But, Cthly. As ihe keeping up a spirit of emula- 
tion among tne youfii is the life of all schools, there- 
fore, that we may leave as little room as possible for 
tliat remissness, whicn sometimes hurts charities of 
thi:'. Niiiure, we chall, as far as our situation will per- 


mit, have a personal regard to the execution of lliu 

whole. As the Assistant Trustees may often want | 

our advice iii rcnioviug difficiUties and making new '; 

regulations, we shall so contrive it, that Mr. Schlat- 1 

ter shall ho pr'..'seht witji them at their quarterly meet- f 

iiigs, to consult witli them, and concert the pro[)'jr » 

measures to he taken. Besides this, we shall have | 

one general visitation of the whole schools every yoar, I 

at which one or more of us shall endeavor to he })re- | 

sent. On these occasions, such regulations .shall he ! 

rnadij, as nuiy bu v,-:uited ;andcarel'ul inquiry will \yj. 1 

made wiiether any [lareiUs think themselves iiijiircLl { 

by any unjust exclusion of their children from an equal i 

benefit of the ccunnon charity, or by the partiality of | 

the masters or olherwdse. At such visitations, hoolis | 

will be given as rewards and encouragement, l!j the \ 
diligent and deserving scholars. The masters will 

likewise have pioper marks of esteem shown tin m in j 

proportion to their fidelity and industry in the dis- | 
cliarge of their oflice. 

"7thly. With regard to the number of schoi.-ls Ij 
be opened, tha' u ill depend partly on the encourage- 
ment given by ihe jieople themselves, and partly on 
the increase of the society's funds. A consideral-'le 

nundjer of places are proposed to fix schools in ; but '■ 

none are yet al).^ohitely determined upon, but Nev.' < 

Hanover, New Pj-ov^idence, and Keading* These | 

places were first fixed upon because tlie ])eople «>f all ] 

persuasions, Lulheraus, Calvinists, andotber Protest- "• 

ants, moved with a pious and fatherly concern fu.- the [ 

illiterate state of their helpless children, did, with tnte ! 

Christian harmony, present tlieir petitions, -pr;iy;ng » 

*Since ihe orii^inalpni.lication, peliiions have been sera to ih', I 

Trustees General, frcn Upi)LT Soll'oit, from Vincent tuwn.-iiip, in ' 
Cheater county, froia the borough of Lancaster, from Tulj ehock- 
en,ai:il several other pljccy, all of which will be conbukreri .-".s 

soon as possible, reh. 25, 175.5.— /^e/mu. Gazette. \ 

NoTi..— Schools weri also established in 1750, beii.i..5 tr.f; ♦ 

pbces mentioned, at Lancaster, York, i^^aston, and serera! oife^- \ 

places '_ 


'that their miniGrous children of all denominations in 
th€se jiarts, might be made the common object of the 
intended cliarity. And for this benevolent i)arpose, 
tliey did further agree to offer school houses in wliich 
their children might ho iiistrncted together, as dear 
fellow Christians, rodeomed by the same common 
Lord and Saviour, and travellhig to the same heaven- 
ly country, through tins valley of tears, notwithstand- 
ing they may somotiniestalce roads a little ditferentin 
point,b of, smaller niuin<.ijt, 

" This striking e>:ian]jlo of unanimity and good 
agreement among all denominations, we hope, will be 
hnitated by those who sliall afterwards apply to us 
for fixing schools among diem; since it is only upon 
the aforesaid generous plan for the common benelit 
of all, that we find ourselves empowered to institute 
such schools. ]3Ut wliile die petitions are agreeable 

, to this, our plan, i.s nov\' explained, they will not be 
overlooked, as long ns the funds contimie. And if 
the petitioners shall recommend school masters, as 
was the case at New 1 (anover. New Providence, and 
Reading, such school masters will have the preference, 
provided they are men of sullicient probity and knowl- 

'e<.lge, agreeable to all parties, and acquainted with 
both the English and Dutch (German) languages, or 
willing to learn eiU;er of these languages which they 
may not then be pofectly acquainted with. 

■ " These are essential qualifications ; and unless the 
ojenerous society had made provisionfor teaching Eng- 
Hsh as well as Dutch, (German) it would not have 
answered their benevolent design, whicli is to quali- 
fy the Germans for all the advantages of native Eng- 
lish subjects. Viia this could not have been done, 
without giving them auopporlunity of learnhig Eng- 
lish, by spcakhig of which they may expect to rise !•) 
places of profit and honor m the country. They will 
likewi.'-o be thereliy enabled to buy or sell to the 
greater m our markets, to understand th.j- 
4)\ 1! causes in courts of justice, where pleadings are 


in English, to ktiow what is doing in the comilry 
around them, and, in a word, to judge and act entire- 
ly for theniselves without being obliged to take things ■ 
upon the word of others, whose interest it may be to I 
deceive and mislead them. \ 

"We have only further to add, that having thus | 

published, in our names, a true and laitht'ul account j 

of (ho rise and progress of this excellent charity, down : 

to the present time, we hope it will candidly be re- ^ 

ceived as such, and prevent many wrong conjecturea ' 

and insinuations, ilial. might otherwise have lieen I 

made, if we had not given this genuine and necessary ( 

information concerning it. From the foregoing plan i 

it plainly appears, tliat as the chief manageuient is in i 

the people ihemselves, it nmst he entirely their own f 
faults, if these schools do not become the greatest 

blessing to many generations, that ever was proposed / 

in this coinitry. Such, and so benevolent are the de- I 

signs of this new society ! } 


"And surely, now, wo may be permitted in linii v 

name, to andrc^s you, countrymen and fellow Chris- \ 

tians, for whose lenetit the great work is undertaken ! | 

AVe cannot but entreat you to consider, of what ini- i 

portance such a scheme must be to you, and your S 
children afu^r yoa. VVe are imwilling to believe diat 

there are any persons, who do not heartily wish sue- » 

cess to a design so pious and benevolent. But, ii', 1 

unhappily lor thumseives, there should be any such ■ 

among us, we are bound in charity to suppose they * 

have never yetreflected that, whilst they indulge such \ 

wishes, they are in fact acting a part, plainly repug- '' 
nant to the interests of liberty, true religion, and Lveli 

of human nature. | 

" Manki'id in general are, perhaps, scarcely rai.-cd 
more^ by iheir nature, above the brutes, than a man 
loell imlructed above the man of no knowledge ur I 
education ; and whoever strives to keep a peoiUe in \ 
ignorajice, nuisl cerlahily harbor notions or desi-i.s 


HisTORir OP schttylkill county. 393 

that are unfavorable, eitlier to their civil or religious 
liberty. For wl)ilst a people are incapable of know- 
ing their own niterests, or judging lor theuiselves, 
they cannot be governed by i'ree principles, or by 
their own choice ; mid though they should not be im- 
mediate slavAes of the government under which they 
live, yet tliey must he slaves or dupes to those whose 
councils they are obliged to have recourse to, and fol- 
low blindly o)i all occasion.^, Avhich is the most dis- 
honorable species of slavery. 

"But on the other haiiJ, a design for instructing a 
people, and adorning the minds of their children with 
useful knowledge, can carry nothing in it but what is 
friendly to liberty, and aUo]>icious to all the most sa- 
cred interests of mankind. 

, " Were it otherwise, why are so many of the greatest 
and best men, both of the British and German nations^ 
engaged in the undertaking ? Why have they, as it 
were, stooped from their high spheres, and even conde- 
scended to beg from house to house, in order to promote 
it! Is not all tbi.-^ ilono wiih tbe glorious intention of 
relieving from distressful ignorance that was like to 
fall upon you ? Is it not done with a view to call 
you up to all the advantages of free and enlightened 
subjects, capable of thinkmg and acting for yourselves? 
And shall they call you in vain? God forbid! li' 
by atiy infatuation, you sliould neglect the means of 
knowledge and eternal hap])iness, now offered you, 
think seriously what must be the consequence. You 
Avill be accountable in the sight of Almighty God, not 
only lor your own sad negligence, but for all that mis- 
ery and slavery, which you may thereby entail upon 
your hapless olfspring to tlio latest generations. Your 
very names will be held in abhorrence by your own 
children, if", for the Avant of instruction, their privi- 
leges should either be abridged here, or they should 
fall a piOy to the error and slavery of our restless ene- 

'^' (.'.'.a oiuhecontraiy, ifproper instructions are begui. 

3!94 KispoRY OF SCHirv'LKILL C0UNT7. 

now, and const.mtly carried on among you, no design 

can ever be hatched against your rehgion or Hbci ties, | 

but what you shall quickly be able to discover and | 

defeat. All tJie arls of your enemies will be uf no i 

avail to sever you from your true interests, as men *' 

and as i.'rcie.staiiis. You shall know how to make \ 

the true use of all noble privileges, and instead f 
of moving iu a dry ;\iid barren land, where no water 

is, you and your posterity sliall llourish from a^e ta f 

age, hi all ihat is valuable hi human life. A ba^'nen | 

region .shall be tnr;ied into a fruitful country, a. id a 1 

thirsty lanrl into pools of water. 'J'he wilderness and I 

solitary place slj;dl bo ghid through you, and the de- ] 

sen shall r^yoi-c ami blossom as the rosu. Isa. J5." [ 

A school uh'ler ihis scheme was establish^ d uc [ 
Easton, in 17Jo, aswill appear from the following, 

copied Irom a paper published at Kaston, li\ l/r. ^ 

JJelrick : i 


Ilie followii)-; isa true copy of the original sub- f 

■scription list ti/r die ereetion of a school house, loinid i 

among a bundle ol' antitpiated papers -by a tYieiul, \ 

who has handed it tu nsfor publication, (184J.) '['hi f 

document goes to ];rovc that 8S (89) years aL:o, a [ 

proper spirit pervaded the settlers, as respects educa- I 

tion, and that they were cpiile as liberal as their pes- ; 

lerity, and jjorhaps more so, especially if the restricted l 

means of Uie donors and the simplicity of the man- * 

ners of the people of that age, are taken into eon- ' 

sideration. ., 

We have made some enquiry in relation to lii*^ \ 
building and the coniribut(n-s for its erection Our 

oldest inhabitants can give but little account of iIkj free *■ 

school of 1755, although tla; descendants of :-everal \ 

whose names are subscribed, are ytit among n.-, it \ 
■(vus V large one-:-:tory log building with a eeliar tinder 


it, containing three rooms, one of them large, which 
was used as a churcli and school room. 

'^ Its site was a I'iav feet east of the German Re- 

formed church, and was removed soon after that 
" f building was put up, about ilie time of the Revolution. 
® The vane which swung over the first scliool house 

^ in Easton, is the only rclick jireserved. 


) William Parsons v/as a shoemaker, who after- 

i wards became Surveyor GLnieral of Pennsylvania. 

He surveyed and laid 'vai ;lie town of Easroii, and 
was the lirst prothonotary of the county, which was 
created by the crown, in the year 1752. Mr. Parsons 
died about that tune, and is buried in the German 
Reformed burial ground, where his tomb-stone can 
yet be seen. Of the lorly-tvvo contributors, a large 
number nnist have been biu'ied out of town. The 
villiage at that lime did not coritain half that number 
of lieads of families. 

m:- W KA.TON. 

We the subscribers, being truly sensible of the great 
advantages our posterity may reap from the excellent 
charitable scheme lately Ibinied in England, lor the 
education of Protestant yoath in Pennsylvania, and 
being extremely desirous to encourage and promote 
the same, as far as in (uu- power lies, have engaged 
and agreed, and liercby do engage and agree to, and 
with William Parsons, James Martin, Peter Traxler, 
Esq., John Lefever, Lewis Gordon and Peter Kich- 
line, Deputy Trustees, nieulioiied and appointed by 
the Trnstcts Gcnr-.ral of (lie, said charitable scheme, 
that each of us will pay ilu: sum of money, and do 
and perform the work, labor and service in building 
and ei-ectiDg a school liouyo, which may occasionally 
be made use ol' ns a clmreh for any Protestant min- 
ister, to our iuunos liereuuder respectfully set down 



and aftixod Dated Easton, Pa., the 31st day oi 

July, A, D., 1755: 

William Saiitli. in behalf of the 

proprietor and trustees, 30£ 00s. oOJ, 

William Parsons, 5 

Lewis Gordon, 3 

Nicholas ScuU, 3 . • 

Nathaniel Vernon, 3 

Peter K id i line, ' 2 

Christian R inker, " 1 

Jacob I^a.ehman, 1 

Jacob Iviiuur, . 1 

Adam Yolie, 1 

Lewis Kiiauss, 10 

Lewis Kiotz, 10 

Henry Becker, 7 G 

George MicJKioi Shortz, . 15 

John Sevitz, 15 

Anthony Esor, 15 

Charles Iteichart, 15 

John Wa^de ' I 

Ceorg(! JMUc^L Pecker, 1 

John Uinker, 10 

N. N., 7 G 

Daniel Geese, ' 5 

Jeremiah Candy Rassel, 1 

Paul Ml! lor, 1 5 

John J^'ricker, 1 

Pcnnsylvarda currency, ^£61 Is 

Myer Hart, 30 pounds nails. 
Paul Ueesov, 1,000 shingles, 
Jacob Miner, 12 day's work. 
Steplicu llor}), 1 week's work. 
Henry Allshou&e. 5 day's work. » 
John Horn, 5 day's work. 
John. Finley, d day's work. 
Jo!m Nich.olas Roeder, 1 week's work. 
Ijarlliolomew Hoiiman, 5 day's mason w^>il 
Robert Mdler, i day's mason work. 



1 John George Bush, 5 day's carpenter work. 

Jacob Krorz, 5 day's carpenter work. 

Jarnes Fuller, 5 day's stone digging. , 
■ John Chapman. 3 day's carting stone. 
' Henry Uinker, fiO hnsiids lime. 

Henry Bush and John Widenian, 30 wagons stone 
■ and digging. 

Thomas Harris, 50 sash lights. 

There is perhaps no county in the state that can 
vie with Northampton for good schools, academies, 
semhuiries, and a college i;f reputable standing. 

Lafayette. College had its origin, says Day, in the 
public-spirited exertions of Hon. James Porter, and a 
number of other intelligent citizens of Easton. A 
charter had been granted in 1S2G, and a board ot 
trustees organized ; but attempts to procure funds 
were tor several years unsnccessful. It was originally 
designed for a militaiy school, after the model ol 
Capt. Patridge's academy; but this plan not meeting 
with general a[)probation, it was changed m 1832, foi 
that ot' u collegiate luslitation, on the mamial-labor 

The Rev. Dr. Junkin was appointed president, as- 
sisted by several prolossors. The legislature having 
failed to make an appropriation in aid of the college. 
an appeal was made to the public spirit of the citizen? 
of Easton and PhUodelphia, for funds to erect tli»' 
present edihce, temporary accommodations having 
been rented for the first year. Tiiis appeal was suc- 
cessful ; and on the 4lh July, 1S33, the cornerstone 
was laid by Hon. J. jM, Porter, president of the boan' 
of trustees, with appropriate ceremonies. 

The edifice is 112 feet by 44, containing in all sixty 
rooms, and has received the name of Brainerd Hall 
inmamory of tiie pious labors of that devoted mis- 
sionary in this region. The lirst term was opened in 
the new building in Afay, 1«34, wlien Rev. J)r. Juin 
Mil and dirce other professors were duly hiaugurand. 



The insiimtiou has continued to llourish. In ISli'^ 
or '41, the Rev, Dr. Jnnkin resigned and took charge 
of an instidition in Ohio ; when he was succeeded by 
the Rev. Yeomaus, a graduate of Wihiarns CoUcge, 
Mass. Tlie Rey. Yeonians has since resigned, Mixd 
Dr. Junkin is again president of the histitution. The 
laculiy is composed of men of talent and pro- 
fessed erudition, and the insthution commands an 
honorable rank among the literary histitutions ol ihis 

The course ol' instruction is thorougli and liberal^, 
as will ai)pertr from the subjoined extract, from (he 
catalogue of 1814 : 



Firsi Term. 

Graica Minora cumpieted. 
fineca IShijora commenced. 
Classical Liierauue, (Esch- 

enburg's Mamial.) 
Plane Geometry, (Davies' 


Second Term. 
Odes of Horace. 
Grieca Majora. 
Classical Literatun,. 
Algebra completed 
Solid and Spherical Ge- 


First Term. 
Horace, Satires &: Epistles. 
iEschines de Corona. 
Classical Lileratiue. 
Algebra revist;:!. 
Plane Trigonometry. 
Application of Algebra to 

Plane Geometry. 
Geometrical Constructions. 
Spherical Trigonometry. 

Second Term. 
Cicero de Oliiciis. 
Demosthenes de (](»- 

Classical Literature. 
Blair's Rhetoric. 
Analytical Geoincby, 

HI.STOUY or .SCTr!iy;,KILL COUNTY. 3i)0 

^■/ . 

•i; ,.^, ji'Niou (.•ii,.vss. 

Fir.^i Ttrm. Second Term. 

Tacitus. Cicero de Oratore. 

(Edijtuii Tyiuiiuus. (.'-loplio- l<jUriijides' Medea. 

cles.) iSlechaiiics completed. 

Differeiitialiiiid liit ,-ial bal- l)(!scrii)tive Geomery. 

, cidi, (YouiJg's.) Lineal Perspective. 

Navigation & Nautical As- (Jivil Eiigiueeriug. 

troiiouiy. Astronomy. 
Optics, (15rcw.slei-''s.) ■' / 

Mechai)icsliegan,(Yoiiiig's.) •' . 


.;' ■. • SENICK CI ASS. > ' 

i'i''' ■■ 

' F'n^l Tcnii. Second Term. 

Juvenal. Cainpbell's Philosophy of 
Longiniis. Klictoric. 

>' Intellectual Philosophy. .\hKal Pliilosopliy. 

Whateley's liOgic, HiUler's Analogy, 

Cttmphell's PhilosDidiy Pohiical Economy. 

ot" kheioric. (Jonsiilntion of the United 
Natural Philosophy. States. 

'Chemistry. Review of Studies. , ■.. „ 
Anatomy and Physiology. . ' \*' 

Exercises in public speaking are required from all 
the classes weekly throughout the year. 

The Freshmen and Sophomore classes have exer- 
cises in translation and .I:]iiglish composition at the 
discretion of the Faculty. 

Instruction in French and German is provided for 
such as desire. 

The students of ;j11 the departments are required to 
attend jmblic worship on the Sabbath, in that church 
which the pvii'iMit or guardian may designate, or which 
die siudenl; vhon tlu; choice is left to hiru; may prefer 
to attend. 


A record is ]<:ept of the punctuality, diligence, sclioK 
arship, and general behaviour of each student ; a re- 
port of v/hich is sent to the parent or guardian at his 
request, or at tlio discretion of the Faculty. 


Lectures on ChcMiistry are given during the iii;=L f 

session ; on Niitural Pliilosophy, the last ses.siou of J 

Junior and the lirst of Senior ; on Mineralogy and j 

Geology, the second session; on Political Kccnon\y | 

and Jurisprudence, the second session ; on Anatomy ■, 

and Physiology, during both sessions; Rhetoric and t 

Belles Lettres, both the first and second sessions. | 

The moans of iubt ruction in Chemistry have been | 

enlarged. The apparatus is now extensive and in t 

good order, and ]no vision is made for a full course : 

of lectures and experiments in that department i 

For admission into the Freshmen Class, the apph 
cant is examined in Arithmetic, English Gramnun, 
and Geography; Latin Grammar, (Gould's Adams',) 
Historia "Gruji/a or Jacob's Latin Header, Ce jar's 
Commeniaries, Cicero's Select Orations, Ovid's M^i- t 
amorphoses (expurgated,) Sallust, Virgil, and the j 
first part of Mair's Introduction to Latin Syn'cx; » 
Greek Grammar, Greek Testament, Graica Minora 
(in part ;) Algebra through Simple Equations. 

For admission to advanced standing, the apjjiicant 
must sustain examination in the studies completed by y 
the clah.5 he jiroposes to enter. j 

TesiuuGuial.i oi good character are in all cases re- • 
quired. j 

The earliest age at which it is advisable iVir a .^m- { 
tlent to enter the Frcjlimeu Class, is fourteen years, i 



Commericemciit is on the thiixl Wednesday of Sep- 

The vacation after coinaiencement is six weeks. 
The fust session commences at the close of that va- 
cation, and conthiiiestAventy weeks. The spring va- 
cation is six weeks. The second session is twenty 
weeks, and closes on ihe ihird Wednesday of Seji- 

Tlie two Literary Societies of the College hold a 
public exhibition at the close of the first session. The 
annual :xliibition of the Junior Class is on the even- 
ing preceding connnencemcnt. 

The Literary Societies liave two halls in the fourth 
story of the main College building, which are spaciou.s 
and elegantly furnished. Each Society has also an 
extensive and valuable library. 

The Brainerd Ev^aui^elical Society has a spacious 
hall a])propriated to its papers and library. This So- 
ciety holds its anniversary, and has a public address, 
at the close of ihc wiiii .t scs-sion. 


All the classes are examined in the middle and at 
the close of the first session, in all the studies of the 
.session. The final examination of the Senior Class 
begins on the fifth Monday before commencement, 
'ilie other classes are examined in the middle and at 
the close of the second session, as in the first. 

The examinations are jHiblic, and are conducted: 
before a committee of the Board of Trustees. 


The price ot boarding in the Co.ege refectory is &1 
87| per wuek, which for forty weeks is iS: G CO 

Tuition, room-roit, use of hbrary and appa- 

ratusj i(. 00 

Fuel, stoves, and tending fires for winter 

session, ^ 7 (iq 

Tor incidentai expcibos, 50 cents each ses- 
sion, J riu 

$\2:i 00 f 

Pupils of the i\h:idel School, who occupy pjoms in | 

the College, pay $15 per session lor tuition and room j 

rent ; tliose wlio do not room in the College, pay i^sio i 

for tuition. Each pupil, not boarding in the College, | 

pays $1,50 in the winter session for fuel for the school I 

room. I 

The liills for i^acli session arc payable half .a d;.: * 

beginning and half at the middle of each session : ex- | 

cept the iVicl bill for the winter session, which is all | 

to be paid in ad\^ance. When ])ayinent is pro.nptly \ 

made according to this rule, a deduction of 124 cenif^ ;' 
per week i,i m:ide from the price of boarding. 

Washing is done in the Steward's departni..=u ai [ 

3Tk cents per dozen pieces. \ 

Students provide their own beds and furnitun;. [ 

Students under the patronage of the Gener.-.l As- I 

sembly'^ Hoard of ICducation, and others who are ; 

preparing for the gospel ministry, and whose cliarac- 

ler and circllmsLaIlCl^s, in the judgment of the Trus- \ 

tees, entitle them to the benefit, have boarding ii., (he ! 

College refectory at .;^1 per week. The 'j^-ust- • -■ sup- * 

ply the balance out of lunds provided fur U-at pur- * 

po.v). j 

Studcni:, wiiu w^n to spend their hours ..[' .l.oi. i 

r..vercise in. manual labor, for their own j-ocuuu.'v' ! 


benefit, can work on the- grounds adjacent to the Col- 
lege, and receive a just compensation for their labor. 


Is under the immediate instruction and government 
«f the Principal, subject to tiie general direction of the 
College Faculty. 
I 'J'lie pupils of ilus school who board in the College, 

ij have rooms in tlic College buildings, and take their 
meals in the refectory. Tliey are required to attend 
public jnayersd;uly HI i!)!' i.'hapel, and public worship 
ill church and ih'i Icctitre in the College on the Sab- 

A select couis;; oL f jigli:,h study is pursued in ihiN 
school, by such as \* to become teachers of coni- 
mon scliools. 

The course of instruction preparatory to admission 
into the College, is also givM.'U to such as desire to jun- 
sue their ]n'eporat(n-y studios luider the direction ol 
the Faculty. 

The Scniinavi.s of Na'/areih and Belhlehem, so 
well and descrvi dly f.ivorably known, have already 
been noticed. IJL-sidt.s these institutions, there an 
several academies in tliese comities of advanced stand- 
ing, exerting a hap])y influence upon the community. 

'J'he i)ublic connnon schmjl system has been ad>»pi- 
ed in every district in Northampton county, in every 
district in Monroe, except in Penn Forest and Pricu 
townships; in Lehigh, the townships of Heidelberg. 
Lowliill, Lynn, Lower Macungie, Upper Saucon and 
Weisenberg : in Sehuylkill county, the townships (jt 
Barry, I'kist Ihauiswig. Lower Mahantango, Upper 
Mahantango, iManheim, Pine Grove, Rush, IJnii)n, 
Wayne, ^Vest Penn acd West Prunswig, have not 
accejited (he t.ysreni. Carbon, a newly orgam/ed 
county, Ik.:, also ndopicil liie system partially, 'i'hi i. 
IS nmcli r'.oHi fu' iiuiifo\fment in the cominun 





Wno visited lit /wlun, &;c. in 17£6; 


At Ton }I)riiishaw Fori Hamilton, &c. &c., and 

WUo visited a nr.iaber of f ^ its in 1768— embracing a ntunber oi 



If Si 






Of the Llusterta— Hum Jane 19 to June 26, 1756. 

1756, June lf)tli. At 11 o^clock in the morning 1 
'camu to Reading. 1 acni an express to Colonel 
Weiser to acquMiiii liuii with my intended journey to 
the northern iiouiier: that I inclined to muster the 
company posted liere, and that I should want some 
men to escort n^e to the next fort. 

Ammunition at Reading, viz : 25 good muskets , 
20 want repairing, il broken ones; 9 cartouch 
boxes, 240 pounds ol' powder, and 600 pounds ot 

At G P. M., Col. Weiser came here. I mustered 
his company lluu is pulled here as a guard to this 
place. The compaviy (;oiisists of 30 men, viz : 2 ser- 
geants ani.1 28 private soldiers ; 2 of them were ab 
sent at Col. VVeisar's 

20. At 2 F. M., 1 set cut from Reading, escortfc'i 
h; Jive men uf d.e lowr oo iiorse back, for the fort ^.i 

'^^^ APPENDIX. ♦ 


North Kill. It is about 19 miles from Reading. Ti f 

road i.s very bad and hilly— thick of wood. T\r^ loi . ! 

is about nino miles to the westward of Schuylkill, and • 

stands in a very ihiek wood, on a small rising ground f 

half a mile from tlie Middle North Kill creek. It is I 

intended for a squar.; of about 32 feet each way— at | 

each corner is a half bastion of very little service to | 

flank the cunains— the stockades are badly fixed in | 

tlie ground, and o])en in many ])laces. Within l> a | 

very bad log for the people; it has iiu eiiim- | 

ney, and can aiford but little shelter in bad weather. | 

When I came here, die Sergeant, who is commaialor. | 

was absent asid gone to the next plantation h,.![ a f 

mile ofl; but sopm came when he had intelligen.'e I | 

was there, lie uAd me he had fourteen men j.r.ted I 

with him, all dctacbed from Captain Morgan's com- | 

pany at Fort Lebanon, fiv^e of them were absei.t by f 
his leave, viz: Twu ho had let go to Heading fJr 

three days; one he had let go to his own hou.vr; le.n . 

miles ofi; and two men this afternoon a low miles ' 

from the fort on their own bushiess. There wen: but : 

eight men and the S:;rgeant on duty. I am of opin- ' 

ion there ouglit lo be a commissioned officer liere, as I 

the Sergeant does not do his duty, nor are the men | 

under proper conmiand for the want of a superior { 

officer. I 

The woods are not cleared for the space of forty ( 

yards from the fort. I gave orders to cut all the [yv-i, f 

down foi two hundred yards. I inquired why ihere I 

was so Uule powdt^r and ball here. The S.ngeant ? 

told me, he had repeatedly requested more of (.^upfain \ 

Morgan, but to no purpose. The provisioi,s heru • 

-xrr- floor and nun foe four weeks. Mr, Sc-b, a ^ 

AI'PEjnDIX. 411 

heading, .sends the otilceis mon<2y to purchase meat 
as they want it. 

Provincial anus, &c. Ihue are eight good mus- 
kets, i'owv rounds ci" po\\;dcr and led per man, fil'teen 
blankets and three axes, 

21. At eight ii'clock Captain Busse, from fort 
Henry, came iieio ivith eight men on horse back. 
He expected to meet Cel. Welser liere, but Col. 
Weisei vruje him that otlict business prevented him, 
and desired Captain Husso i^> proceed with me, and 
return him an account how he found the forts, with 
the quantity of ;.iiiiiiii!.ilioa and stores in each, of 
winch I was very glad, as the escort on horse back 
would expedite our journt-y very much, and be mucli 
saler. Accordingly we set out for fort Lebanon. All 
the way from North Ivill to Lebanon is an exceed- 
ingly bad road, very stony and mountainous. About 
six miles li\>m Norih Kili, wc crossed the North 
mountain, where wc met Captain Morgan's Lieu- 
tenant with ten men, rangiiig the woods between the 
mountain and Fort Lebanon. We passed by two 
plantations. The rest ol the country is chielly bar- 
ren hills. At noon we came to Fort Lebanon, which 
is situated on a plane j on one side is a plantation, on 
the other a barren, pretty clear of woods all round, 
only a few trees about filty yards from the fort, which 
I desired might be cut down. 

The fort is a square of about one hundred feet, 
well stockaded with good bastions, on one side of 
which IS a good wall piece. Within is a good guard 
house for tbe people, and two other large houses 
built by (he country people, who have taken a refugt 
he.. L'. uil r,\x families. Tho fort is a little toomucJ' 


crowded ; on that account I acquainted Captain Alui . 
gan that the Sergeant at North Kill did not do lii^ 
duty, 9nd I bclievu it would be for the good of t!ic 
service, to have a commanding officer there. On 
whicli he ordered Ids Lieutenant, with two men, lo 
go and take post there, and sent with hinr (our 
pounds of powder and ten pounds of lead. 

iiy Captain J.Iurgan's Journal, it appears li.; .••ends 
a party cf ten n.en to range the woods four or five 
times a \reek, and guard tlie inhabitants at dvii 
labor. At 1 P. M., I mubteved the people, aiid rx- 
amined die icnifuMtesof enlistment, which appear jii 
the muster roll. After which I ordered the men {o 
fire at a mark ; fjin un or eighteen hit within two 
of the centre at the distance of eighty yards. 

Provisions here are dour and rum for a iihintli. 
The commissary sent them money to purchase -jieit 
as they want ii. 

Provincial arms and ammimition : Twenlv-ri-iji 
good muskets, ten Avant repairing, nine rounds of 
powder and lead, four pounds of powder, tv/en'.y 
four pounds oi k;ad, thirty cartouch boxes, fi;r!y 
blankets, one axe and one wall piece. 

At half-past direc P. JNl., we set out with the ionn^r 
escort, and two of Captain Morgan's company, for il-j 
fort above AUemengel, commanded by Lieuiennni 
Ingle — at half-past seven we got there; it is aboui 
iiineteen miles N. E. from fort Lebanon; the read is :: 1 
narrow ]<i\th, very li illy and swampy—about half ' .' ■ y i 
wo ce.rue dirough a very tiiick and dangerea;; |>.ne i 
swamp. Very few plantations on this road ; nio2: vi i 
them descried^ and the liouses buxnt down. Off- | 
Lidf u 'nilu weilwi;! d of this fort is a good phuauJi g:; ; ^ 


Al'l'KXDIX. 411 

the people return lo lUa f,),i every night. Tiiis fort 
stands ubout oiiu mile \)<,ni tlie North mountains; 
only two plaiit;'.;i'))is ncnr n. 

^i'liLs loit is a .sipuDtj ai-joul 40 feet — very badly 
stockaded, with tv/a log huuses at opposite corners 
for locations — all r.'iy unlit for defence. The stock- 
ades Uic very upj.i in many places. It stands on the 
bankof acieekj the v/oods clear for 120 yards. The 
Lieutenlain ranges iovvards Fort Lebanon and Fort 
Allen, abnuL I' liiiuv :. week. Much thunder, 
lightning and ram all nighi. 

Provincial stores ; u.s g >od muskets, 8 want re- 
pairing, 16 cartoudi boxes. « pounds of powder, 24 
pounds of lead, and 12 rounds for 3G men, 'Jti 
blankets, 1 axe, 1 adz. 2 planes, 1 hammer, 2 shovels, 
9 small tin ketiles. 

At 8 A. M., we set out lor Fort Allen, at Gnadeu 
Ilulton. It is about ilfteeu miles from Allemengel, 
The first seven miles oi this road is very hilly, barren 
and swampy — no plantations — the other part of the 
road is for the most part through a rich valley, chiefly 
meadow ground — several settlements, but all the 
houses burnt and deserted. At noon we came to the 
fort. For the last lialf hour before we came there, 
we had a very severe gust of thunder, lightning, and 
a prodigiously heavy rain. 

This stands on the river Leahy (Lehigh,) in this 
pass through very high hills, is, in my opinion, a 
very important place, and ]uay be of great service, if 
the olhcer days his duty. It is very well stockaded 
with four good bastions. On one is a swivel gun. 
The works are clear ail Vv und it for a considerable 
wac and is very defensible Within are three good 


barracks and a guard room. I found here 15 n\Lh 
without any officer or commander. They told rnc I, 
Lieutenant Jacob Mies and two men from the ibvl [ 
were gone, this morning, with two gentlemen from | 
Beihlehem, and lour Indians, 15 miles up the country jt' 
to bring down some friendly Indians ; and i\vd (Kc f 
Sergeant w-ith three men were gone to Ca])t. Fouik',. | 
late cominaiijer liore, to receive the pay that is tluQ |. 
them; and ore was gone to Bethlehem with die f 
Scigeant'.s watch h< iiiund, which was tlie rca;;Cn I |' 
could not nmslt r those present, nor have anyatvo'iu! 
of the provisions, but saw a large quantity of bjof 
very badly euro.]. 

I was iniornu d that a captain with a new c>anpci- 
ny was expected thne in a day or two to take ])o^l 
at this fort. Being very uncertain when the J;ifu- 
tenant would return, or the new company rjmw, 1 
resolved lo prucoed to Lehigh Gap, where a tl. r i;i. 
mcnt of a company was posted. 

Provincial .sturus ; 27 muskets, 50 cartouch bow-, 
10 pounds of jxnvdcr, 60 pounds of lead, 20 liuitui' 
filled for 25 men, 1!) axes, 4 broad axes, 26 hiitcheh, 
43 tomahawks, 3 iron w^edges and 1 swivel gim. 

At 4 P. M. set out — at 6 came to Lehigli (i-\\\ 
where I lound a Sergeant and eight men statio.,iid ai | 
a farm house, v/ith a small stockade around it. From * 
Fort Allen iiercj the road is very hilly and sw:in)py. I 
There is oidy one. plantation about a mile fnnn th'.> I 
gap. 1 ibiind (1)0 jx.'ople here, were a detauhmeiii } 
from Captain Wenihcrolt's company — he is staiiiv/,cj j- 
uJi the otlier bide ilie gap, 3 miles from this wiih 12 I 
men Th'e rest of Ids company is at Uepue'o. and ^^ 
another gap 15 ruIl's from this. 1 despait.'licd a t 


ArPENUix. 415 

messenger to Capr. Weatherolt, desiring him to come 
here in the morning with the men under his command, 
to be mustered. The people stationed here, and on 
tire other side of tl?.e gap, 1 tliink, may be of great 
service, as it is a good road tlu'ough the mountain, 
and very steep and higli oii eacli side, so may, in a 
great measure, prevent any Indians to pass through 
undiscovorod, if ti^ey keep a good guard. Here the 
river Leliigh j)asses tlirough tlie mountain, and is a 
very rapid stroaii!, 

At 7 in the morning, I mustered the men liere. 
The Sergeant informed nie ihat'Captain Weatherolt 
was gone 12 mihis from tliis, imd he believed on his 
way 10 Philadelphia for iheir pay, which was the 
reason the people did not come here, and I finding 
this company so nmcli disporsed at dilferent stations, 
in smaU parties, 1 could not regularly muster them; 
tlicrel'ore at 9 A. M. I set out for Fort Norris. Tiie 
road for the iiis[ j,ij: luilcs is a good wagon road, 
along the loot uf the North mountain; the other 
seven miles very hilly and ^tony. Passed three plan- 
tations on thi.'j lOad — all deserted and the houses 
burnt down. 

At 11 A. M. I came to f'ort Norris; found here a 
Sergeant commanding Willi 21 men. Tiie Sergeaia 
told me that the (nisigu with 12 men was gone out to 
range the woods towaids Fort Allen — the captain 
was at Philadelphia ..ince ihe lG(h, for the people's 
pay ; and the oiher Sergeaiit was absent at Easton,on 
'furlough since th ; 20ih. 

This fori stands in a valley nndway between the 
North Uiountaiu and ihe Tnsearora, 6 miles fron:, i.n the hii-,'i road tov/ards tlie Minnesinks ; it is 


a square, about SO feet each way, with foui' half 
bastions^ all very completely stockaded, finished and 
defensible. The woods are clear 400 yards roui.d it. 
On the bastions are two swivel guns mounted. ^Vith- 

in is a gocd barrack, guard room, kitchen— ais.) a ^ 

good well. I 

Provincial stores : 1 3 good muskets, 3 burstcl c-nco, * 

16 very bad, 32 cartouch boxes, 100 pounds el \m)\v- j 

dcr, 300 pounds ol' lead, 112 blankets, 39 ;;;\c.s, 3 ] 

broad axes, 80 loiuahawks, six shovels, 2 giubbiiig i 

hoes, 5 s])ades, 5 drawing knives, 9 chisels, 3 adzci;, 5 

3 hand, '2 augers and two splitting knivis. | 

At 1 P. M. ihc ensign with 12 men returned Jro;u | 

ranging; they had ^een nothing of any India! 'S. i -i 

mustered the whole., 31 innumlier, stout, able bo'lied i 

men. The tn.vign has no certificate of enli; (!(ii;;il i 

The arms loaded and clean; the cartouch boxe.s filled i 

with 12 rounds per inau. | 

Provisions. A large quantity of beef very ill craed, j 

standing tubs; a (.|Uantity of biscuit and flour, and I 

about 50 gallons ol' rum. i 

At. 2 P. M Oaptain Weatherolt came her(> lo us, ] 

he had been on his way to ]*liiladelphia ; but the jug:: 1 

senger I sent last laglit overtook him 8 miles I'rom his 1 
station. He brought me his muster roll of his \^iioli: 

couipany, and certificates of enlistments, and proposed | 

to go Avilh me to Samuel Depue's where his lieulen- j 

ant and 2(5 men are stationed, to see theiu mu , • 

I accepted of his company. ' 

^Vt 3 P. 1\1. we .^et forth from Fort Norris on our j 

way to Fort Ilaiiiillon. At G P. INI. we ci-awv. to \ 

Philip Bosan's farm, 12 miles from Fort NoiriD; hiie J 

we staid ail niLdu. In our wav to this h u\>\ v.*: f 



0:- •:. 

found theroad very iiiily, thj country barren— passed 
by three plantations ; all deserted and the housesburnt 
down. In Bosart's house are six taniilies from other 

24th. At 4 A. M. set out tVom Bosart's ; at G came 
to Fort Hamilton ; dboui 7 miles from Jiosart's — a 
good wagon road, and tlio land better than any 1 had 
seen on the noidi side of th.: mountain. 

Fort llariultoa stands in a corn field, by a farm 
house, hi a plain and clear country ; it is a square with 
four half bastions, all Vvry id contrived and furnisli- 
ed ; the stockades an; si.v inches open in many ])laces 
and not firm in die ground, and may be easily pulled 
down. Before tlie gaio are some stockades driven 
into the ground to cover it, whicli I think miglit be a 
great shelter to an enemy. I therefore order to pull 
them down. I also ordt;r to fill up the other stock- 
ades where they were- ^ycv. 

I found liere a liemenaiit and eight men, seven 
were gone to Easton with a prisoner, a deserter from 
General Shirley's regiment. 

Provincial stores— one wall piece, 14 good muskets, 
4 want repairing, 16 cartonch boxes filled with i)ow- 
der and lead, 38 pounds of powder, 13 pounds of lead, 
10 axes, one broad axe, 2fi tomahawks, 28 blankets, 
3 drawing knives, 3 splitting knives, 2 adzes, 2 saws 
and one brass kettle. 

At 8 A. M. set ouifrom Fort Hamilton for Samuel 
Depue's, where Captain W.jatherolt's lieutenant and 
26 men are slalioi.ed. When I came there his mus 
ter roll was not loady. I iherefore proceeded to \\u 
next fort; iun mdes higher \i[) tlie river (Delaware)— 
at i J . AJ. I came dicre. Ii is u good plainroad iVon; 
A 2 


Dupue's — tliero are many plantations this way; but 

all deserted and tlie houses chieliy burnt. \ 

Found at ihio fort (Hyndshaw) lieutenant Hynd- | 
shaw wiiti iio men. He told me that the captain widi 

five men had cioiie up the river yesterday, ana did i, 

not expe'Jl him back tliese two days. They had been | 

informed from tlie Jerseys that six Indians liad been ^ 

seen and fired at the night before, IS miles iI|J tlie f 

rive;-. J 

This i'>ri JL-: a soLiare about 70 feet each way., very f 

lightly Stockaded. 1 gave some directions to ah^yr ihe |^ 

bastions, Vvhieli at r-resent are of very little nsu. It j 

is clear all round lor 300 yards — the fort stahds on | 

the banks of a kirge creek, and about one-fourdi of a | 

mile fi'om the river Delaware. I think it is a very | 

important place for die defence of this frontier. ^ 

At 3 P. JNI. I mustered the people, and find ihciu | 

agreoabi<; lo iln. Ui;iitenant*s roll regularly enli.M:;i. f; 

Finding hero yuch a small quantity of powdi r and | 

lead, and Uus fmt the most distant frontier, I wrote a l 

letter to Capt. Orndt, at Fort Norris, where there is | 

a large quaniity, dcoiring he woidd deliver to tlii.s furt i 

thnty pounds of powder, and ninety pounds of lead ; | 

and I promised that lie should have proper orders I 

from his superi^n' officers for so doing, in the mean |; 

time my letter should be his security •, in wliicli 1 hope ! 

I have not done amiss, as I thought it very neceiiary | 

for the gno'.l of tlic ; ervice. ^ 

Provincial 3ioiv;.i--ll good muskets, \4 rouiids of ^ 

powder and lead for 30 men, 4 pounds of powder | 

and 30 blankets. j 

Ai 7 P.M. came to Samuel Depue's ; nu'.'^teied | 

that p.ari oi Captain Weatherolt's company rituiioiied \ 


liere a Lioulonaut a twonty-six men, all regularly en- 
listed for six months^ as aic the rest of his company. 
Around Depue's house is a large but very slight and 
ill-contrived storkcidc, Vviih a swivel gun mounted on 
each corner. 

Mr. Depue was iu>t at home. His son, with a sou 
of Broadhead'.j, l-:ocping house. They expressed 
themselves as if they lL*night the Province was 
obliged to tlicm, fur allcwi.ig this party to be in their 
house, also made uio of v.'iy arrogant expressions of 
the commissioners, and the people of Philadelphia in 
general. They icemto make a mere merchandize of 
the people stationed here, selluig rum at eight pence 
per gill. 

Provincial stores — 13 good muskets, 3 cartouch 
boxes, 13 pounds of powder, and 22 pounds of lead. 

25. At 5 A. M. set out from Depue 's for the 
Wuid r.a]), wlu:i\j paa oi ^VeathL■rolt's company is 
stationed. Stoj^ped at Bosart's plantation to find our 
horses. I Avas iufurnicd this morning, that two miles 
from the house in the woods, they found the body of 
Peter Hess, who had been murdered and scalped 
about the nronih of February. 

At 1 1 A. M. came to the Wind Gap, when I found 
Captain ^Veatherolt'o ensign, who is stationed here 
with seven men, at a farm house — four only were 
present ; one was gone to Bethlehem with a letter 
from the Jerseys, on Indian atl'airs ; one was on a 
farm house on duty ; and one absent on furlough from 
the 15lh to 22d, but had not yet returned. I told the 
otlicer hj ought Uj estecui him a deserter. 

I found iieve ;jix Proviiicu muskets, all good, an^i 
six r ui,Lls of pov.''dci' and load for each man. 1 told 

420 '.ilENDIX. 

Cay)taiii Wcaihcroh to send a supply as sooji as pus- 

siLle. i 

Ai 3 P, M. .v^i out Irom Wind Gap, for Easloii. | 

About half post by Nazareth iriill, around which xS a '•> 

large but slight stockade, about 400 feet one way, ii\id ^ 

250 feet tlio oiher, v/ifh log houses at the corners Tur \ 

bastions. | 

At u, I eanic u) E(l^lun — found here ensign En-. lu, j 

o( Captain En^-lee's cornijany, witii 24 men. He lohi \ 

me tlie Captr.ji'. '•v<i-^ g'^ue to J^lnladelphia I'or iI.l' . 

company's pay, and one man absent, &iek at Hethic - { 

lieni. { 

26'. At 9 A. "\1. iinustered the company :5latK.i,cd \ 

here; found theui shjui able bodied ]ne]i ; their aj in.-; 

in good ordvr. They iired at a mark — 16" out oi :«1 \ 

hit Within 9 mches of ihe centre, at SO yards distanct;. ^ 

The ensign liad uo ceniiicate of enlistments, but '. !d J 

me that ('<>1. (•lapiiam had carried them with Iiul. ; 

' i 

Provincial stu.-js — 25 good nniskcts, 25 cartuui i> I 

boxes, with 11 runnds in each, and 25 blankets. | 

In Major Parson's ( harge for the use of the inh;u i- ( 

tants ; 37 nni^l:eis, a parcel of broken musu<.'tr:, i 

24 cartoucli boxes, 12 pair ot' shoes, 56 pound-.- of ; 

powder, 100 povuds el' lead, 14 blankets, 10 axes. 1 t 

broadaxe, and 6 haichcts, j 

27. At Ik'thleliem f 


Co/n. (ren. of the Mn itr \ 




At Fort Hyndshaw and FcaX i-i.-i.^hon, in the Pennsylvania Forces, froHi 
Dectmb^n; 1, 1755, to July 21, 1757. 

1756, December 1. I v/ent out to patrol my oldest 
Sergeant in tlu; con^it uiy. to find out if there were 
any Indians on die cl.isi, but none were discovered. 
We returned sale to the fort. 

2. After the guard was relieved, we employed 
ourselves in huuling firev^ood, and key the garrison 

4 and 5. Paid sovn..' of die men— also for some pro- 

6. Kept Iho men at their posts about the garrison. 

7. I went on scout v/ith two men, and madi' 
no discovery— returned ndih at night, finding all in 
good order. 

8 and 9. The n^en divided— one part standing sen- 
try, while; the other part hauled firewood to the fojt. 

10. I went on scout wiUi one of my men — mauc 
no discovGiy ; returned to ilie fort. 

1 1 My l.ieutenant \/cut on his journey to Phil'^ 

[21 .'.PPENDIX. 

dclplna, in onki to get pay for my men, for tliree 
mouths. :\hon\ elevou o'clock,! went on scout u'Uli 
SIX UiCU : in going hMu- miles made no diacovery •, lo- 
turned to ihe iurl at dark. 

Ii bi'iug Sabbath and rainy, we all staid in 


1 J. Al'le; d;u guard was relieved, I went on sco^a ) 

wuh six mci- and ow: neighbor, and travelled about ,^ 

cishl nnbs IVuni ihc fort, made no discovery; re- \ 

lurned to the g;ini^-on. ^ , 

14. Aftci the guard was relieved, I Avent with | 
four men on ,.ca.a, and sent two men with buob | 
S^vartwood, to guard him, to take some of his grain | 
where it might be tliiestied. | 

15. I v/ent wall iive men on scout, and the .said \ 
Swartwood weM to his place, which is ;a>out f 
four miles fiom the fort, and at night when I returned 
home told me, d, iL before the men with hmi can. to | 
tlie field, they ^=.1 w one small stack of rye, set out n. .. . 
large shock of thirty sheaves on a side, and piuces j 
left in the middle to shoot out at, anxl a bee-hn e sci | 

on the top. \ 

16. After tlie guard was relieved,!, with six men, i 
went to the place, and ordered two men with wagons j 
to come after .soaie time, when ! had surrounded (be | 
field, then to come and take their loads, which vv-is | 
done 5 but no di^;covcry Avas made. !, and two men \ 
went through die woods, and the rest guarded the | 
wagons. So all returned safe to the fort. j 

17. It ,snowed. I made a pair of moccasons fur j 

myself I 

18 After but guurd was relieved, ! went out on 

^;ooui widi n:i mcii,. and travelled about si:, 'lilies ; 


from the fort, and ioiuid .snow in may places half-leg 
deep; but I discovered no enemy ; all returned safe to 
the fort. 

19. It being tlie Sabbaih, one of the corporals 
went out with four men. un scout ; but made no dis- 
covery ; relumed lo the fort. 

20. It suowL-d ;. v.'c staid in the garrison, 

21. The corporal, v/ith men assisthig, hauled fire- 
wood 10 the fort, and 1 went on scout with three 
men; foimd ihc snow about knee deep; but wem 
four miles; made no discovery; returned to the fort 
after darlc. 

22. After the guard was relieved, we siiovelcd 
away the snow around tiie fort, in order to go to 
work to build a block house, 

23. We ah kept tiie furt. 

24. The snow renderiiig, to the end of the month, 
luifit for scouting, wc . learcd tlie parading place, and 
kept the men lo theii UAcrcises twice a day, in which 
time I paid oiF the men. 

January 1, 1757. Kept the fort and exercised the 

2.' Sabbath day ; kept the fort. 

3. Stormy weatiier 

4 and -5. Kept the fort. 

(). Hauled firewood lor the fort. 

7. Exercised the men twice. 

8. Took the advantage of the snow and hauled 

9. Sabbath day; ke]/i the tort. 

10. I vv'cni on scout with six men, and niglu 
conung on ul; w<; lodged at Daniel Shoemaker's. 

1 1. llcturned home to ihe fort. 


13, 14 and 15. In the fort. Alter the guard was re- 
lieved, hauled fire\vood. | 

16. lit the fort. | 

17. I -sent out a scout with five men, bul dis- 
covered nothirjg. i 

18. Relieved the guard; exercised the men. | 

19. I wont on scout with the Lieutenant and six I 
nieii; Ivavclled [\n\u: miles; returned to the fort, dis- j 
cove-ring norhing. | 

20. 1 v.'Liit on scout with two men ; made no dis- 1 
covery; rciurnid to the fort. | 

21. K':ln;vc-.u the guard, and kept the fort. I 

22. I went on scout with one man, about ii \ 
miles i'roni die fon , returned, discovered nothing. t 

23. lieceivcd orders Irom the Hon. Colonel,' d.ncd | 
the 16th instant, thai as soon as the season would ad- I 
nat, to diK^'ipline the men in the English exercise, and ! 
to teach them the hulian method of war, which Mas I 
immediati-ly olLyed. t 

30. Received orders from the Hon. Colonch to f 

enlist men to fill up my company, to consist ol fnty | 

men, including two sergeants, tv/o corporals, :,(al a | 

drummer. I 

Februa/'i/ -1, I '..'ent to Major William. Pai-.ons, \ 

informing hini of the necessity we were in for the | 

v)ant of ammunition. \ 

(3. Received an answer, and ninety-two puui.ds * 

of lead. i 

7. Kept men lo their exercise as usual. \ 

h. Exercise ; bad weatlier, \ 

11. After the guard was relieved, hatilett /Oi/d \ 

. 'Col. Cui.raci We;se;. \ 



|| APPENDIX. 427 

12. Snow ; unfit for exercise. 

14. Kept die men to their exercise. 

16. Hauled firewood for the fort. 

17, Tiie men exercised. twice. 
T' 20. Sunday; kept die fori. 

21. Went on scout wilh four men; but finding it 
BO bad travelling, and making no discovery, we 
turned back to die Ibrl. 

24. After the guard was reUeved, we hauled fire- 
J ' 25. Relieved ihc guard ; exercised the men. 

March 1. Called the men to exercise at eight 
o'clock, andrelieveJ the gaard. 
\ 4. After the guard was releived, I ordered the 

old guard to haul firewood. 

6. Relieved the guarJ at eiglit in the morning. 

7. After die guard was relieved,! went on scout 
widitenmen; Wfut alnujl mx miles; made no dis- 
covery ; returned lo the iort. 

9. Exercised die men twice. 

10. Relieved the guard, and exercised the men 
twice as usual. 

11. After the guard had been relieved, and die 
exercise had been over, I ordered the old guard to 
liatd firewood. 

12. After the guard had been relieved, I went on 
scout with six men, travelled about six miles ; made 
no discovery; returned s;ifc; to the fort. 

1 3. Sunday ; rcli-ved die guard and kept the gar- 

14. After the guard had been relieved, I went on 
scout widi eight men ; discovered uothhig ; returned 

\ todu. fon. 



It). AU:a- ihc giuiid had been relieved, I oid',n:'J 
the old guard to procure lire wood. 

17. Relieved tlie guard and disciplined the i;n\i 

16. After th« guard had been relieved, I v/eiu I 

with five luei: ou scout, but discovered nothing : le- | 

turned lo ihe foil. I 

ly. Aucr the guard liad been relieved, the MiCn i 

v.-ero eiiipioyai in hauling wood. ^ 

,J0. Subbiilh day; relieved the guard at ughi ! 

o'clock in the inornuig; kept tlie garrison. | 

^1. I A\'ent on my journey to Easton, in ord-r lu j 

attend court, leaving rhe charge of tlie company witli I 

the Lieuienlant. Jking obliged to tarry, by rL a on \ 

of the WLather, I att'.aidcd the whole terin.^ 'i 

28. I returned home sate to tlie fort, hnding n;v ' 

men in health, axid all things in good order. j 

;29. Relieved tlie guard and disciplined the ii;:i. \ 

1)0. RL'lieved die guard ; hauled Ihewood. \ 

April 1. After tlie guard had been relieved, 1 | 

■went on .scout with four men ; went about foi.i I 

miles ; made no discovery ; returned to the fort. ; 

'-2. Rclicv-ed die guard and disciplined the tner.. \ 

3. Sabbath; roiiin'ed the guard, and ke{n the ; 
fort. I 

4. Disciplined the men. ! 

5. Relieved the guard and hauled firewood. i 

6. Disciplined the men. i 

7. Received an order, dated 28di of March, iioin - 
Hon. Colonel Weiser, commanding me irnnit^aiately j 
io send a detachment of sixteen men, with an oillcer, ■ 
to relieve the company stationed at fort IhnnHf.on. \ 

*VaU Eiien Wcii one ut the Justices of Uie Peace cl L'*-:aili j 

ampton count/, i.nd foruiea one of the Cuuri. : 


AfPEA'DIX. 42!) 

8. I took possession of said fort according to 
orders, and ihe company marched otr, leaving the fort 
in my care. 

9. Received a copy of a i'jtter l>om Maj. Parsons, 
sent to ihe comnKaKlei at (urt Hamilton. I being 
there, and no oiher. I ojjcned the same, and found it 
to be a cojjy liojii the sent by Jacob Snyder, 
ensign, being the (hcii commander at fort Norris, 
with wliich I would not content myself, but went oif 
immediately to Eastoii, lo scj the Major. 

10. Then spoke wnL tiic Major at his own house, 
who ordered, thai niy Lieritenant with twenty-live 

i? men'of my comp,.ny, siiould immediately march to 
Heading to the Colouii,' diere to receive further 

11. Returned lo fot llyndshaw, received the 
orighial by the way, ;nid acquainted the Lieutenant 
of the aifair. 

12. Got the men ru.idy fur to march. 

13. Conveyed the .said Lieutenant, with said com- 
pany, as far as fort Hamilton, 

14. The Lietitenani uiarched with said company 
about eight o'clock, iVom fort Hamilton, and I re- 
turned to fort Hynshav/. 

15. Disciplined the luen twice. 
IG. I went to see the JMajor. 

20. Returned home and found all things in good 
order at both i'vivj,. The .s;ime night an express came 
from fort Hamilton lo fo:t Hyndshaw, of a murdt-i 
committed aboui sunset, l,y ihe Indians. 

21. ] wriit to f'vrt llaimlton with seven men,ai'ii 

'Coi-i.iei 0, VveiSii', v.i.'j rtr-med at Reading at the time. 

430 APl'ENDIX. 

ibuiid it to bo one Ciiiilmman, a lad of about sevoii- 
t-ceii years of age, killed and bcalped by the ludcms; 
Avhoni I toolc up and burried, and returned to i'o/t 
Hyndshaw A'/ilh my men all safe. 

22. Disciplined tlie men twice. 

23. I emi»ioyed lbs men in hauling fivewoud to » 
the fort. 

24. SLibbaihj disciplined the men and kept tiie I 
lort. \ 

25. Sergeant Leonard Den, with two men, u'ent | 
off for snbsistaRcc to Samuel Depue's. Within vhout | 
two miles cf said Depue's, Sergeant Den was, f 
the two men returned, and informed me of it ; where- \ 
upon the drummer an alarm, and the neiglibors f 
all gathered in 10 the fort. Mys-eif with seven men ) 
went immediately olf and found him scalped, and eu- j 
tirely stripjjped, and shamefully cut, so much so il .it | 
liis bowelb weri) spread on the ground. I sei.t olf » 
three men to Dopue's for a wagon, wliile I with the f 
three kept guard. They liaving come, we curried f 
him to Dtjpue's, where we kept guard that nigbl, i 

26. W'c buried liim in a christian manner, and re- | 
turned to fort | 

27. DiscipUiicd tlie men; increased our sentinels | 
as far as our weak circumstances would allow. \ 

28. Disciplined the men ; giving them such can- ' 
tions as I thought riecessary. ♦ 

29 and 30. Guarded the neighbors in their i'eces- j 

sary business, with all that could possibly le;,\'-o tlie { 

fort. j 

3% I. Kept the fort. i 

ij. Ah.'.'i tlie niuii hud been di.scipUued al ciiht i 


APPENIilX. 431 

o'clock ill the morning, firas/ood was hauled to the 

3. Disciplined the men at eight o'clock; then I 
went on scorn wiih live men ; went abom five miles ; 

f discovered nothing : returned safe, 

4. After having disciplijied the men at eight 
o'clock, I went on scout with five men about six 
miles; discovered nothing; oil returned safe to the 

5. About eight o^clock m the morning, news came 
to me that an Indian had been seen about tluee- 
fourths of a mile from ihu fort. I went out immedi- 
ately in pursuit of liini. ^vuh eight men and one 
neighbor ; found it true 1)y discovering iiis tracks, but 
we could not come up \\ illi him — the men from the 
fort saw the Indian running ironi us at a considerable 
distance ; and thby could, at the same time, see some 
of my company, lis the ; -'w 1 left to keep the fort al'- 
firmed to me, ai my r'lurn; but I seeing nothing of 
him, returned with iht; men to the fort. The same 
day one man came from a field where they guarded 
a neighbor in his business, saw three Indians coming 
down a mountain near said field. I immediately 
went out with said man, and two others, in pursuit 
of them ; but not thinking it proper to go far from 
the fort, it being very weak-handed, stood on guard 
on said mountain, while one went to alarm the guard 
that was in the field, and then returned home to the 
fort ; discovered notlnng. 

6. At eight o'clock disciplined the men, after 
whicli soiiie of my men who had observed the niglu 
before, as they v/ere on sentry, that the dogs kept ai. 

j' uiiuvial balking and rutiihng to a particular plact^ 


went to sec wlial tl\o occasion should be, and iV.iuiti 
that an Indian had siood behind a tree about tweiiiy- 
iive yard.s iVoni the foi't. I went to see, and i'onnd it 
true ; his tracks being visible enough to be 
In the afiornoon 1 v/ont on scout with four men and 
aneighbur^ Ijut ina:!-; no discovery — returned sail; to 
the fort. 

7. Tiiii men v>/erc called to their exercise at dit 
usual hour; after which, I went with four men lo a 
snhthshop, •\^/lierc av(, made an instrument to iA:c a ^ 
bullet out of my horse, who was shot when Sergeant | 
Den was killed ; all returned safe to the fort. 1 

S. Sunday ; assisted some of the neighbors ■.vjtl, | 
their goods and families to the fort. , 

9. Disi'iplincd th(Mnen ; after which we gu;udcd i 
two of the neighbors ni their^necessary business wjih } 
what men could be spared ; and continued the saivif- 
t.) the 

15. Sunday , we all kept the fort. 

IG. Though weak-handed, I went on scout ^^Mtl; f 
four men, and travelled about four miles; made no * 
discoveri'-^ : rcuu-ned safe to the fort. I 

17. Disciphned ihe men at eight o'clock ju [he 
morning ; ihen guarded the neighbors with all I coiild 
spare from the fori. 

18. Exercised the men twice, and all kepi [1il- 
fort. . 

19. A fier exercisiiig the men, guarded the neigh- 
bors with all that could be spared from tlie Ion, ; 

2\j. The corjiorai with three men, went .nn on « 

scoui, by njy order, travelled about three jjiiles : i 

made no discovery, aiid returned to the fort. t 

'21. At lour o-clojkj afternoon, received a leuer I 

Ai'PENrix. 433 

from Captain Busse, lo send a corporal with five 
men to nieot hini at least on the 22d day, to guard 
him to fort Allen. The men I despatched in half an 

22. Sunday; we fev/ who remained, all kept the 

23. About ten o'clock in the morning, I received 
a letter from Major ParsonSj in which he desired me 

I to come to Easton, to receive my pay, with the pay 
of my men. I baving ihen "hut ninetcea menleft me 
to keep the fort^ I toolc the case, together with my 
men, into consideration, who all begged of me, jiot 
to leave the fort; whereupon 1 wrote to the Major, 
and begged him to consider our circumstances, and 
to excuse me until the men returned. 

24. Disciplined the nien at eight in the morning ; 
all kept the fort, being v.-eak-handed. 

25. 1 went on scoiu with three men; travelled 
about three miles in Ihe mountains, and discovered 
nothing ; returrieii to the fort. 

26. Disciplined the men ; all stayed about the fort. 

27. Disciplined the men twice. 

28. At two o'clock in the afternoon, the men who 
with Commissary Young from Easton, came to fort 
Allen, returned all in health. 

29. Exercised the men, and all kept the fort, 

30. I went on scout with three men, and travel- 
led about four miles ; discovered nothing; retorned 
t -) the fort. 

31. Disciplined the men at eight o^clock in the 
morning : in the afternoon I went on scout with fom 
men ; went about three miles from the fort ; discover 
ed a-nhing: remmed to the fort. 



June I. The corporal with three men went ou 
scout, and g;vve account of no discovery on th(.ir re 

2. I sent five men to Samuel Depue's for subsist, 
ance in tlic aflenican. The fort was alanned by 
hearing several guns fired. I immediately whh tiiveo 
men, went to find out the reason, and found it to be 
some who unwittingly shot at fowls in the river. Or.v 
men all returned safe about sunset. 

3. I set off '.)\i my journey for Philadelphia about 
four o'clock in the afternoon with six men as a guard, | 
and came all safe lo fort Hamilton, where I fomir] f 
every thujg in good order. | 

4. At eight o'clock in the morning I discipliu'iJ ibe I 
men, and gave strict orders to the Sergeant te keep | 
the men exaot to their duty; and about four o'clock I 
in the afternoon^ I pursued my journey. 

5. 1 l.iy siclr. by llie way within five niiles ci 

6. I Came to Easton and paid my respects to i-fa. 
jor Parsons. 

7. Notwitlisianding my illness, I pursued iny Jk 
journey. | 

8. About four in the afternoon, I came to Pinia- | 
defphia, and delivered the express sent to Miijor Par- | 
son8, just as it w-^as sent to him, to his Honor the Gov- * 
ernor, who desaed me to wait on him at, i\'/elvc \ 
o'clock tliO next day. 1: 

9. I Waited on his Honor as requested Mr. f 
Peter^; said that m.y business should be done il c next ; 
«iay at nine o'clock in the morning. \ 

10. il and 12, I waited, but my business v/:;o uoi I 
4.jnc acceidiiig to exoectation. f , 



f* i 13, About three o'clock in the uflernoon I left the 

• I 14. About t\vi> in tlie atternoou I came to Easton. 

I immediiitely paid my respects to Major Parsons, 
who told nie that I should take a supply of ammuni- 
tion ; whereupon. I provided sacks- and took one hun- 
dred poLuuls of powder, and one hundred pounds of 
f lead, and a hundred flints. 1 received also a copy 

from his Honor the Goveriior's orders, to remove to 
fort Hamilton. I left Eas!.on at about six o'clock ; 
went about five miles. 

15. I camea.ife to fort Hamilton with the ammu- 
nition, about six o'cloclc iu the afternoon, and found 
all things in good order. 
1 16. At eight o'clock m the morning, I disciplined 

the men, and ordered tlieui all to shoot at a mark, ai 
|/ ; arms ends; some of them did exceedingly well ; then 
I taking an escuii of nien with me, I went to fort 

i Hyndshaw, whure we all arrived safe. I immediate- 

ly called the men to arms, and ordered every one to 
get his clothes, and whatever he had, together as 
quick as possible, and bo ready to march to fort 

17 and 18. After discipling the men as usual, we 
made every thing ready for our march. 

19. About nine o'clock in the morning we all 
f marched from fort Hyndshaw with all the baggage, 

and all arrived safe at fort Hamilton, and met with no 
opposition ; found all dii» l^s in good order there, 

20. At eight in the mornmg called the men under 
arm^, and after exercising ihem, ordered out six mei:. 
at Samuel Depue's request, to guard him in taking 
hi. -v*fe to the Doctor at Bethlehem, who tarried all 



night at said Depue's. The same day I weni on 
scout with four men and one neighbor, to bccomo 
acquainted iu the woods, as also to see if any tlif: 
covery could be made of the enemy ; but I maac du 
discovery; returned to the fort. 

21. At eight o'clock exercised die men. At abcLsi 
twelve o'ciocic the guard that accompanied Samiiei 
Depue and his w fc, returned to the fori ; dicr; I 
ordered a guiird of ion men, who went olf under liie 
care of a corporal, with Samuel Depue, with arders 
that after they had' guarded said Depue as far as nccu- 
ful, to carry a message from me to the JNIajor at 
Easton, and to loturn as soon as a despatch coiild l^-i 

22. Exercis.^d tiie men that remained at tin: ion 
as usual. Notl.dng extraordinary happened; '■:. .:!! 
kept the fort. 

23. In dio niuriiing, near eleven o'clock, th ; lo.. 
was alarmed by some of the neighbors who had 
made their esc;'}ie from the enemy ; tive oi thcin in 
company, near Broadhead's house, seeking iheir 
horses, in order to go to mdl, were fired upon L.y ll;t; 
enemy; and said that one of them, John Tidd by 
name, was killed. Whereupon I immediately drai'icd 
nine men, myself making the tenth, in as private .• 
manner as possible, and as privately went back iiv :: 
the mountains^ in order to make a discovery; i^iviiit, 
strict ordi-rs to those left, to fire the wall-piece to alarm 
us if any aUack should be attempted on the lort, in 
my absence. Tiiere were but six ment left, at tii- 
fort ; and coming iu sight of said house, on tiic by;k 
side, r perceived smoke arise near the }iuu.^e . 
^l.'en traVoiiii:ig ubf.i.H a quarter of a mile, in bi L' . ) 


AprK-'xDix, 437 

surround thein, we liecjd tour guns, the first of which 
being much lounder tJiau iKerest, I expected tlie fort 
was attacked ; ^vllereupon we retreated about a 
quarter of a niil.MUid bt-aring no more guns, my 
counsel was to go to ilis iiuuse ; but my pilot, who was 
well acquainicd ^vlth liiC woods, thought it best to 
place oursfdres in ambush, for they would come that 
way, he said; and as we o.scended the mountain in 
order to place our!^.elvfS, v/e saw the house in a blaze, 
and the pilot thought htsi to retire a little nearer be- 
tween the house and die fort, where we might have 
abettcjr view; and m the retreat we heard fourteen 
guns fired as qrdck ii; succession as one could count. 
Then we i)laccd ourselves in two companies, the bet- 
ter to way-lay them; die party that was nearest be- 
tween the house and the fort, and saw twenty-seven 
endeavoring to get l;etu'een them and the fort. I 
with ihe oih. r i-ariy ,^a^v five more coming on the 
other side; we foimd that we were discovered, and 
likely to he surrounded by a vast number, wherefore 
we all retreated, and got between them and tlie fort, 
theii halting, thry came m view; I then cliallenged 
them to come, and find ai them; and although at a 
considerable distance, it >vas generally thought one 
of them was killed, by thcu' squatting and making otf 
Then we all returned to the fort. Immediately upon 
our return, a scout of thirteen men from the Jerseys, 
who were in search of Edward IVhirshall's wife, who 
was killed sometinie ago,came to the fort, being led 
there by sL-eing die smoke ;ind liearhig the guns fired, 
who all seemed forward to after the Indians, when : 
with nine men went out with them j but having gut 
c.jae disiiuice out, diey v/otdd go to the house to se. 

438 ArrENDix. 

whether the said inon Avas killed. Being come, Wi! 

found him killed and scalped ; his body and face were 

cut inhumanly. There were also some cattle lying 

dead on the ground ; Avhereupon they all went oil', 

and left me wiih my small number to take care of the * 

dead man, v/hereupoa we took liini up and retuiiicd | 

to the fort, in which time my men that had gor^; lo i 

Kaston returned to the fort. ! 

24 At about nin!i in the morning, having nuidci f 

ready, I w tut v,'ilh eighteen men and buried the inuHj 

then went i'rom the grave in search and found fit'wM'n 

cattle, horsey aiul hogs dead, beside two tliat weie 

shot, one with five l)iillets, the other with one. and 

yet there are ni;iiiy missing out of which the enemy \ 

took, as we judge, iht; value of two beeves and almost I 

one swine. In tlie evening sent an express by two | 

men to Major Parsons. | 

25. Discipliri'.d the men; nothing exlraordiicuy 
happened 5 all kept the fort; at eight two men tl ;it 
had gone with the express to Easton, returned in 
safety to the fort, 

26. Eaily in ilie morning, I received the Majoi's | 
letter, in which lie blicwed himself very uneasy thai |. 
the men at fort Norris had not joined me, and dcbiicd i 
me to send to fori Norris, to know the reason, and | 
thinking it might be occasioned for want of carrii'gcs I 
to bring tlieir stores, he desired me to endeavor to J 
send a wagon thither. Accordingly as I was en- | 
deavoring all I could, m compliance with the Mii)oj''s' i 
desire, about three o'clock in the al'ternoon, Licui. | 
Hyndshaw came to the fort with ten men from Cap- | 
tain Wsatherold, and six from fort Norris, showing 
his'^order from Colon( 1 Weiser for him to cointr'.-ind 

ATTXY-imx. 439 

fort Hamilton, and I'or me to abide with a small num- 
ber of men at fort ilynJslurvV. 

27. At eight in ttie morning, I called my men un- 
der arms as usual, and drafted eleven, sent them un- 

i der the care of a corporal, with three neighbors in 

search of some cattle, which, they feared, had been 
taken or killed by the enemy, at which time the Lieu- 
tenant undi;rfool: to talk w ith me, and proposed to me 
that if I would let him have six out of the men he 
had froni Captum Wenthcrold, he would go to fort 
Hyndshaw, and stay there until further orders, and 
fs'if leave the six men who ho brought from fort Norris 
< I with me, whicii f could nut comply with, as not being 
I I in ^my power. Having moved to fort Hamilton by 
^ I his Honor the Governor's order, there to be rein- 
forced by a detiiclirncnt liom fort Norris, and there 
to stay till further orders, at which the Li-eutenant 
went otV with a serj -ant and a waiter he brought 
with him from fort .V.iigui.ta, and left the sixteen men 
he had brought under no ones care. The scout that 
had gone out, all returned safe to the fort, finding 
what tliey went in searcli of, all well. 

28. After exercising my men as usual, I sent out 
a scout of twelve menjiaiider the care of the SergeauL 
who travelled about six miles out; all returned safe 
to the fort, having made no discovery. I not being 
fully satisfied oia accourit of tlie men left with me 
whom I could do no less than feed and give them 
their proper allowance o( rum, wherefore I wrote ia 
Major Parsons, laying the circumstances of the mat- 
ter us near iis possible before him, desiring his advice 
what to do ill ihe case., the which I sent olf in .he 
i.v.!iiing by tl.e Seigeant and one of the men. 



2i>. Ai'tcr Gxerci.-,ing the men, I sent oft^ six luen 

luidcr the care of the coporal, with six of those nten 

that the Lieutciiaut left, wlio voluntarily went to assist 

and to guard one Petei- Snyder in taking otf some- cftt- 

tle, which he had loft hack sometime ago in IK Lini; 

from being killed by the enemy in the night, 'i'hc 

Sergeant and his nioii retm-ned safe from Easton A'/iU, } 

a letter from ihe IMajor, in which he advised rue lo 

I'ut the said men on duty, who. were left with nu' ■ 

aad v;hereii:> he cxpeuted Colonel Weiser to b.. ht,rc 

in a few days, to kcop the fort until lie came, lie 

also desired me to endeavor to. hasten Lieut. riDiic 

Engle's march lo fori; Hamilton. 

30. I put the men left with me on duty, li: il.'^ 
afternoon the lueii ;liai guarded Peter Snydur ;dl. 
returned safe to the fort. 

Jult/ I. lu the morning called my men m.i In j 

arms; drafted (lu men, whom I sent under the ar^ i 

of tiio Sergeant, with nine of those men the Lieutci,- | 

ant had lefi at the fort, whom I ordered whither iwid l 

how far they should taivel and scout, the which \hvv \ 

performed, aad returned at about one o'clock- in [ 

the afternoon J iho Lieutenant came past the fort. | 

stopping at Jolm McMichael's, who soon after came I 

to the fort and sh.jvvfcd an order from Colonel Weis.;?: f 

that I should resign the command at fort Ilamiltcui lo ! 

Jiim, upon which I called nry men under arms, and as \ 

1 was sending for the Lieutenant to give up the com- \ 

mand to him, the sentinel hearing music acquaiiued I 
mo Willi It ; I expected it was the Colonel comir.g, 1 
delayed i.iiiil tlie Colonel came, who weighing the 
clrcuinstances of things, still continued me in po.>,^eii- 
sion of said fort. 

'2. At eight iu the iiiouiing, the men were called 
to arms, at which lime the Colonel took a view of the 
men and their avir;s, ond finding all in good order ; 
and after giving orders for tie regulation of the com- 
pany at about twelve o'cloelc, the Colonel with hi.'s 
attendants ntarched off; after which we all kept tlic 

3. All k.ipt (tie fori, it bemg Sunday. 

4. Afu.-r (lisciplitig the i/ieu, a party of twelve men, 
imder the command of a Sergeant, sent to Samuel 
Depue's with a team for necessary siibsistance, all 
retm-ned sate to the fort iu tiie evening, according to 

5. Very rainy wealiier ; unfit for scouting or ex- 
ercise ; all kept the fort. 

G. At eight m the niorniug I called the men to 
exercise and gave ihem i lie necessary counsel how to 
behave according (o the orders given to. me by the 
Colonel; at which time cjm]ilaints were made to me 
by some of the men, that some neighbors that resided 
ill the fort were lousy, by winch means the whole 
garrison would soon be in the same condition. I then 
ordered the corporal witli tluee men to assist him to 
make a search, and he found that one Henry Cuntra- 
man and his family, and one John Hillman and his 
family, were lousy. I oidered them out of the fort 
to their own, it beiag but eight or nine rods, 
from the fort. I then employed the men to clean the 
fort within doov.s and without, which was accordingly 
done. I also sent out a scout of four men, with three 
neighbor.'^, \v\io voluidiirily went, in hopes to find 
.•)Omv I..', tie ihey had missed, and to return the same 

41.:i APPENDIX. 

day, winch they dul m the evening; makmg no dis- 
covery of any ciRiny. 

7. At eiirh.i ni the morning I callevl the men to 
their cxercisesj lliea tlivided the men into two guards, 
each guard to stan;! their day ; those that were not on 
guard to be employed in scouting, guarding iho 
neighbors, and m things necesssary to be dono at.out 
the fort, and g^^ve strict orders to those that wnre un 
guard, that tii^^y sliould not leave their posl, nor gu 
from ion to fort; and that every sentinel shonld be- 
have well on his post. About one o'clock In ilu; 
afternoon, havuig occasion to go to John McMicha-jl's, 
1 saw John Jough corning out of the woo.l:; widi i 
hoop-poles on hit; shoulder, wlio was one of die | 
guard; immediately the corporal came to said lioiisc. | 
I then went honiu, and finding the glass na, out, ( 1 
examined the mader, and found that the seniinol hal \ 
stood hiy projitu' nnio out, and ouglit to be rcli'vcil, J | 
tlierefore callod the next man on the list, and saw^ u; | 
his relief myself The men that were not ou gTuud, | 
I employed in banking the earth against tire stockadeS; \ 
U) prevent the waters settling in and running into die I 
well, what I found to be the occasion that the warer | 
was so bad iii the well. | 

S. At eiglu in the morning I relieved the guard; | 
after which i erxiployed the old guard in cleuuiug ovu j 
the well. ' 

9. .W'hji die guard had been relieved, a vi:(!ut oj • 
ten n'iCii wiUi the Sergeant went with some of \lw, | 
jieighbors to Mr. Eroadhead's place, who uent o;) I 
jiecessary business ; met with no opposili ii : all ri:- \ 
tvuned sale to the fort. | 

]0.. Suriday. A scout of six men went io Samue! 1 

y, ■ ArrENmx. 443 

Depue's on necessary basiiiess ; on tlieir return, they 
heard, they said, a person whistling, whom they sup- 
posed to be an Lidian ; but seeing nothing, all re- 
turned safe to the fr>rt. 

11. After the guard liad been relieved, the Ser- 
geant witii the old guard, te)i men, were sent out on 
scout to the south-cast, and as far as they could return 
by night, which was perf:->nijed. Meeting no oppo- 
sition, not disco veririg any signs of the enemy, all re- 
turned safe to the fort. 

12. At eight in the morning I called the men to 
their exrK.i.sfs, ana relievrd die guard; after which,on 
John McMichael's nnporiuniry, I ordered ten men as 
a guard, where he was cutting his harvest, some dis- 
tance from the Ibrt, witii whum I went myself, and 
placed them to the besc advantage I could, orderii g 
none to fire his gun, excei)t at an enemy; and that 
three guns should be an alarm. They meeting no 
opposition, all returned safe to the fort. 

13. After the men had exercised, and the guard 
had been relieved, it wa^ my intention to guard John 
McMichael as ihe day be lore, but his son-in-law 
coming from a long journey or voyage, detained him 
from labor ; wherefore I then took the old guard, 
consisting of ten men and three neighbors, with whom 
I went on a scout, directing my course south about 
five miles from die fort, from thence west two miles, 
thence, by judgniciit. uorthcrly, so as to come to the 
fort, in wliich way v/e came by the Separatist's meet- 
ing house, where we found the enemy had lodged not 
long since ; they leaving a bod of fern even in tha 
pulpit; but meeting no opposition, all relumed sale 
to Ilrj fort. 


14. Ai sevt;!i in tlie morning I called tlie iulu i. 
their exercises, a^id the guurii being relieved, I dien 
went with Jojiu i^.I JVrichael and ten of my men, as a 
guard, 10 protecl him and the meni he emi)loyed at f 
his harvest j posting live men a small distance iVcm | 
tlie field, which. I thought best to discover the oiieray | 
if any should altonvpt to fall upon tlie people at \v'orl(, | 
the other five i posted in the field. At about three | 
a'dock ji- the ..fteinoon, I went Avith the curporai I 
around the ou,i seii'.inels as privately as we coild, and » 
found them all on their guard. J 

15. It being very rainy, and unfit to be wiU wA[ ' 
arms, v/e all ke[jt ilie fort. 

16. The ram eciitinuing till near twelve c'rl jck ; i, 
1 then went to John McMichael's, and asked hiM 
whether he wo:j ready to go to his harvest; but I sa^v 
no pre])aratior. or inclination for it,whecefore I 
to the fc.rt, inn luliiig to go on scout with u par; of the 
men after dinner, but before we were ready, foi,! met; 
came to the lort, with an order from Colonel Wei^er, 
dated June 14, 1757, the contents were as follows : 
That lie had sent orders to Lieutenant Hyndshaw, le 
attend the treaty widi the ten men of Captain Weath- 
erold's company, and ordered me therefore, withoui 
fail to send ten men from fort ITamilton to ie])UiCG 
those ordered away ; whereupon I immediately draft- 
ed nine men, the corporal making the tenth, v/lioru I 
sent off iC' the lientenant the same day, as soon as 
they could get ready, which was about half ui hour 
after receiving the ColonGl's orders,to the Lieutenant. 
f.o staiion IheUi us hu thought fit ; the which 1 le posted \ 
:it S. Depue's. i 

17. Sunday, seven of my small parly, ;u.d foui ' 


APi'KNDIX. 445 

neighbors went on scont uiider the command of t\te 
Sergeant, who travelled soiiihwesterly about six 
miles, then taking a compass northerly, all returned 
safe, making no discovery of an enemy. 

18. At eight iii the morning, I went with five men 
and guarded John MclVIichael at his harvesting place^ 
placed them seirtinol.s a siriall distance from the field, 
and two in the field, ^"/iih the men at work ; meeting 
no opposition, all returnod to the fort. 

19. Early in ilie moniiug, one Garret Broadhead 
applied to me for a guard, to whom I said, I would 
do for him what lay m my power with the (g\v men 
I had. I tlien ordered live men under the care of the 
Sergeant, and went myself with one man to accom- 

♦ panyme to the fort, and placed the sentinels in the 
best manner I cotdd for sal'ety ; leaving orders with 
the Sergeant, that fuiiig three guns should be an 
alarm; and then retuinod to the fort, and attended 
guard until the second duiitjle sentry. 

20. Guarded IJroadhead's as the day before ; all 
returned safe to die ibii;. 

21. In compliance with the Colonel's orders, early 
in the morning, I sent to Samuel Depue's for tlie 
mare he had in keeping, in order to send my message; 
to the Colonel at Easton, who returned with said 
mare, sate in the evening. 

Also four men guarded John Drake at his harvest, 
with orders to give an account of what happened ; 
which was all v/cll ■, biu as to their behavior after 
their coming tu the fori, 1 .t:hall acquaint the Colonel 
ot tlic iiuater. 

- r^v 




:'"rom Tebruary 16. 1^ 17 .ih. 

March 10th, 1758. 

February 16, I75b. Thursday. This morning 
1 set out from Laujasin u> \ isit the troops from Sus- 
<inehamia to Ddawa:.'; took Captain Hanibnghi 
along with ine. This cvemug got to Barny Hughes' 
where 1 staid all . light— severe weather and bad 


Friday, Mth. Thi.; muiijng Captain Hambright 
was taken very b;'.d, which obliged me to stay here 
all this day. Sent an ex]>ress to Lancaster for Doe- 
tor Thomson— the DocUr arrived here in the after- 

Saturday, I8th. I was el>liged to leave Captain 
Hambright here. I set oil' ilus morning at 9, A. M., 

for Hunter's Toit; a? 2, P. M., arrived at Harris"; 
foimd Lieut. Broadheadund Patterson, and Conrmis- 

sary Galbraitli here, and twenty men. After 3, P. 

M.. I 'i olTfor Hunter'" i Fon ; arrived there at dark ^ 


found Captains Patterson and Davis here with tigluy 
men. Tiia Captaii:is inl'onned me that they had iio; 
above three loads of anniuniition a man — I onlorod 
Mr. Barney Il,|ighc.s to send up here a barrel ol'ijow- 
der and lead unswovalilu ; in the meantime, bonouLiI 
ol'Thonias Galiaalier lonrjKmnds ot'powder and oik- | 
lunidred pounds oi l.-ad. 1 ordered a review oi'ilit: I 
garrison to-morrovv' morning at U' o'clo(dv. 

Sunddy With. Had a review this morning l 
Captain PaUcibon's eompany, and found thoi'i coii;^ 
plete, fiUy-lhrcc man, Idrty-four province arins, ;!nil 
ibrty-lbur carloiirh boxes — no powder, nor Iim.I. 1 
divided oue-hetli' ]'int ot"])owder, and lead in jioj) <- 
tion, a in;in. I lound in this fort four month', pr.'- 
visions for the i:,,ii-ii.iuu. 

Captain Da .is wilh his party of lifty-five njen v.'.ts 
out of ammuinlKjii. 1 divided onedialf pint of j)a>v- 
der and lead i . jir.-portion to them. Captain Oavi- 
has got iwolvc hundred weight of tlour for ilic L>,i 
teaux. Sundry of the bateaux are lacking ih, i w;," 
swim, and rnusL be lett behind. 

Captain Patiirso.i cannot scout at present It ;■ 
of officers; I ordered him to apply to the country lo 
assist him to slockioh; the fort agreeable to their prcv 
mise to his hoiU)r, diu Governor. There au/ tine.: 
men sick here. 

This day, at 11, \. M., I marched for Fort Swett ■ \ 
crroi^ (Swalarii ;') L'ot to Crawford's, fourteen iidK-s (* 
from Iluiiter'd; here, I staid all night — it rained hard \ 

Had a nniiiber of apj)lications Irom the eoiinf ry ioi | 
protection; olherv/ioo they would be immedJatidy \ 
obliged to fly from then- settlement, 1 appoimed fc | 
meet them to hoar iheir complaints, and i>rop;. ::ds, oi\ 

iiWENDIX. 451 

Tuesday, at 10, A. M., at Fort Swettarrow. The 
country is thic) settled. This march was along the 
Blue laountains — here are very fine plantations. 

Monday, 20/h. I marched thi:5 morning at 11, A. 
M.; met a sergeant and tv/clvc men, wlio marched 
with me back to Sv/ettarro\v'^ Fort, at -1, P. M. Tlie 
roads extremely bad — ilic .^oldiirs marched with great 
difficulty. Found Captain A Hen and thirty men here. 
This is eleven miles from Crawford's, 

Tuesdaij ^ 2\st. ixuviewed ilic garrison tliis morn- 
ing at 10, A, M., and formd thirty-eight men, viz: 
Iwenty-one belonging to Capt. Allen, and seventeen 
of a detachment from Ca[)Laii liVeiser's company; of 
Captain Allen's, thirteen were for three years. No 
province arms lit for use ; no ivcttles, no blankets, 
twelve pounds of powder, and twenty-five pounds of 
lead; no powder horiib, no punches, nor cartouch box- 
es; no tomahawks, nor \)\ -lincial tools of any kind 
—two month's provision. 

Some soldiers absent, and others hired in their 
place, which has been a custom here. The soldiers 
are under no discipline. I ordered a sergeant and 
twelve men to be always out upon the scout from 
hence to Crawford's, keeping along the Blue moun- 
tain, altering their rontes, aiui a target to be erected 
six inches thick in order to practice the soldiers in 

This day 12 M., the country pleople came liere ; I 

promised them to sialion aii oilicer and twenty-five 

men at Robertson'i, mill This mill is situated in the 

. centre beiween the foris SwcUarrow and Hunter. 

■^ This gave the peop!'.; content. 

i ma;.'he;| (U 1 .P. xM., forlort lieiuy ; at 3 P, M., 


got to Souder's, seven miles; left Lieutenant Broad- 
head to march tlie party four miles, to Snevely's, there 
to halt ail night, and to march to fort Henry in the 
morning, six miles. The roads being very Lad ; 
marched myself with Adjutant Kern and eigiit men 
on horse back ; arrived at fort Henry at 5 P. i\l. 
Found hero Captain Weiser, Adjutant Kern, and the 
ensigns Biddle and Craighead, doing duty with nnie 
ty men. (hdercd a review of the garrison to mjrrov; 
at 9 A. iVI. 

PFednesday 22n>l. Had a review this morniiit^- ai 
9 A. M. ; ibwiiil ninety soldiers \mder good corniuaiid. 
and fine feUow'>. I examined the stores, awA I'ouiul i 
about two m.jntlis' provision in store, and am in- I 
formed hy iho commanding officer, there h twu I 
months' more provision, ahout six miles from hc'e,?u h 
Jacob Myer's mill. No powder, two hundred an.] j 
twenty -fjur pmuuis of lead, no thnts, about < igluy | 
provincial arms belonging to these two comp;t)iiti I 
but all good for nodiing. 

I ordered ensign Craighead with eighteen ir!exi ci i 
this garrison, to march to-morrow morning to fori | 
Swettarrow, and there to apply to Captain Aile[i; ! 
to receive Irom lam seven men, and with his pariy j 
of tweniy-five men, to march from thence to Robert- » 
son's mill, there to take post, to order from thcn;;a a * 
sergeant, cor[)oral and eight men to the house o[ \ 
Adam Read, Eyq.. and to employ his whole party in i 
continual ranging to cover these frontiers. This ) I 
found myself under a necessity of doing, otherwise | 
several to v/nsjnps here, would be evacuated m a few \ 

I ojdcred ensit^i! Haller to march back mv u Cuj' | 


ArrKN'DIK. 453 

to Hunter's full lO-niaiiow morning, and Captain 
Weiser to continue to range from this to fort Nortii 
Kill and Swettarrou^, to eni]>loy all his judgment to 
way-lay the enemy, and proleclthe inhabitants. This 
is a very good stockade fort, and every thing is in 
good order, and duty done prelly well. 

I marched to-ilay at 11 A. M., and arrived at 
Conrad Weiser's at 3 P. M., fourteen miles, where I 
found four qnarter casks *i[' powder belonging to the 
province, three of which I ordered to fort Henry, and 
one to fort Sweitarrow ; no lead here ; very bad 
roads; cold weaiher j staid all night. 

, Thursday 23y'i. I marched this morning and ar» 
rived at Reading at 3 P. M. ; found Captain Morgan 
here. This is fourteen miles from Mr. Weiser's. I 
examined the stores here, and found seventy-seven 
blankets, eight [louiids ol powder, three hundred 
pounds of lead, and balf a cask of flints, I ordered 
fifty-six blankets to be seat to Captain Patterson's 
company, and eleven to Captain Allen's, two hundred 
pounds of lead to fo;t Henry, and one hundred 
pounds to Swettarrow. I gave the eight pounds of 
powder to Captain Morgan, and four hundred flints 
to each company. 

Before I came to Reading, Adjutant Kern had sent 
by Lieutenant Engel, blankets for four companies, 
viz : Captains On id it's Weatherholt's, Davis' and 
Garraway's, two hundred and twenty-four, and one 
quarter cask of powder, thr;.'e liundred bars of lead, 
and si.viceu iiundred flints. 

Friday 2'IM. TiJ.s morning I set out for foit 
Wil.Lam, Arrived at P?A(:i- Rodarmil's at 2 P. M., 


fifteen miles from Reading. It stormed and liowoi 
£0 prodigiously, so I staid here all night. 

Saturday 25ih. The snow deep; I marched dih 
morniiiO; for fort William; arrived at fort Wn[i:;m;M 
12 M. Here were Lieutenant Humphreys, aini Ch- 
sign Horry. 1 ordered a review of the garrison at '^ \ 
P. M. At '2 P. M. reviewed the garrison, aiidfovaul i 
fifty-three good men, but diffident in discipline. Tm 
stores coubist of thri;e quarter casks of powdei, onn 
huridrcd aiiil iiUy p jioids of lead, four hundrij'l ili'.i- 
and fifty six blaukeiis ; no arms fit for use, iic k':[[\:\ 
nor toul.Sj nor ilnitu ; two months provision. 

Here I Ibuud a iurget erected ; I ordered the con - 
pany lo shocn at the same; set them tlie exampk: 
myself by wheeling round and firing by the word v\ 
command. 1 shot a bullet into the centre oi' (1:. ir 
mark, the size of a dollar — distance, one hniidi^i 
yards. Sonu' ,>t' them shot tolerably bad. Mo.,i ./i 
iheir arms an. very bad. 

I ordered Captain Morgan to continue to iiiitvo! (., 
North Kill and Allemengel. 

Sundciij 2Gi/i. 1 marched from here at 10 .1. :\i , 
went ever the mountains to Mr. Everitt's, u-her,' 
Captairi Weatlierold is stationed. The snow rxcji .1- 
ingly deep ; I could make little way. At 3 P, M. ;u- 
rived at Valentine Philteprot's, twenty miles. He!'. 
I staid all nighi. 

Mondiiy 21th. i marched this morning at :;' .-. . M. 
for Mr. Everilt's; arrived at f) A. M., four Uiile.s. \ 
ordered a review of ihat part of the comj)aiiy that ib 
here. 1 found Capudn Weatherholt, Lieuti'i.fn Gei- 
gcr, and twenty-four men, three being sick a)id absent ; 
tliree months' prcviion; five pounds of pov.'i.r; i. ' 


lead ; each man has a pound of powder in his car- 
touch box, and lead in proportion ; no kettles, no 
blankets, twenty picviiicial arms. 

I ordered Captain Weatlierholt fifty-six blankets, 
twenty-live pounds of powder, fifty bars of lead, and 
four hundred bars of lead : also that Captain Weath- 
erold to scout to the wssiwi\rd ten miles, and to the 
eastward ten nules;, and Lieutenant Geiger from 
hence to las post in Colonel Armstrong's battalion. 

I marched fjoni ihcuce lo I'oit Allen at H A. M. ; 
got to the top of the lilue mountain at 2 P. M. ; from 
hence saw Alleiuoiigle : it is a line country; but the 
country on the iiorth side of the mountain is an entire 
barren wilderness, not capable of improvement, i 
arrived at fort Allen at half after 2 P. M. A prodig- 
ious hilly place and poor land, fifteen miles from Mr. 
Everitl's. I ordered a review of this garrison to mor- 
row at H A. M. 

Tuesday 2ti//i. At A. M. 1 reviewed this gar- 
rison. Domg duty, Cajjiain Oindit, Lieutenants Hays 
and Laughcrry,and Eiisign Meixill, and seventy-five 
men. This is a very 2ood garrison. In the stores, two 
inontlis' provision, two hundred and twenty-five 
pounds of powder, thiee hundered pounds of lead, 
five hundred flints, two swivel guns, twenty-six pro- 
vincial arms, bad ones, no drum, no kettles, no 
blankets, one spade, one shovel, one grubbing hoe and 
Ibiirteen bad axes. 

Tins is a very poor stockade; surrounded with hills, 
situaced o\i a barren plain, through which the rivet 
Lechy (Lehigl') runs, at a distance ol seventy yaro-i 
Irom tii: ion. 'I'here is scarce room here lor forty 
i'a :,. 1 oiilered Captain Orndit to regulate his rang- 


ing by hii> intelHgence, from time to time, as Ik- in- 
£ormod mo lliat five Indians from Bethlehem iiuve 
promised faithfully to Captain Onidit, to come liort, 
^nd reconnoiire die woods constantly around, and to 
furnish him with iatolligence. 1 also directed tlu.t a 
target six inches diick, should be put up to teach liic 
soldiers to shoot. 

I set off from here at 10 A. M. for Lieutenant ii-- 
gle's, or Intel's post ; arrived at Ingle's post at i P 
M. ; ordered a review immediately, and found litie 
Lieutenant Ingol and thirty good nion, in a very bcuj 
stockade, which ne is just finishing, fifteen miles ivarn 
fort Allen. The stoio.^ are ten poimds of powder, icn I 
pounds of lead, twelve provincial arms, bad; no .( 
blankets, four spades, three shovels, two grubbing \ 
hoes and four axes. 1 left for, arrived at Lieuteii<.m 
Snyder's station ul 7 V. M., eight miles. 1 ordered a 
review to-inorro w morning heire ; staid all night. 

JVcdnesdui/, IsLirch \st. I leviewed this mornii;2 , 
and faund here Lienlenant Suyder and twenty ni(;n 
undiscipUned, fifteen pounds of powder, thirty pounds 
of lead, no l>l;aii;ots, eight provincial arms, bad. 

Lieutenant Ilamphreys relieved Lieutenant Sny- 
der this morning. I ordered Lieutenant Snydei {<. 
his post over the Susquehamia. I have been inlorutul 
by the officers he^'e, Lieutenants Engel and Snyder, 
that Wilson. Esq., a liuigistrate in this (North- 
ampton) county, has i'cquahited the farmers that they 
should not assist tb.e troops, unless the officers innnu- 
diately pay,and that sa .id Wilson has likewise infornied 
the soldiers, they should not take their regimenl;ils,. as 
it only puis money in their olficers' pockets. 1 found 
\:. Sergeant confined hcje on account of mutiny, and 

'01 9, 


liave ordered a regimentul court martial this morn- 
ing. At this stcition th;;re are two baracks ; no 

I marched from here to Lieutenant Hyndshaw's 
station at 10 A. M. ; arriv^cd at Nazareth at 1 P. M.^ 
eight miles ; dined here ; set off again at 2 P. M. ; 
arrived at Tead's ru 3 P M., six miles. Here I 
found Ensign Kennedy, wdth sixteen men, who in- 
formed rnc tJKit LiGutcuaDt Ilyndshaw, and Ensign 
Hughes would be here oiie hour hence. At hah 
after 5 P. M., IVfessrs. Hyndshaw and Hughes arrived 
with fourteen men. I ordered a review, and found 
tliirty good uier.. Stores — lifty pounds of powder., 
one hundred pounds of lead, no flints, one wall piece, 
one shovel, thirteen axes good fair nothing, and twen- 
ty tomahawks, fifty-six blaidiets, forty-six guns and 
forty-six cartouch boxes ; little provision here, and no 
convuniency tu lay u]) a t;u»re. This is very bad quar 
ters ; the house is built ir. a swamp; bad water. 

Thursday 2nd. 1 marched from here at 9 A. M. 
for Samuel Depue's, went by way of fort Hamilton, 
to view that piaee. Arrived at fort Hamilton at 2 P. 
M. ; reviewed it, and found it a very poor stockade 
with one large house iii the middle of it, and some 
families living in it ; this is fifteen miles froniTead's. 

I arrived at Mr. Depue^s at 4 P. M., six miles ^ 
snowed much, and prodigiously cold ; ordered a re- 
view to-morrow id D A. M. 

This is a Hue plantation, situate on the river Dela- 
ware, tv.'^eniy-onc miles from Tead's, and one hundred 
miles from Philadelphia ; they go in boats from here 
to Pluladelphia, by the river Delaware, which carry 
iLjM tweuty-two lons= This place is thirty-five 


miles from EasioHj aud tliirty-eiglit from BethlelisriL 
There is a pretty good stockade here; four swivels 
mounted; good accommodations for soldiers. 

Friday 2/'d. I reviewed this garrison and ftumd 
here twetiiy-two good men, fifty pounds of powilcr, 
one hundred aiid twoiiLy-five pounds of lead, no llihis, 
a great qiL:a;liiy oJ" bc:of, I suppose eight months' [uo- 
vision for a Luaipaiiy. IjuL no Hour ; plenty of tloiir vil 
the mill, ai;<)Ui iliini; hundred yards from the Im u 
My horse lu'iig very tired, I am ohligetl to haU lu-.f, 
to-day. Exireiiiily c^ld. The country ai)]ily IV.; ;i 
com]naiy i . he Niatmiiud here. I ordered lOr i^.i \ 
JIughes, at Sweiiannvv, to this post. | 

Saturdaiy li/i. 1 .-et off this morning for Ea.uoii , | 
extremely ^Mld ; j.nivi'd at Tead's, twenty-one n.iico, \ 
at 1 P. IVi. ; diii'.d heie. At 2 W M. I set off; arriv.-d i 
at Easton at 7 P. M, twelve miles; staid all ni/1 :, I 
No provincial si,). es 111 this town ; only ten pui.^ m,. jj 
of powder in care of John J)riiiker, Sheritf. | 

S'undai/ 5//i, At I P. M. I set out from here fdi < 
Bethlehem; arrived at 4 P. M., twelve miles; n,. I 
provincial stores heie. Tedyuscung, Samuel Evens, \ 
and a great many Indians came to see me ; they slip- i- 
ped with me, and desired their compliments to ins 
Honor tlie Oovernor, Commissioners and Assemhiy, 
and desired to assure them, that they remain fimi | 
friends. : 

This evening, sent for William Edmonds and J 
Thomas Pi.'ai:, the principal men here,and acquainted | 
iliemihat aslhc government had taken the Indian trade I 
into their own hands, ii was expected that tin y, inr ^ 
no other i)ei-son. or jji isi-ns in this province, •,, .Mild 1 
.:'t(cin[)i to de;d with liie liulians, and they ux'.'nrd [ 

APPENDIX, 455! 6'^ 

.me ihey would not \c>\ ilio futare. Here I staid aU 

Monday ^th. 'J'liis morning set otl for PiiiladLl 
]»hia-, arrived at 6 P. il., at George Good's tavenu 
thiity-two miles; roads l^ad, but good weather; stni;! 
lieru all night. 

Tuesday 7tu. This morning set out again f. r 
Phiiad'iphia ; airived al 8 P. INI., twenty-twu mil- - 


i'hUadc(jj/tia, Mar'di it). 175.S. 



ConlainiiiE an acccmnt of doings rl Fort North Kill, for a jjeriod of two 
inonths and a Lalf, viz : from June 13 to August 31. 

O^Tliouirh tho name nf iho writer is not given, nor the year, yet it 
may be safely set down tiiat tlie djinga mentioned in the journal did 
take place either in 1755 cr 1750". — Compiler. 

JuNC 13. Received onli rs trom Lieutenant Colonel 
Weiser to march Ironi Ucatling with all the conipaiiy 
remaining there, the rest being commanded to fort 
Augusta. Accordingh/ I set out from Reading by 
break of day, on the 

14. Arrived ui Liciucnant Colonel Weiser's, where 
I received orders to inarch with the company or de • 
t^achment to fort Henry, and from there take a detach- 
ment of 20 men and continue till to fort on North 
Kill. Accordingly, on the 

15. In the morning tO(/k the said 20 men from fort 
Henry, of the nev/ levies, and marched straightway 
to tlie said tun, accompanied with Captain Brisseanu 
Captain Smith. As soon asi I arrived I gave ensiu.i 
Harry (then commander of the said fort) notice of my 
orders, uiid sent off two inen immediately to lit 


'Colonel'.s, with a icport of tlie condition I found ilie f 

fort in, anil sent him a list of the new levies v/ho f 

were detached fr^m Captain Brisse's fort, wilh nic f 

ro this fort, ] 

Id. Caplaiiis Bris5>e and Smith set off about 10 » 
o'clock, with a ftcoul of 10 men, which Captain Biiote 

had ordered from his company on the 15th, and eii- i 

sign Hurry marched out of the fort about 12 o'clock, \ 

after delivering it t.> me, with his men, to fort ].e- | 

banon, according to (jrders. Provision, I found in the f 

fort, as follows, viz; 5 pounds of powder, 198 pounds i 

of flour, 10 ^•n\all hais of lead, 15 pounds of bcci" aixl ; 
pork, and l-'-l pomids of candles. 

17. I, with a Ci»rporal and 20 men, according to or- 
ders, from Lieui. Coldtiel Weiser, went a scouting a>.;d { 
ranguig the wooJs till to fort Lebanon, who:; ^ve 
arrived about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. We s;iaid 
there all night, luring not able to scout any faril; ;r,or j 
return home, lu'causc of a heavy rain. | 

18. Set oJf from fort Lebanon in the morning, be- j 
ing rainy weatljcr, and ranged the woods coming J 
back, as before, wilh the same number of men. and | 
arrived at fort on North Kill, about 4 o'clock m the ! 

19. Gave orders to Serjeant Peter Smith to scouc '] 
to fort Lebanon, and to bring me report, the next ihiy. \ 
of his proceedings. Accordhigly, he arrived on ilic ' 
20th, about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and made re- | 
port that be Jiad done according to his orders, and ! 
that hu had made no discoveries. Received a leiler, ! 
by him, from Captain Morgan, informing me th:.( lu? i 
had no aew&^&LC. 

yi. Scut oil Coipo<al Shefer to scout as Ijeiou;.. 

A1>1>£NDIX. 465 

■ 22. Minister Sl'uniaker came and preached a ser- 
mon to the company. The scout arrived from fort 
Lebanon. The Corporal reported that nothing strange 
had come to his knowledge. 

A scout of Capi\iu l^iisse's arrived about 11 
o'clock, and returned about 4, towards their fori; but 
upon the Indian alarms tiiey immediately returned 
back to fori North Kill, and gave me notice. In the 
midst of the raiii I sent, on the fii-st notice, Serjeant 
Smith, with 18 niuu, and ordered them to divide 
themselves in two parties. 

23. Serg. Snddi recrr.ned, and made report: that he 
arrived at Dietz's house abcnu 10 o'clock in the night, 
where they heard a gun j^^o otf at Jacob Smith's, 
about a mile from ther(j. They immediately sat olf 
again tVom said Smith's, tov/ards the place where the 
gun went off, antl surr(nnid"d the house, according to 
my orders. Thi;y j^eu \hed all the iiouse but found 
no marks of Indians. From there they marclied to 
Falk's house, in the Ciap, and surrounded it, but 
found no Indians. From tliere they went to the 
mountain, and arjivod ther; at 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ingf where Serjeant Smith, according to orders, way- 
laid the road in two parties, and as soon as it was 
day went back and buried the man that was killed, 
to wit: Peter Gcisinger, who was shot and killed the 
day before. At burying him, they heard 5 guns go 
oil about two nnle.s from said place, whereupon Ser- 
jeant Suiith inmieJiately repaired to the ])lace, and 
divided themselves in two parties, (I had sent oil 
Corporal Sheffer with eight men, on the 22d, to their 
assistance.) Serjeant Smitl; also makes report, thai 
lliii e orning, at 7 o'clock; a girl of about 15 year-T., 

466 APl'ENDIX. 

daughter of B;.lsei Schmidt, was taken prisonci-, by j 
two Indians, whose tracks they saw and folic wed, | 
bat to no purpose. A party of Captain Bnsse's \ 
company wan aloiig from this and remained with I 
my men all the time. Fifteen or sixteen of tin; in- 
habitants c;vme to ma and applied for assistance. 1 ; 
ordered out several uetachmcnts to assist them. | 

24. I set o/l with 20 men from this to Ca^.tain i 
Brisse's fort, along the mountain, and called ut the | 
place whore the nimdcr was committed. Wciu up \ 
as far as tha Gap of tlje mountain, but as I found no 
tracks thcw, I ihiniv^ht the Indians would be ou llii.-: i 
side the n^ountaiiis, therefore I went up alohg the | 
mountains without o{)position, till to Captain Biisse's | 
fort; and as it rciined very hard all day, and we went | 
far about, wo anived there towards tlie evening | 

; 36. Sat off ill the morning with the same mimbot \ 
of nieiii and seoiucd the woods back, near the Si\mo 
way back again, and arrived, towards evening, in the 
fort, being rainy weather. 

26. Received in the morning a letter for my posi- 
tive ordera net to neglect my scouting toward:^ for* 
Lebanon, accordingly I immediately called in niy de- 
tachments. This ai"l(;rnoon, a woman, living abo;-i 
ow and a half miles from here, came to the fort, and 
said she had sec;i an Indian just now iri her field, al- 
most naked, and had a gun, but said she did not slay 
t<j look l^'Mj. I neiu ;diately sent olf Serjeant Siiiiili 
with two parties, consisting of about twenty men. 
They searched the place, and ibund nothing, but saw 
two barcfeet tracks, rhey divided into small parties, 
and .scom-ed the wood.i till evening and then returned 
liJ the fort 5 and as I had to-day but men su(lii:i''nt it 

Ari'ENDix. 467 

guard the I'ort, 1 sciit out w) scout. This evening, 
intelligence came to me from the ColoneFs, informing 
me that he had notice t'rom (Japtain Orndt, of fifteen 
Indians going to foil on the settlement, or hereabouts. 
He ordL-red me therefore, immediately to send notice 
thereof to Captain l)t isso's fort, in order that it might 
be from there conveyed to tort Swatara, accordingly 
I did so. 

27. fiave orders lo Sergeant Smith to go scouting 
liie woods between this and fort Lebanon, and if 
Captain Morgan Uiouglit that it was serviceable, to 
range some way up Scliuylkill, as that gap is their 
common rendezvous. 

28. A scout of Captain lirisse arrived in the fore- 
noon, and set off again tins afternoon. 

29. In the evening there came two men to the 
fort, and reported that the Indians had invaded about 
ni.x miles from tin r*, about jiine o'clock this morning. 
I was somewhai concerned that I had no sooner in- 
telligence of it, however, I immediately sent off twelve 
men under two corporals. 

30. .\bout noon the twa corporals returned and 
made the fuUowiug report ; That yesterday they could 
not reach the place, as they all were tired, but staid 
at a houae till nigh break of day, and then set off 
again. They did not inmiediately go to the place 
where the man &.c. were killed, but went somewhat 
farther down tov/urds die Schuylkill, thinking that 
the Indians had invaaed lower down, but as it was 
not so, they took another route towards Schuylkill, 
thinking that perhaps the Indians had invaded lowei 
down, hut as it was not so, they took another route 
to ,.' i'h liio v;iierc the muider was committed 


and as tkey came th(3re, they found the man's wills 
(Frederick Myer's) who had been at a plough, and 
shot through both her breasts, and was scalped. After 
that they wen to look: for the man, whom they found 
dead and scalped, .s une way in the woods. I'lioy 
took a ladder and carrit^d him to his wife, where the 
neighbors came and helped to bury them ; after vhich 
(liey went towards ihe mountain, and scouted along 
the .same, and urvived here about 4 o'clock in the 

It is reported by the farmer who saw the deceased 
a ihort while Lofon;, that he was mowing in hib 
meadow, and that his children were about him, A'/iiicli 
makes them btJicvc that the man after he heard the 
shot (whifh killed Lis wife) he went to run olf v.iUi 
only his youngest child in his arms, as the man 
shot through the body, and the child is one year anJ 
a half ot" age and is bcalped, but yet alive, and i-. put 
to a Doctor's. The other three wlio were with ihei. l 
father, are taken prisoners ; one of them is a boy f 
about ten years old, the other a girl of eight ye;!rs. | 
and the uttier a hoy of six years. There was a 5 
whom tliey found in a ditch, that the water was juh-t * 
to its month. It was laying on its back, crying — it ] 
was taken up, and is like to do well. | 

A boy of one Reichard, of eight years, was takoi { 
prisoner at the same time. This was all done witliio ! 
hah' an hoar, as soine neighbors had been thci : in i 
that space ot' tirnc. | 

t/u/^' 1. Sergeant Peter Smith returned witl; the ' 
scout, and reported tbat wlien he came to fort fchd- J 
non, Captrdii Morgan sent a detachment uiiiJer Ru t 

sign Horry to the Gap of Schuylkill ; and tluitonib f 

Ai-i-.\'M)ix. 46!) 

26th last past, they at;CL)nJed tlic mountain, and when 
tliey caine on llie other sidu, tliey found an encamp- 
ing place of the Indians', which after Ensign Horry 
had surrounded with his party, he sent off Sergeant 
Smith whh another paUy, to lay in anihush on the 
Indian path all night, hut as nothing was to he heard 
of tlie Iiidians, they mot again the next day — the 
Indians as lie sup}»oses liaving left that place the day 
before. Howev^er, they found two match coats, one 
spear, one scalping kuitc, some vermilion, and eight 
hundred black wanipuiu ; also great variety of salves. 
The 29th ihey yet lay in ambush in several parties, 
but all to no pm[)ose. Tl'c Indians having, without 
doubt, discovered them, in case there was any there- 
abouts. The 30th they Sdt olf from the hills, and 
arrived within a few miles of this fort: and the 1st 
July they arrived accordingly in the Ibrt. 

2. Being rainy we;.thei f sent no scout, but put 
tiie men to work to repan- the stockades. 

3. Early in the morning my men were all gath- 
ered, and I ordered a Corporal to scout with a party 
to fort Lebanon, and return part of the way and en- 
camp in the woods upon a rising ground, that he 
might the easier discover a fire. 

4. In the morning, a scout of Captain Brisse's ar- 
rived ; and returned again in the afternoon. The 
scout from fort Lebanon returned, and the Corporal 
made report that he had runged as directed, but had 
made no discoveries. 

5. Being a veiy rainy day, could send no scout, 
a. Sent Sergeant Smith on a scout, to range or: 

that side Ure mountain toward Schuylkill. 

V. A. scout of Captam ilnsse's arrived, and set off 


gigain directly. In th(3 afternoon my scout returned, | 

but had no news. It raining hard, they lay in a liorise | 

about twelve miles from here, | 

8. Boi'ig appointed by his Honor, the Goverdor, I 
a day of Fai;t, I sent no scout, but had a sermon read , 
in the fort, where numbers of tlie neighbors had as- j 
sembled. A scout of Captain Brisse's arrived, and j 
reiurned directly. j 

9. Sent off Corporal Shefer with a scout t.; fort | 
Lebanon, who retnnied on the } 

10. But brought no intelligence. I received ox 

ders to repair to Reading, where I arrived ihis | 

11. Rt.turned again into the fort, where Sergeant 
Smith informed me a scout of Captain Brisse's had 
arrived at the fort, and returned. That he had r.iigcd 
the Gap about two miles from this, and had been over 
the mounliims, but had discovered nothing. 

12. A scout of Captain Brisse's arrived and re- 
turned immediately. Sent a Corporal and a scout ti» 
range to fort Lebanon. 

13. My scout Irum fort Lebanon returned. Tiie 
Corporal reported he had ranged as ordered, bia had 
no discoveries. 

14. Captain Brisse arrived this morning wiili a 
party of Captain Smith's and his own, to the number 
of about twenty-eight. 1 gave him fifteen cf my 
men, in oidor to escort the treaty at Easton. 

15. It being a rainy day I sent no scout. 
IG. Continuing rniny weather, I sent noscoiu. ir-. 

i\\e evening repaired .some stockades, the rain havitig 
held up. 

17. 'i'lic water being high, and the bushc:; wet, i 

AI'l'ENDAX. 471 

(^ sent no scout, to-day. A scout of Captain BrisSe'S 
e arrived, there being no water between his and this 


I 18. Seni a scout along the mountains. They ar- 

j rived in the evcuing; and hud no inteUigence. 

!9. A scout of Captniu Urisse's arrived and re- 
turned directly. Sent Sergeant Smith with a scout to 
fort Lebanon. 

20. Sergeant Srnnii returned and reported that he 
had bc( n itt fort Lebanon^ 'nul relumed some part of 
the way and laid in tlic woods, but had made no firOv 
They made no discovery. A scout of Captain Bris- 
se's arrived and lelarncd iiistantly. 

21. Having laid out part of my men to protect 
the farmers, and the rest Imlug fatigued whh yester- 
day's scout, I could send none to-day. 

22. Sent a scout along the mountains, who re- 
turneil wilhoiU discov^riiig anything. 

23. 1 went !icouiiiig wall a party over tlw3 moun- 
tains, and as it v/as very warm, I ordered the men 
about noon to rest themselves a couple of hours when 
we were over the mountains. I then ordered them to 
march, and as we came t<i Schuylkill, I saw it was too 
high for the men to wnde through ; I then got horses, 
and towards evening we got over Schuylkill. We 
arrived at fort Lebanon towards night, iuad was 
ti)bliged to stay there that night. 

24. Returned, and as soon as we came over on 
this side'of the moimtains, (it being yet early in the 
day,) I took quite another route through the woods, 
but made no discovery jso we arrived at the fort in tic 
evening, I had notbeeiitliereone-half an hour, before 
divce iarme.'s came and informed me that this morning 

472 APPENDIX. ! 


Ihe Indians had (akcn a boy of about fourteen years i 

prisoner, biu had dcue no other damage. I inunedi- \ 
ately sent off a party , but as it happened, the boy being 

taken p?isoiier in the morning, night eame on before ■ 

my men could get th^.-re. \ 

26. In the morning 1 heard the boy had escaped, | 
and that he made report that there were four white I 
men and four Indians with him, and that at night he j 
escaped,- they had tied him, and he was obliged to i 
lay between them, but as they all got drunk, ai;d fa at I 
asleep, he untied himself and ran oft". He lurlher ^ 
says that v/lien ht; was taken prisoner he made a | 
noise, and that tluy .struck him, and told him lo l^ 
silent. I nnagine they saw m-e with my men go over 
tire day before yesterday. The Indians were this 
night about the fort, but as it was very dark, 1 did 
not sally out. - | 

2G. This moiiiing sent out Sergeant Smith .vith *> 

five men to search about the fort for tracks, but lie j 

only found one, v.liich was in> muddy place. But • 

it being nothing but stones, he could not follow the 1 

tracks. It rained all day very hard, therefore I j 

could send no scout. f 


27. Sent a scout down on this side of the moun- 
tain. The scout returned in the evening, liavnig no | 
intelligence. < 

28. A -scout of Captain Brisse's arrived, and re- I 
turned about noon ; nothing extraordinary happened. j 

29. Sent Sergeant Smith with a scout aloi^g the ' 
mountains. He returned, having nothing particular, j 

30. A scout of Lieutenant Philip Weise/, from *" 
C-iptoni Brisse arrived Havmg laid out several de- ' 

tachments to as^isi the iMfmers,! could send no scout 


31. Lieutenant Weiser returned from his scout ; I 
called in the detachments this day, and sent out a 
scout, which returned this evening. 

August 1. The men being tired, and their feet in 
blisters, 1 let them rest this day. 

2. Setu a scout along the mountains with orden, 
to range to Schuylkill. 

a The Corporul relumed from scout and reported 
he had ranged as ordered. 

4. A scout of Captain Ih isse's arrived and returned 
the same day. Tlie inhabitants desiring assistance to 
bring in their harvest, I gave them some men, and 
went altho' a scouting, but as I left few men in th<; 
fort, I returned this evening. 

5. A scout of Capr lin Bri-sse's arrived and went 
otr after they had icstcd awhile. Sent Sergeant Smith 
with a scout, and ordered him to range the Avoods ou 
this side of the mountains. He returned and had 
nothing particuti-f. 

6. Sent oft' a scout ; they went along the foot ol 
the mountain, and returned in the evening without 
any intelligence. 

7. Being Sunday, I took a party and went to 
church with a party, as the church lies near the 
mountain, and Hit minister could not come witliout a 


8. The Gentry fired ai an Indian. The Indiai. 
stood behind a brush about three hundred yards oil', 
and was vie\/ing the fort, i went otf with eighteei 
\u< u and parted tbcmin six parties and went after tl.u 


Indians, but conkl not come up with them ; w<iir'. i-: 
deuring abovit the. (oit, it being thick of bushes. 

0. CoaliciRMi clearing and burning brush, so (hiU 
on (lie soath side of ilie fort it is cleared a full nni'-ket 
tihot. A jJiuty of Captain Brisse's arrived. 

10. S.M\i oil a scouting party, who returned ai.J 
brouglit no intclligcee. This night the centry, ahout 
iiti houi- ;d{i i- dark, perceived that a fire which iiad 
been kuKlled to barii brush, but was, before ii'.giii, 
gone out, ])cgan to burn afresh, upon which he •: ,ill -i 
ihe Sergeant of tlic Cluard, who perceiving the 
ordered the gumd U» fire, on wbich the Indiai,. juu 
off. The dogs piusnod them, and kept barking afiei 
them al)out lialf a i<ule. 1 jiad the men all laulcr 
arms, but cvuiy tlinig being now quiet, disiiii.s!,.'u 
them ordering tlicm (o be in continual readiness '.viih 
their accoutrcnktits uu.- In about an hour tlu, In- 
dian retunual, ami tuok a firebrand out otf tlu i',v. , 
and ran oil. 'I'liLsy were immediately fired on, bin 
in vain. 

H, Ensign iJiddle arrived at the fort with th.^ 
detaclnui-nt of uiu- C'jmpany, that were in Eastvui. 

12. A scout of Captain lirisse's arrived aiivl rc- 
tiu'ned directly. 

13. This day I left the fort in order to go to ll.e 
Colonel's agreeable iu his orders. I left Ensign Bid die 
in the fori. 

Sent a Corporal to range towards Schuylkill, wlio 
retnijied tlie same cvi ning, and the Corporal reported 
he had ranged as diix-cted, and had made no dis- 
coveries. A scout oi" Captain Brisse's arrived, and 
'■einrned thesnme evening. 

APi'EKnix. 475 

14. Being Sunday, JMhiiater Shumaker* came 
here, and Ihe soldiers being fatigued with contumal 

it scouting, there was no scout lo-day. 

It 15. Ensign 13 iddie sent a Corporal with a scoui 

to range eastward towards Sciiuylifili, and return un- 
der the mountains. The scout returned towards 
evening, ar.d the Corporal made report, he had ranged 
as directed, and had no intelligence. 

16. Sent a Sergeant with fiiteen men, to range 
eastward along the moiiutain. A scout of Captain 
33risse's arrived and returned immediately. In the 
afternoon the scout returned. The Sergeant made 
report he had ranged as directed, but had no news. 

17. Early this morning Ensign Biddle sent Ser- 
geant Smith v/iih ten men, to escort Lieutenant 
Colonel Weiser, who wus expected here this day. 

This day Colonel \Veiser arrived, accompanied with 
Captain Ihisse and my.self, together with the said 
escort. The Colonel returned the same day home 
wards, after we had chosen a place where to build 
a new fort. Ensign Biddle went along with 
Captain Brisse. 

18. Sent off a scout to fort Lebanon, and ordered 
them to range the woods between here and that fou 
till night. • 

19. The scout returned about 4 o'clock, and in- 
formed that he had done according to his orders. 
Captain Morgan came with the scout, and returned 
the same evening. 

20. Seni a scout of fifteen men to range iIjG 
woods towards Schuylkill, into Windsor township, 

'iui/.. Sinanak''- '.vas p.islor of ilie Lutheran Con^regatiA". ;..( 
i'.e;!.dir.t,', fiom 175'i to 57, — Contpikr. 



and with .-uKifs to c:!ll in some detachments lying in 1 

(he said t()wn:3hip, a> cording to Lieutenant Colt iu,i'.b ) 

orders. j 

21. Tiic scout i,;turned with the detaehiiicni. 1 

The Cor] oral reporltd he had done according to his 

orders, bin had no i.ews. The same day Captain i 

IJriijse rui i Easigii Eiddlo arrived from fort Houiy; ^ 

Captain Biisse retiu'ind the same eveninj?. I 


22. Uereivcdaii c. impress from Lieutenant Coloael ! 
Weiser, with orduis to come to his house. In pursu- ': 
ance of which 1 tet off immediately, leaving Eujign 
Biddle in liic fort, I 

23. A scoul oi Captain Brisse's arrived. Hit. I 
Gentries heard the Indians distinctly whistle this luqht j 
in the woods. ( 

24. Ensign liiddlb, according to orders, with a ^ 
scout of twenty men, went over the mountain ^ u: I 
Captain IMoigan'^; ion. 

25. Lie ntenaiit Pliilip Weiser came here from lojt \ 
Henry with a scout. ? 

26. Ensign Biddic returned from his scout, havmg I 
been at Captain Morgan's fort, and from th.iice | 
scouted over the moiuitains, irrto Allemangle, and j 
from thence along thi foot of the mountain till here, i 
This day lalss airiveil in the fort from Lieutenaiu ! 
Colonel Weiser's. I 

27. Having orders from Lieutenant Colonel Wei 
ser to look out for a pioper place to build a new f(-rL 
this being so bad, I began to lay out one on a spot 
which had been before pitched upon, by the Cc.lonel • 
«iid Captain Brisse, bat night coming we cottld nut - 

28. Laid out tlie remaining part of the fort 


29. Had some brush cut round the new intended 
fort, till ev^ening. 

30. Sent off a scout towards Schuylkill. They 
returned in the eveniiig, but made no discovery; re- 
turned with ihe remaining party of the men. I con- 
tinued clearing and burning ot' brush. 

31. Sent Oil Sergeant Smith, with a scouting 
party, towards Sciiaylkili. He returned but made 
no discovery. 


Tadeuskund, or Tecdyuscung, frequently noticed 
in the preceeding part of this work, was so conspicu- 
ous a character in the e;.rly history of these counties, 
that it is deemed proper to give the following sketch 
of this remarkable son of the forest, by Mr. Hecke- 
welder, a place here; 

Tadeuskund, or Tecdyuscung, was the last Dela- 
ware chief in these ]>arts. east of the Allegheny 
mountains. His name makes a conspicuous figure in 
the history of Pennsylvania, previous to the revolu- 
tion, and particularly towards the commencement of 
the war of 175o. . Before he was raised to the station 
of a chief, he had signalized himself as an able coun- 
sellor m his nation. In the year 1749, he joined the 
Christian Indian congregation, and the following year, 
at his earnest desire, was christened by the name oj" 
of GidcuH. He had been known before under that 
of (I'o^wit John. It was not until the year 175', 


that his imtion called upon him to assume a milUuiy 
comiuand, Tlie French were then stirring up the 
Indians, particularly the Delawares, to aid them in 
fighting Uio English, telling them that if they suirered 
tliem to go on as llicy before had done, they would 
very soon not have u foot of land to live on. The 
Susqueliam^a aiid Fork Indians, (Delawares) wore 
then in wan I of a leading character to advise and 
govern incnij their great, good, beloved and per.r;ca- 
ble chief 7V/f/c'Wic, (coinmordy called Tattevii) lutving 
some time before been murdered in the Forks settle- 
ment by a foolish, young white man. They, ihere- 
fore, called upon Tacleuskund to take upon himself 
the station <tf a thief, which, having accepted, he re- 
paired to Wyoioing, whither many of the Forks In- 
dians followed him. 

Whatever might have been Tadeuskund's disposi- 
tion tow.ivdslhe English at that time,it is certain tliat 
it was a dilticult task for him, and would have been 
such for any oilier chief, to govern an exasperated 
people, entirely devoted to the opposite interest, 
This may account for his not having always suoe';,ed- 
ed in gratifmg our government to the extent of their 
wishes. Yet he did much towards lessening the cru- 
elties of the enemy, by keeping up an intercourse 
with the governor of Pennsylvania, and occasionally 
drawing many from die theatre of war and murder, 
to meet the colonial aiUhorities at Easton or Philadel- 
phia, for die negotiation of treaties, by which means 
fewer cruelties weie, committed than would other- 
wise have been. 

His frequent visits to the governor, and toihu peo- 
pio called Quakers (to whom lie was much alliiJied. 

.rir-TLNDiA. 47t' 

because they were knovvu io ha Iriendly to tlie In- 
dians) excited much jealousy ainoiig some of his uatiou^ 
especially the Mouseys, who believed that he was 
carrying on some underbuild \v\ rk at Philadclpiiia 
detrimental to tlie nation at large ; on which account, 
and as they wislied ilie coniir,uatfon of the war, they 
lecanic his enemies. 

From ihQ ])rcciinoris sita.itioa Tadeuskund wai. 
placed in, it was easy to foresee iliat he would comr. 
to an untimely end. l-cilup- v,'.j Indian chief befure 
1 him ever found him.self so dtdicately situated ; mib 
i Uusted aitd blamed by our gc'.-rmnent and the Fa>- 
giish people generally, iiu did not use hi:^ 
v/hole endeavours to keep hi. nation at jieace, or 
compel tliem to lay down tiie hatchet; and accused 
by his own people of havijig taken a bribe from the 
i'lnglish, or entered intu ionie secret agreement with 
diem thai wohKI be of biiei\( i.> himself alone, as hr. 
would not sr.ller iliem to n.dict just pumsbment 
on that nation, for the wroni^s they iiad done iheni^ 
but was conscaiuly eallmg upon them to make 
t>eace. The Five Nations, on the other hand, (tlie 
enennes of the Delawares, and m alliance with Eng- 
land,) blamed him for doing too uuicL for the cause 
wliicli ib.ey themselve supported, for making himself 
UjO busy, and assuming an audiority, which did not 
belong to him, the leader of a band o( women, but to 
them, liie Five Naiions a.ione. 

To d>) justice to (hisinjiu'cd chici^, the true s... rot el 
ius apj arently eoiitradictory conduct inu:.i bt hert 
disclosed. It is said by those Indians wliO ki;ew bin. 
best, and who at that time had the welfaie of their 
■cv,'ii nation miich at iu),, thai ids great i^ad ,^;ale ob 


ject WuL w lecavcr lortlie Lervii Leriape thdii digiury 
which ihc Iioqucis had treacherously wrested from 
them ; tlience flowed the bitterness of the latter u^'iiinst 
hill), tliongh he seemed to be promoting the same in- 
terest which Vaey iheniselves supported. He 
long: hoped tl:at by shewing friendship and a'aacli- | 
nient to the English, he would be able to convinct; ^ 
them of ihe jusiice jf his nation's cause, who wore | 
yet powerful (.iiivugh to make their alliance an »jbject 1 
to (h^ l?riiish gov ..Muinent, but here he was gi.jat'y ) 
mistaken No one would examine into the grounds 
of the coniioversy between the Delawares and the | 
Five Nations j lln; latter, on the contrary, were sup- 
ported in their unjust pretentions as theretofore, and 
even called up;>ii to aid in compelling the Lenape to 
make peace. 'I'his unjust, and at the same time im- 
politic coiiductj of which I have before taken suCi- 
cient notice, ini;. Ued to the utmost, the spirited ualiMi \ 
of the Delaware '^, they felt themselves insulted ai.d dc- \ 
graded, and were le/^s disposed than ever from com | 
plying W/iih the wislies of a government wliich .sport- I 
ed in this manner, with their national feelings, ai.d I 
called in question even their riglit to exist as an Iwdt- I 
pendent people I 

Surrounded as he was, with enemies, TadeuskunJ |[ 
could not escape the fate that liad long been intended 
for him. In the spring of 1763, when the European 
nations had made peace, but the Indians were.->iili at 
war, he was burnt up, together with his house, as ho 
vvas lying in his bed asleep. It was supposed and 
believed by many who were present, that this dread- 
ful e^ent was not accidental, but had been niLdirely 
fe:?olvcd on by Uhs enemies, whoever they were, and 


that the Hquor which was brought to Wyoming at the 
time, was intended by them for the purpose of en- 
ticing liim to drink, tliat they iuight the more easily 
effect their purpose. A number of Indians were wit- 
nesses to tlie fact tliat iheliousc was set on fire from 
the outside. Suspicion fell principally upon the 
Mingoes, who were known lo be jealous of him, and 
fearful of his resentment, if lie should succeed in in- 
I sinuating himself into the favor of the English, and 
making g;)od terjns witli ihom for his nation. It is 
said that those Indian.^ were concerned in bringing the 
fatal li<iuor which is believed lo have been instrumen- 
tal to the execution of ihe design. 

While Tadeuskuad was at the head of his nation, 
he was frequently distinguislied by the title of " King 
of the Delawares." While passhig and repassing to 
and from the en.emy with messages, many people 
called hiui ihe '• War 'J'r.mipet." In his person he 
was a portly woUlookiiig man, endowed with good 
natural sense, quick of comprehension, and very ready 
in answering the questions put to him. He was 
rather ambitious, thought much of his rank and abili- 
ties, liked to b(3 considered as the king of his country, 
and was fond of having a retinue with him when he 
went to Philadelphia op business with the govern- 
ment. His greatest v/eakness was a fondness lor 
strong drinks, the temptation of which he could not 
easily resist, and would sometimes drink to excess. 
This unfortunate propensii y is supposed to liave been 
the cause of hiscniol and trntimely death. 

E2 ' 



'I'keuk is but a small space left us to notice (hf: it- | 
iigioui. Iiistoi^^ of (hese counties. If difFerence oi ] 
opiiiion on this intercstingsubject, is a sure ind<:X lo a ; 
deep loncd piety and christian benefaction — cliariiy I 
in the true .sense of the gospel, then may the p:3op!e \ 
of these ooatities hry no small claim to a share of le- I 
ligion; and none who has spent any time .so t 
kind and h<>si)ilal)lt a people, would doubt . acli a j 
claim. 'I'here ine not less than eight or ten disluicl 
denominations lo be found in the various parts o( 
these counties. Pcihaps in no part of the .state ol 
Pennsylvania, do we meet with larger churches thai: 
in this region. Anil if we are allowed to judgi' fron. 
the exti'riv:)r of ihoi.) stately temples, as to the Ju\m- j 
tion and charity of those who worship in thcin, wr j 
must believe, if thcie is correspondence here, tliat the- j 
cause of Christ is cherished, and the spirit of h. iku^o- J 
leuee abroad among the several denominations. It i-. | 
to be hoped that a i-eal for so good a cause will soon \ 
become commensurate with its importance anl clainx \ 
upon all classes of men. | 

It is more than probable that the Rev. Eleazm | 
Wales, a Presbyterian clergyman, was the fii -,1 \vL: 
preached within the limits of Northampton ;;o;inty. 
He resigned his pastoral charge of the Ailentown 
co?tgregaiion in 1731. Rev. Mr. Webster of Maaeb ; 
Chunk, says : '' Wy the records of the Philadelphia 
Presbytery, it appeal .; that the Rev. E. VVale,>i resigned 
il."l)'d'5laral chaige (if Allenlo\vn,m I7LM." Th.v lol 


gregation probably remained vacant till the visit of 
IJraiaei 1, 1744, who often preached at the settlement 
wiiere the church now stands. 

Rev. David Braineid was born in April, 1718, at 
Haddam, Connecticut. In 1739, he became a mem- 
ber of Yale College, v/here he was distinguished for 
application, and general correctness of conduct. In 
the spruig of ] 742, he began the study of divinity ; 
and at the end of July, he was licensed to preach, for 
which a thoroiigh exarnination hiid shown him quali- 
fied. He had for some time entertained a strong de- 
sire of preaching the gospel among the heathen, which 
was gratified by an appointment as missionary to the 
Indians. At Kaunemeck, an Indian Village of Mas- 
sachusetts, he commenced his labors in his twenty- 
fifth year of his age. ITc remained there about twelve 
months, at first residing in a wigwam among the In- 
dians, but afteruards in a rabin, whieh he constructed 
for himself, that he aught be alone, when not engaged 
•in his duties of j)reaclung and instruction. In 1744. 
he was ordained by the Presbytery of Newark, N. J., 
and took up h:s habitation near the forks of the Dela- 
ware, Bucks, now Northampton, county, where he 
resided for a year, during the course of which he 
made two visits to the Indians on the Susquehanna. 
His exertions were not successfully crowned, until he 
Avent to the Indians at Ciosweeksung, near Freehold, 
in New Jersey. Before the end of the year, a com- 
plete reformation tooic place in the lives of the sav- 
ages, seventy-eight of wb'.iu he baptized within l)i;.i 
time. lie died October i). 1747. 

BraiiKndleft a jourmi vi his labors, but lias noi^U 
1- ■," Tacts, and recorded £caice any names of pcrsoji:;. 


that would aid in eihicidatiiig any portion of history. 

In his vibit to tlie Corks of the Delaware, he says : 
" On Saturday, May 12, 1744, he came to a settlement 
of Irish and Dutch (German) people, and proceeding 
at)Out IV. elvo miles further, arrived at Takhaiiwotung, 
an hidmn settlement within the forks of the D^'la- 

'• LoriPs day, May 1 3. Rose early ; felt very poorly 
after my long journey, and after being wet and fa- 
tigued. Was very melancholy; have scarcely ever 
seen such a gloomy morning in my life ; there ap- 
peared to he no Sabbath; the children were at play; 
J, a stranger iii the wilderness, and know not 'Adieie 
to go ; and all circumstances seemed to conspire to 
render my atfairs dark and discouraging. WdS dis- 
appointed respecting an interpreter, and heard that 
the Indians were much scattered. 0, 1 mournei aftvu- 
the presence of (lod, and seemed like a creature bau- 
islied from his sight ! yet he was pleased to support 
my sinking soul amidst all my sorrows ; so that I 
never entertained any thought of quitting my business 
among the Indians; but was comforted to think 
that death would eie long set me free from the-e dis- 
tresses. Rode about three or four miles to the Irish 
people, where I found some that appeared sober inul 
concerned about religion. My heart then began to 
be a little encouraged; went and preached, fust to 
the Irish and diou to the Indians, and in the evening 
was a litlle comforted," &;c. 

F>'Ui years bulore Brainerd commenced his \n\-6- 
sionary labors amongst the Indians, in the Fo'i^s ol 
the Delaware, Bishop David Nitschman, with u com- 
pany of Moraviar.s, arrived from Europe and sjtilod 

Ai>r£N.uix. 485 

at Bethlehem. In 1741, ZiiizenJorfl", that re- 
markable man, came lo Pennsylvania as an ordinary 
of the United Brethren, "with a view of not seeing 
( liie Moravian establishments hi general, but especially 
I the fruits o[ their labors among the heathen. Since 
\ tiie days of Zinzendorff, the Moravians have contin- 
ued to prosper in this ponion of Pennsylvania. They 
have been laboring indefatigably in the cause of reli- 
gion, and of their Divivje Master. They have several 
llourisliing congregations. 

The Lutheran and German Reformed ministers, 
the Reverends Muhlenberg and Schlatter, preached 
within these limits Letv/een 1744 and 1754, and at a 
later period. Congrcgalioas of these denominations, 
as well as Presbyterian.^ : nd others, are found in va- 
rious parts of these counties. 

The present religious d'noininations in these coun- 
ties are, besides tluisc air.;. id) mentioned, Episcopals, 
Methodists, Baptists, Ijiiited Brethren, Dunkards, 
Evangelical Association, Quakers, Catholics, Church 
of God, Jews, Schwenkfelders, Universalists. These 
all have churches, a,. ;ilr,3ady noticed in the body of this 
work. Notwithstanding this array of names of reli- 
gious parties, there is much missionary ground that 
might be profitably occupied by ministers wlio can 
.speak English and German. 


Allen township, N no 007 

Aqimnshicola, or Aquan-^tiehals, U-, ^-^ 



Alleiuown, borough, 
Allen, fort, m C , t r 

Adoption of prisoners by the Indians, 
Abduction of Gilbert's fornily, 

Acretown, , , ,, , 

Anders uud laniily killed, 
Addenda, , ,,\ 

B. •■ ■ •: . 

Bath, in N '' ^g 

}3elleville, in N 
Berlinville, in N 
. Bushkill township, N 
Bethlehem township, 
Bethlehem, lown, 

Brainerd Rev , ■ ' V126 

Biery's Port, 136 

Brcineigsvillej ml 
Beaver Meadow, 

Banlis tow^iship, ' **g 

]!uruaudon, in 




488 INDEX, 

Burd, Jamss visited lort Allen, 225 

Bethel, Mount Upper, 59 

Berks co,, erection of, 241 

Branch t, 253 

Barry t, 255 

Belleniont cuiiierieS;, 350, 361 

Berry 'y colliery. 36 G 

Belfast collieiy, . 3GG 

Bolton & Go's culiienes, ^ " 3Gy 

Brunswick t. West, 268 

Bnrd's Journal, '' . 447 

Ihaii^s wife and t.liiul abducted, 25! 

Biisse Captain, 463, '1 

Courtrecords, cxtraci.:. from, N i ..22 

Council held at Ea^ston, , , .,-,_., 31 

Centre ville, in N 59 

Centreville, orNili^hsville, , :..j . . .. ■, ,64 

Cherryville, in N .: .,..!..i67 

Christian llriuui, : , ', \ -. . ; 1^ 

Ciansevillc, in J.. ;. 134 

Craig's Meadow, 159 

Coolbaugh towiisln'p, 172 

Chestnuthill townshi}', 177 

Carbon conmy orocled, : '181 

Chfton, in C ' ■• • 213 

Coaqueimae, 296 

Coal Castle, / '...: .. •' r.,... 296 

Coal &c., history of 298 
Coal region and mining operations, 331, 345 

Coal origin and formation, 331 

Coal, quantity transported, • . 319 

Common school, ■■ 403 


Delaware Water Gap, 2G 

Dill's ferry, in N 60 


Devil's pulpit, • 114 

Dilliiigcr's, 127 

Dutotsburg, ■ ' •'•'. ■ 158 

Davis' colliery, '", '" '357 

Den Sergeimt killed, . . ' ^^30 

Depue Samuel, '■ ■'■ 417, 418 

;v; • E, ,:. . i .,;: 

Easton, 'jarly itisioiy oi", • • '31 

Eastoji, as at pre.^'ent, .• '52 

EpitapiiS c't "JJclhlchcui, ■' '-82 

Eniaus, in L • - 140 

East Penn township, 228 

Epitaphs at Mahoning, 232 

East Brunswick township, 249 
Evan's colliery, ' ' • '^ -376 

Education, '.;•'.' ' '380 

Easton, Tree school at, 1755, .• ' 394 

Enslee Captain, 420 

Eveiitt's station 454 

Freshet at Easton in 1840, — ' ••- ^' 53 

u u 1811^ .... ■ > -54 

Flatfield, inN :,..;. 51 

Forks to wnshi}), N 73 

Frecmansburg, in N 79 

Frieden Kuerten, 86 

Franklin Denjamin's letters, 92, 221 

Fries' trial, 118,125 

Fogelsville, in L 135 

Freystown, or Freyslviug, '138 

Flood at Allentown, ' ' 144 

Foit Haaiilfon, 152, 417 

Flood :'.t Su\<udsbui-g, 155 

Fcnncrsvillc, 180 

FoL-t Allen, or Weispori; . 217 

llMil of '&6 at Fort Allen, 218 



French and Indian Wars, , • a5Q 

Friedeiisburg, , ' , ' 26Q 

Freshet.s in 1831-41, 290 

Freeman's collieries, _. ' ' 352 

Fitzirnmoti's colliery, ' ^.354 

Free school at Easton, 1755, .",' " ,' 394 

Fort Norris, 415' 

Fort North Kill, 410 

Fort Hyndshaw, 4\q 

Fabric! us liilled and scalped, 231 

Fort Henry, . 463 

Fort I.cbanoiij 464 

Fragment of a JO LUiial. ... 463 


Germans, history of, ' -7 

Glenden Iron works, 71 

Gnadrnthal, in N 78 

Germansville, in L 12S 
Great Swamp, ' . '; , 315 

Gnadti; lliKittcn, * oig 

Gap the, ni C 227 

Gilbert's family abducted, 233 

Great dam, or artilicial lake, 257 

Gartermeyer inurdered, 232 

Geiger J.ieuienant, 453 


Hauertown, in N •. \ m' i. 64 


Hanover township, N 68 

Hecktown, in N 74 

Horsefiold Timothy, ^ 88, 90. ii2 

HatcheitootlA Falls', ' ' '112 

Hanover township, L • i2ii 

Heidelbia-g township, . ' ' J27 

Haniilion township, ■ 179 

Hazelcon, ', ' , ,■ " 214 


Hoeth's creek, in ■ 215 

Home, : 23y 

History ol'coal, .■■ ; 

Henderson's colliery, 

HeeLner's colliery, 

Hewes' colliery, 

Hoeth and family nuudert-.d, 

Hartmau murder, 

Harriger abducted. 




Irish, history ol 

Irislitown, ^ „ ,, ^..^ 

Instructiou, course of, ai Lafayette College, 3J« 

Johnsonville, m N 
Jacobsburg, in N 
Jacksonville, in h 
Junction Collieries, 
Journal of Van EticiK 
Journal of Young, 
Journal of Burd, 
Journal, fragment of 

Kreidersville, in N 
Kernsvillc or Pctersville, 
Klecknersville, in N 
Kern's Mills, in L 








351, 356 

Kinsley's coUieries, ^ ' ^^ 

Kurt.''; Rev. receiver a letter, 

Liule Gap, of N 



Lower P.I0111U Betliel t, N :., .'• i 

Lehigh t, N 

Lfihighviile or iierlinviUe .'• ' ■ 

Lehigh Rolling mill, 

Lower Nazareth township, 

Leticrs. important ones, ; 

Lehigh county' organized, 

Leckhaw, or I.ehigh river, . ' 

Lehigh Watt^r Oa[), 

Linn towusliip. L 

Linni/illo, in L 

Low Hill towjc^iiip, 

Lower Macnnjy township, • . 

Lehigh Port, 

Lower Srniihii^id t, 

Lehigh coal nihie company formed, 

Lausanne, in C 

Lausanne (ov/Ji.;hip, C 

Lawrylowu. in 

Lehigh river inijauved. 

Lower Towanii nsing township, ' " 

Lehighton in (J 



Landisuille ' ' '' 


Lick Run C',>iHcr!es, 

LoWlI MalMMi iigo t, 

Latayette C.'.ileg;, S'Jl 

Lesley killed hy Indians, ^ ^ ^ 23?. 

Moore township, N '' ' ' ' 67 

Millerstown or Aiillerville, 135 

Mount Pleasant, in J. ■ ' ' 137 

Mammoth Rock, ' 13^ 

Monroe county organized, 145 

Meenesinks, 159 

Middle Smithlield i, 163 




70 1 


109 'i 



113 ; 

131 ' 

132 i 


1 35 

1 1 3 

J 57 

1 !) 3 

212 i 

2] 3 ' 

213 1 

inf) ; 

2Qf; 1 


254 ' 

2(J3 i 

270 ^ 

293 , 

355 i 

2 5 5 i 


jNI)i;x. 493 

Mauch Chunk townsln]), 187 

MaiK'h Chunk, 188 

Mauch Cliiaik rnounlahi, 191, 199 

Mahonhig township, 228 

Moravia u Miss. Estab. destroyed, 229 

Mount Iklhel, XTpper, . 59 

JVfacunjy, Upper, . : ■ 134 

Miiioi-d, Upper, 136 

Manhciin townsliip, . 251 

Mincrsville, 253 

Maliantango t, Lower^ 255 

M'Kcansb\n-g, 270 
Mhhng operations in L co.. 

Music Hail culHc-ries, 354 

Mannnoth colliery, 379 

Maliantango t., Upper, ■ ■ • ■ ■ ^ • -265 

Members of educaticn scheme, ' ^^ •'-■ -384 

Mill creek rail road, - 370 

Model school at Ivrttan, 403 

INIarshall's wif.-killMl, 437 

N. ' • :' ■ 

Northampton CO., erection of, . ■ -1,9 

NorUiainpton, present limits of, 24 

Nelighsville, in N -64 

Newijurg, in ['* 74 

Nazareth, in N ... 75 

North Whitehall township, L .128 


New Tripoli, in L 

Northampton townslvip, L. 


Nesc^uihoning; in C ■ .' '^^^ 

Nazareth, Lower township - ; 74 

Norwegian township, 271 

Nev/ Cluslle, 296 

NodiL Kill, Fori ai. -HO 

Norris\s Fo.-l, ' ^1^ 

Niii-ehman killed, icC; 231 



Orndi Jacob's letters, 
Oplinger's, or Upiinger% 
Owl creek, in C 
Origin of coal, 

224, 2^5 




. 331 

Vropcrty. loss o\ vA Easton, 

Pjuinfiold t, N 

Petersvilles. or Kernsville, 

Price tuwnsliip, 

Pokonu tovviishiji; 

Penn Ilavcii, it; C 

Penn Foie&( lowriship, 

Parrysville, m C 

Peart and otiiers abducted. 


Port Clinton, , i 

Porte I, t, 

Pine (Jiovc t, 

Pine Grove. 


Pottsville und vicinity, 

Port VVilhclni, 

Port Carbon, 

Pennman's collieries, 

Patrick's collieries, 

Pinkerton's colliery, 

Penn t, West, ,- , 

Parsons William, 

Prisser Martin, killed, 

Penipcr Cliristian, murdered, 

Puisons' letter to Rev. Kurtz, 

25 o 


Quinn's cotton laclory, 
Quantity of coal transported, 



Richmond, in N '60 

]\ose, 11. e., of Nazareth, • . ■ 77 
Rittersville, in L /. • ' - 127 

Ross township, -178 
Rockport, in C -213 

Rush t, 259 

Jihoadstown, 293 

Richard's coliiciy, 363 

Ronaldson colUery, 374 

Ranihow colliery, 375 

liankEsqr's ieticr, 259 

Reichelderfers murdered, 250 


Slate Port, in N •■ >' • ■ ' ■ 59 

Saucon township, N ''•; 68 

South ICaston, liorough, 69 

South Easton, t'uundry, 70 

Stoel niunulachwy, 70 

Stockersvillc, in N 73 

Shoeneck, in N 78 
Spangenherg's letters, 95, 99 

Segersville, in \, 128 

Siegersville, 129 

Snydersville, 129 

Slate Dam, in L . 129 

Sontli Wliitehall to\vnshi]>^ 130 

Scheimersvilltj, 135 

Salisburg township, 139 

Stroud township, 150 

Stroudsburg, 151 

Sniithfield township, M 157 

Spruce Giovc, 173 

Saxville, 173 

Snydersville, in M 179 

Saylorsville, 180 

Sl.fuios ofdualii, 215 


South Lohigliton, 22^ 

Schuylkill county. 239 

Sinithfieltl Lower township, 157 

Saucon, Upper, 13S 

Suiithli(;kl, Upper, .,.. ms 

Scliuylidll cuiinty erected, ,. 241 

Schuylkill llavcij, . . 252 

Swataraville^ 259 

Schuylkill (ov/iislii]>, • 2f)2 

Schuylkill v.iUey, 263 

St. Clair, 2!»G 

SclmeidbuJg. 272 

Schuylkill coal holds, 3 13 

Schuylkill Valley District, 3]S 

Silver crook colliori<.s, 35S 

Salem collioiics, 371 

Sillyniaii'^ culiiory, 37u 

Schlatter.^ ycliciuc of education, 3S'l 

Subscri[)lion towards school house &c., 395 
Serninaiics at Nazareth and Betlileheni, 403 

Senseniaiis killod, 2;;,' 

SchwicuiTi iiiiadur, 233 

Swatara loit, , 451 

Topograpliy of low nships, 



Trexlerstuwn, iu L 


Toh yhan na to w nsh ip, 




Tippey'd tlood, in 

2 IS 

Towamonsing, Lower, 

22 G 





Tuscarora collieries, 


Thompson's collieries, 


Trnstv^es of the education scheme of 1751, 


Tidd John, kilbd, 


Trump Adam, municred, 


Tedyuecimi;. sketch oi 

4 77 


Upper IVIoiuit Beihel township, N 59 

Upper N;iz irctb townsliip, 75 

Upper Macunjy, in L 134 

Upper Millord lowsnlup, 136 

Upper ScLUtoii lowDship, 138 

Upper Sinittifield township, 163 

Upptir 'I'o iV amending tov/iiship, 215 

Union township, 265 

Upper Wahaiitango tcv.'oihip, " 265 

UrciTs colherie-s, 353 

Union collieries, 359 

Van Ettcn's jiiarnal, 421 

Van Etten, jikiiice o* the peace, 428 


Welsh, history of, 13 

Wuid Gap, N 26 

Willianisl)ur;j:, in N 59 

WeuverslnuL'-, in N 64 

Wardsbiirg, in N 66 

Williams town ship, N 69 

Williamspori, in N 71 

Whitfield's purchase, in N 75 

, Weisenbiirg township, 137 

Weiss[)ort, in C 216 

Weiss Jacoh^ ('olonel, ' 217 

Wayne township, 260 

West Ikunswi. k to\i/!iship, 268 

West Penn rc.Mu^hip, 270 

Williom's cwihcry, 357 

Weutheroid Captain, 414, 419 





iioun^' Jaiucs, coininissary in 1756, 

Youiu"'s addition, 


Young's cammissiry journal, 10 J) 


ZminernKuistou'U, ^^'■ 

Zeisloa* Ocorge, HUed, ^^^^ 


^(UKiyiKlI.L (U.IINTY. 

Residence — FcUaviUe. 
Rev David Mubsingf' 

iiev Hii^di I^ane 

Charles Loeeer 

Isaac Beck 

Daul Larer 

Michael Morlinier 

Nichohis Fox 

EJwd Owen I'arry Ivq 

F W Hufrhos lisq 

(leo L Gcnslcr 

Andrew B VVIiile 

A Lippe M D 

James L Yoder 

Juo II Clement 

Jacob Reed Eacj 

Daniel Hill 

Edward T Taylor 

Thos D Beatty 
V Ilewson 
Jiio Franklin Esq 
E Chichesier M 1) 
Geo W Snyder 
Horace Smith Esq 
, Howell F.^-h^r 
y l)r G G l*,ilmcr 
■ rharles M I.nvvib 

Plice of Nativity. 

Berkri CO' 


Mont^rornery co 

B'-rks county 

Philadelphia couniy 

Schnylkdl co 

Berks CO 

Torts uirulh N H 

Mimi^romery co 




Be rkn CO 

GloiiL-ester N J 

Berks CO 

Glinieester N J 
New York City 
Pliil delphia 
Luzerne co 
Faiilield co Conu 
Berk.^ co 

Gloucester co N J 
Dfiaware co 
Cheiiter co 


•vtitn! iuv ru-xuK ci iLt> bi-ale i«ouiii»f4, wf «f IVw*'^ 


'R&iidoneK — Pcttdvilio. 

Place of Nativity, 

John ll(:dakl.-S 


F M Wv'n!:.uop Eililor 

IJiicks CO 

\Vm Neivell jr 


Richd J Ow.n 


Cecil iiarryinan M ii 


Wm F(jx 

Maiden Creek Berks cu 

Jacob Epiin^ 

Lexington Ky 

John S C M.-.iiin 

Lancaster t;o 

James S Bri.lsy 

Norlhtiniherland co 

C; W F:..-qul;:ir i:hq 

Willianis|iorl Lycomi^..-^^ -.' 

George 11 liinrivlter M D 


William M«f/^,in 


S:imuel 'i'liomi-'hoii 

Juniata co 

Samuel IJussi'll 

Norlliuinberland co 

Hirain Riag 

Lancaster co 

John Mc(y(»rn.:; k 

Berks CO 

John \iadi 

Sunbury, Northuniheiiiiui 

Nathan Evans 

Lancaster co 

Franklin P Myi re 

Columbia cci 

Iiafaytuu J H ihiiun 

Berks CO 

Fretlcri( 1> (.J Ejj'.iug 


Jos Mufi^.m 

Sussex CO N J 

lliram Parker 

Worcester co Mass 

Geo W Hlaler 

Union CO 

Micha;! Coi^iuan P M 


Jos M FrLcii 

Dauphin co 

John (« llvov-.u 


E Ja-.-kaon EditiK 

Columbia co 

G L Vlitt 

Northampton co 

J P Berirani Edilof 

Berks co 

Oliver IKtbson 

Schuylkill c» 

Amos J']uterlini; 

Daupliin CO 

Rev Will G Meunig 

Lebanon co 

Geo (Icisltr Esq 

Berks CO 

Daniel Krel>3 

Schuylkill ci. 

B W Cunf.mio^- Enq 


R M Palmer Ehq 

Mt Holly N J 

J Sjr.i',i' McMickci. iliq 

Williamsjtorl Lyc(.. ii!^' ^ 


Hamburg Berka co 

Wm Wolfii 

Do du 



Residence — I'oa.villt-. 

Samuel llumziiii)'jL 
J II ZiefTciilus 
,lo.sepli Bmvca 
John J Jone.i 
Iknjamiii r3ouk 
]{ev E 13 Evi.n- 
W L Hei.ler 
Win Major 
'I'liomas Fin;!. [ 
Samuel ll;>iln; 
Dan S{:ili 
(Il-o II I'olts 
Alfred Law tin n 
Patrick Daly 
Oharleb Bercl-ilcy 
Thomas Foster 
.liio Clayton 
W n Marshall 
A Meisse 
Wm C Leib 
Johann K Voelloa;: al 
1" 1) FcTosKu- 
Max Dorlliiiger 
I'Vank. Pott 
James G Cochran 
I) E Nice Esq 
E W McCimiea 
Thos S Riilgvvay y 
Joseph George 
John Treagea 
(ieorge Mortimer 
M .Slrouse 
Chas W element 
('has Bushar 
(' ^ Fox 
W li Morgan 
Geo F Mars 
Charles An gee 
Peter S Mariz 
Charles Leib 
«^.> Ihlbc-rstali 'H 1) 

? of Nativity. 

Berk.: CO 
Sch'iyikill CO 

IJaiKJilo Carmarthershire S 
S W;iles [Wales 

Berks CO 
Cliester co 
t:;coiland ./,, ,• 

Dauphin CO 

Moiiigomery ca 

New Jersey 

New York city 


'I'rr.y N Y 

ffof kinghani co N li 

(Columbia co 


lierks CO 

Dauphin (now Lebanon) co 


Lihanou CO 

Si liuylkillco 
Ik'iks CO 
Moiugoniery co 
IMiiladelphia city 

CUu-nwall co Eng 
Schuylkill co 

Gcrmantown Phila co 
Soliiiylkill CO 
I^crks CO 
S Wales 
Lancaster co 
Bu -ks CO 
Mihon North'd co 
Si iiuylkill CO 
Plidadelphia city 

502 SLUi^/uIEEBs' NAMES, 

Residence! — P-iKavillu, Place of Nativity. 

\Vin CortL'lyou Morris co N J 

\Vm Mortimer jr Schuylkill co . ■ 

J as G Shoo;i!akef Do I 

Francis J I'luvir Maiden creek, tp Berka cO' j 

E E Blnmi Berks co j 

Daniel Scholieubeiger Berks co i 

Win Levvi.'i !S Wales | 

Beiij llaywuud EiiijlanJ | 

James F Harris 8 Wales | 

Daniel Kichanl Do j 

Lewis Rce'j Do ^ 

M B Lutz Reailing- j 

Joseph lleslop England | 

D G Yueiig'nng Germany j 

H Slraiich ^ Fotlaville j 

John Mcl\i. 'lien Philadelphia 

S S Stevens (Shij)|)e,ii',urg)CarlisU; { 

Reese Williauus S VV^ales | 

Hugh Huj,rlis N Wales 

John Hopkina S Wales 

Evan Pet. r N Wales 

Edw W i\1;!dOu Philadelphia 

Thomas Williaiiiy S Wales 
David Jenkms, Do 

Nathan Cleaver Columbia co 

John Mariinni.i Monogan co Ireland 

James Foclil Brunswick forge Sohuyihih ■-:■■ \ 

B F Pomroy Philadelphia ,' 

Wni II Joluid Pembrokeshire S Wales I 

Thomas Lloyd S Wales i 

Thomas Evans (Chester co I 

James McAloarndy Ireland | 

Geo Lau.n- (lermany 

Edw N Thomaf, Dowlois S Wales | 

John GriiTith Carnarvonshire N Wale.i; 

Stephen Ji>ncs Nnrlhampton co i 

Thi^nias Thorn New Jersey 1 

P McGovorn ('a van co Ireland i 

Tliomafj Pelhofick ('ornwall Eng 1 

Henry Davis Glamorganshire S W L | 

:\ i\ \Vil.:;>n Columbia co ! ivames. 

Residence — Pottaville. 

J E Keciiiiin 
William U-rch 
(Miarles Sliclk-y 
George Hcidwati 
Peter F Miuley 
Win Yod.aii 
lleorge II'::itoti 
Win litese 
i'Vaneis MaljJUab 
Watkin P-icliard-s 
<i'eor^(' ll\c\i 
Win IMaclunan 
Imios lUacknian 
t.ieorge JS Iloukey 
Wm Mc.C:.)y 
Wm Zi'lliier 
T A Simpson 
Tliomad Montgomery 
William McCabe 
Nathaniel IJowen 
M'obias 'I'omlilt'soii 
James Di.wiiey 
(Charles Vliet 
John Spolm 
John E Wyiikoop 
Jeremi.ili llowcr 
Joseph Sliippiii 
Isaac Severn 
William Carter 
fjtephcn Rogers 
Joshua Dodson 
Wm II 11 Hiissel 
James IkuiUiin 
P E Doiifiherly 
N W Ntunam 
Joseph i)( rr 
Stephen Viauser 
Edward liclir 
Wm ;\lc-nonne!l 
Henry Jr r:l.ins 
'i}j\u\ !v Kk'ck 

Pluci. i.f INalivity. 

Tiog;, CO N Y 
Norlliamplon co 

Philadelphia city 
Schuylkill CO 
Yoiksiiire, Eng 
Glaiiiorganshiie S Wales 
Shropshire Eng 
Brecknockshire S Wales 
\lk'-.i Monmouthshire S Wakf. 
Wili^hire Eng 

A^iiil ddphia 
I.iiZ( rue cO 
Northampton eo 
Bristol Bucks co 
lliiijii CO 

Monohon co Ireland 
Oloticcstershire Eng 
Soliuylkdl CO 
J'Yiinana<i,li Ireland 
Wiiiren co JN J 
lieiks CO 

Newton Bucks co 
liel.Miion cc» 


Berks CO 

Fort Allen Lehigh co 
Chester co 
Newark N J 
Kent CO Md 
Berks CO 

W Penn Schuylkill co 
Oneida co N Y 




lieaidence — Potih'iile. 

Geo W Em 
Anlliony Hcstoi: 
(vjipt Isaac P Lykeiis 
William Mill-ies 
Isaac Baioia 
Daniel Ilosi; 
Robert Brown 
kiamoel W A rin.) 
Andw N Siriium 
George W (looii 
i^inulf's I,M-a 
Joseph Ivil jiii 
Wm Ti^vlor 
li Woii!.''l clorli 
J II Leil 
John L:uuisc;it 
W OHnlaa 
Andw Olii/haui 
l,evi 15 Fan- 
Martin .Vlurphy 
Wiiliam Kind 
\Vn» U :\f i.u 
Daniel yholenlfrf^'er 
John T Werner Edi!t>r 
Jacob IIci3t;r 
Edward Yardloy 
Eli !Sll.v,.ly 
John Dt^vr 
Nicholas Uahet 
Jesse It Clark 
James E MulUgau 
Henry Lilley 
E N Estcrline 
Samuel Siodd 
Thomai Wren 
Charles airhriShnw 
Jacob Neyhait 
John Ri-Mv.mi 
Charles McAvey 
Peter N.iyhavt 
lime-c 'I'rcuit 

Place of Nativity. 

Columbia co 
Lancaster co 
Cornwall Eng 
(Chester co 
Columbia co 
Jjebanon co 
SchuylkJJt CO 
Union CO 
Dauphin CO 
IJerneville Ik'rkd co- 
Lancaster CO 
Berks CO 
Chester co 
Northumberland cc* 
Berks co 
Northampton co- 
Berks co 
Lel)anoii co 
Schuylkill co 
Bucks co 

Potlsgrove Montgomery io 
Hamburg Beiks o 

Do do 

Wilmington Del 
Cincinnati Ohio 
Berks co 
E as ton 

Stallbrdshire Enjf 
Glasgow Clyde iron .vorka 
Nottingham Eng f^Scodand 
Union co 
Berks CO 
Baltimore Md 
Union co 
Berks CO 



Reaidcnce — P&itsville 

Adam Ei!er 
Capl John GilhucMi 
I'hilip llollu 
Edward M Davis 
Aaron Siinck 
Aaron Polls 
William NunemacSLCr 
Michael Mes,?iier 
John iMcliuirt 
Daniel li Ilemy 
Daniel Christian 
John Koneiiy 
Uichard Winlack 
Isaac Rich 
Joseph Armstrong; 
Abraham Camp 
Charles Dimtnif^ 
Robert H Neligh 
James W Kesne 
Tobias Hauscr 
Peter Douty 
(Jeor<ic Hay 
John i{oherson 
Ueuben Godshall 
George IJrch 
Edw Morisoii 
Stephen Reos 
Eiios Zenimyei 
John Vaiiglitou 
Oliver Snyder 
John M'liomas 
John Jones 
IJenjamin Thomas 
Shadrach Philips 
David Griffith 
Cornelius Ceai) 
David Lam;mt 
Georg':- I)il!')u 
Prothrow Prothrow 
Joel Moore 
Jcl, HoMiei) 

Place of Nativity. 

SehMylkill CO 

Dul.Hii Ireland 

Woiiielsdorf Berks co 

MaiHiionliishire S Wales 

UniiHi CO 

Burlington co N J 


CJrai/town Dauphin co 

Caven co Ireland 

Schuylkill CO 

BerKs CO 

Donegal co Ireland 

D( iry CO do 

(Iloucestershire Eng 

Wl:itc Haven Climb co Eng 

Nurthumberland co 

Northampton co 
Luzerne co 

W Penn tp Schuylkill co 
Mdton Norlh'd co 
D'lmbartoubiure Scotland 
C'lackinananshire do 
Rush tp Schuylkill co 
Somersetshire England 
I,(Mcestershire do 

(llMiiorganshire S Wales 
Lrwisburg Union co 
Longford co Ireland 
Nr.rthampton co 
Cajimardienshire S Wale& 

Do do 

iJKicknockshire do 
Monmouthshire do 
C;x'rmardienshire do 
Cork CO Ireland 
Lrmdrickshire Scotland 
Berks CO 

(^ii^rniarlhcnshire S Walei- 
lichigh CO 
Monmouthshire S Walea 



Resideiu;(' — Pultivillc. 

William I low (11 
Charlt-j Wcruian 
Nalliaii Fislifci- 
WilUad. rnrhaid 
K M(l)()iiaM 
D.inirl I'cnt^tLi'iJiachcr 
l<:tlwai..l Skcrni 

Nalhan Mnvlr 
Isaac Tipm,, 
JutiM ivIuM'.l. 
Kobcrl ('a.siui'll 
Wni Aril, man 

.luhll JcHlCS 

Antlionv iVri.Kl::50,i 
William W ,ir,s 
I'^aii Mollis 
(Ic'urgu !{aruni( pr ( r.^ 
.Samiu^l li I'liigL'lnr.!! 
Salmii I5nivvii 
William 15 I.. uJH 
William U'.l.r 
1) S fS|ian; M I) 
Isaac A [IIliI^ y 
Hoiijamiii CI rit;li. n 
Jacob Cliririi: n 
(ieoi-f^o 11 S.wliier 
^tobert [{oluTis — ._ 
Isaac Willian...^ 
Thomas Mo^s 
Andrew Jcniu 
John liviiiL'' 
Wm Jolu;^ Li'^show 
David I'.vau, " 
Josejdi ('jilcy 
John W l.nit 

Jfdlll Piilk.'.lOU 

Jorc'iiiiah laud 
l)a(U(d Iviii'.ip.d 
I .Sheuic 

Place of Nativity. 

Monmouthshire S Wales 
IJi-rks CO 
Yorkshire Eiig 
Monmoiillishirc S Waled 
Delaware co 
Scliiiylkill CO 
Lancaster co 
lUrks CO 

Shiopshire I'^iig 
rcmhrookeriliire S Wales 
Cilamorganslin(! S Wales 
.Somerselsliiie Kwg 
(ilamorj,'ansliire S Wale.^ 
JNiordiumberlaiid co 
Durham co Eng 
Cornwall co IJiig 
(^irmardiaiisliireS Waley 
cry Yi.ik--hire Kiig 
l.ehigh CO 
I-uzcriie CO 
lieiks CO 

Mimigomery co 
Norllianiplon co Mass 
S.diuvlkill CO 

(Ilamorgansliire S Wales 
Monmoulhshire do 

Diirliam co Kiig 

Do do 
(Cumberland co Eng 
( Jlamorganshire 8 Wales 

Do' do 

Durham co Eiig 
Danville Columbia co 
York CO Eiig 
fScliuylkill CO 
Hiveknockshire S Wal. ., 
Roolnnghamco N 11 

SUJ.!SCl!U«ti<s' NAMES. 507 

Reaidenco— Pottavil 

Ji,.ce of INiilivity. 

John I'ox 1^' fl^« ^» 

James Davis 

Wuif.ebter co Eng 

Alexauilcr llauUius barluu Albany N ^ 

Orlando Uufur IumIu.uci- co NY 

Sanu.rlinM.hur (il.mce^ier co N J 

Will.a.nLewH li.orknock.lure & Wales 
Joliu 1>^» , . ^.^ 

John Janr-s l.lan.organshirc do 

Uicharil Ki;kl,am I .nu-olnb! Li.f? 

Hugh M.iny IJniluTglen Scull. nul 

Dlj IS-,,, ,Si,,uuokm Nonli'd co 

Roberl'vViigl.t WeMu-onkuul co Eog 

Michael (Ic.^er l'"-'ks co 

George MrElic. A.n, ah co Ireland 

George C ilandy Cornwall co Lng 

Elias Seder '*''''^^ '■'' 

Hiram Focht .Srbuylkdl co 

George IMer NorduunhcMland co 

Allen llarmor <'l"-^'^^'- ^'' , ,, , ,. 

WmHerninger K.,nn..r cr.M-k Columbia co 

AM Mardouald Colu.nb.aN \ 

John II June. MonigonuM-y co 

Joseph Allison We,unorcland Lng 

Lemuel I) Jonei 

Siraub Esq 

John Siyerd 

Evan IMce 

D V Jane-5 (Cli 

John Ihiinplirey! 

George Sei)encer 

Rev A A. Andei; 

C W Taylor E = 

Joseph Christ 

James B I'^iH^s 

George IVami'. 

Michael Wrav; 
Uichard B-rryn 
Jos F TaybT 

S Wales 

M.utbnmherlc:nd co 

Warren CO IN J 

?, Wales 

ef liurg> 

ss) I'cii.hrokeshire S Wales 
l.Tiibigshire N Wales 



Yorkshire Eng 



Union co 


r',-bnylkill co 

(!(duiiil>ia CO 

A us 'I'vvcy-Brneckea 


r {■ U 

^■innbnry NoriliM co 

I. in 

( ;:.niwall CO Eng 

New Jersey 

bun Esr 

M-wiigoinery co 




Rfesideiice — Miue.-svilU . 

James Fcx 
Franklin Ri.dadti 
Jolui 'J" (J Kuiiisii.H 
Alex.iii(icr SvAWey 
James Ivobi-rtf-o:! 
Jacob VVeniait 
Thoniiis Green 
Stephen Sqiure 
Philip Jones 
Fvan Evans 
'I'l.oaras Cncsliiic; 
DaviJ drilliihti 
Thomas Davi-i 
AV.n i)ellav(;n 
lioberi WiUian.i- 
[high Davi., 
Walter Plnl'i'.-^ 
^Sa^Ulel Wcmi i 
John !•; I\)v.ell 
M G lleihun- 
Samuel Gum pert 
Ahrahanj 'Ir.ui. 
U S Gei.lei 
JohnP Powell 
John Rogers 
John Davis 
Noah (;rilh-hs 
J as Levan 
Jacob Weist 
Rev J PUnris 
(Jeorge J l/.uvrenci; 
Joint 'Canner 
Vugusius VVitman 
J)avul (ieorgi; 
\V Maiihews 
l''ranklin S-MlzinijCi 
Esau 'MeKim 
Casper Yiist 
Thomas Williams 
Moses WeiJ^er 
invid Griffith 

Place of Nativity. 

Dauphin co 

Hamburg IJerks co 

Hague Hollanil 

Ayreshire Scoiland 

Lanarkshire do 

IJousevveiler France 

Monmouthshire S Wales 


Potypool S Wales 

Glamorganshire S Wales 

Shropshire Eng 

Merlhyriulvil S Wales 

I5recknockslure do 

Ik'rks CO 

(Carnarvonshire N Wales 

IJrecknoekshire S Wales 

Munmouihshire (k) 

MonigonKM-ysliire N Wale6 

Monmouihshire S Wales 

Berks co 


JNorlhumherland co 


Merlhyeiulvil S Wales 

Monmouthshire do 

Myrtbelnlvil do 

Moimiouthshire do 

Berks co 


Pend)rokeshire S Wales 

Norlhundierland co 

Soutli Wales 


Glamorganshire S Wales 

Brecknoc'kshire do 


Lancaster co 


Blanarvon Monmouthshir;; 8 U 

Berks CO 

Aberhavcsl Mont.shireNWalea 



Reaidence — M uiersv ili •■•■ 
Jolm Plall 

David IJewcl}'!! 
Lewis M Joiica 
Joseph 11 fiiivliurds 
Amos H Lewis 
Andrew Paiien 
Wm Lailuii 
John \Vei;*htaum 
David L VViili^iiai; 
Edwviid P! ,u 

Thomas Piatt 
Reese Davies 
Wm Hi- ad aw 
John E Price 
David E Davies 
John E Davies 
David Price 
Thomas A Willi:iiiia 
Philip Whalen 
John llortou 
Jan»es Wdliams 
George H lieach 
Charles IJecknian 
Wm J Stnilh M D 
Daniel Weavci 
John S Davis 
Wm U Thomas 
Wn\ Kamner 
Oscar M Rdbin.s 
Edward Halstein 
Samuel Ileilner 
Wm Williams 
Wm ileiulaon 
liUke Mochait 
Evan Goi",.rj 
Thop.ias Williams 
Abiiih'^ni Morg'in 
1; li ». Morrisoa 

IMlco of Nativity. 

("aven Mauer liuabon Darn- 

bighshire N Wales 
Giauiorganshire S Wales 
Moninoiithsliire do 

CvMphilly (Ilaniorg. do 
IJerks CO 

Nuiiluiniberland co Eng 

Do do 

Do do 

Argoed Monnioiitlish S Wales 

Cuvcn Mauer Deaibigshirc N 


Do do do 

iireckiiockshire 8 Wales 
(llatiiorgaiisliire do 

Munmoulhsliire do 

Glamorganshire do 

Do do 

Do do 

Brecknockshire do 


Llaufyrnach S Wales 
IJrecknockshire do 
StalFordshire Eng 
Klanover Gern)any 

Nurlhiimberland co 
(^armardien^hire S Wales 
Monmoulhshirc do 

t^chuyikill co 
t/nion co 

Sulzdorf Germany 
Moninoulhshire S Wale& 
Durham co Eng 
Fermanagh co Ireland 
Carmarthenshire !S Walee 
(.lamorganshire do 

r.<iityj)ool Monmouthshire d ■ 
jfif-rks cci 



Residence — Mir.crsvjilo 

Geor^n! E l\\vtnar 
James lingor:- 
Saimic-l Kaun'mau 
Amos IlarshhLTivcr 
Tlioinas .1 M(.rirai\ 
Tlioin IS I) J..>',wih- 
Aaroti Biin 
David Duvio 
llicbacd Fr;i I'iis 
Siiin-i;;! i'\dix 
Levi Dieiritli 
-Lewis lioberi-1 
Henry Jones 

Jolin 1) Jones (tailiU) 
Ed waul Kt>ar 
Lewis W PiL'vosJ 
William Sliarp 
Ebenezor Jones 
James SpeuiMir 
Andrew Kliiu- 
Chark-s J.uUm, 
Willuim K Kline 
Herl)erl 'I'liomas sr 
Herbert 'I'lhtuias jr 
Henry Joiut 
David .K:ilV!.-s 
Pliili|. \V,-inc.-.i 
Abratrain E Dc Haven 
David KDa vis 
Thomas T Jones 
Charles Vaii^^nau 
William L Jones 
Thomas Jones 
Daniel R Bii^rhl 
Jacob 'I' 'riiumni 
-J L Rol)ert3 
Alexander Manning 
Fredori(d< Zt^ndiali 
Levi E Tliomaa 
Willin-* i.lovti 

Place of Nativity. 

Poilsmonlh Eiig 

Leirim co Ireland 

Schnylkdl eo 

Lebanon eo 

Moinnonthshire S Wales 

E<i;lwj^fselian do 

Milllin eo 

Olumorganshire S Wales 

Cornwall eo Eng 

Seluiylkill co 

Norlhunibeihmd co 

Clanmrgansliire S Wales 

N ('asde Endya Carman! ..n 
thireS Wales 

Lludlwyn<,r Parish S Wale.- 

Dean Forest Gloucester Eng 

Chester co 

Norihnml)erland co 

Nant) jflow Moninouthshir*. 

Yorkshire Eng 

Columbia eo 

Milion Norlh'd co 

llerks CO 

Monmouthshire S Wales 
Do do 

Do do 

Glamorganshire do 

liaiixweiler F'rance 

Union tp Berks eo 

Monmonlbshire S Wales 

Dowlais Glam'g sh do 

Breeknoi kshire do 

Glamorganshire do 

Tiiverpool Eng 

IMilloii Norlird co 

W irlenibt>rg Europe 

Glamorganshire !S Wales 

l^aneaster eo 

SrliuylkiU CO 

(-'olund)ia co 

Glamorganshire S Walec 

ai/bSCtilfUKKS" NAMES, 


Keaidence — Mineryvilic. 

William Piicluu-a 
John Tiaycif 
Owen Il'jj!>f3 
Beiijam*! 1) Ilvaiia 
James llw-iiice 
John liobiiis 
Thoiiras (; iManiiel 
Peter Dlraini) 
John 'I'l.uinas itetM 
Jolui 'I'lKinias 
Wm Aiiiim hc 
D R Henneli 
George Hebe 
Henry [{nmer 
Lewib 1' (Jarner 

Wm Taa.inl 
Charles W Dannenhauer 
John Edwards 
Benjaniin lleilner 
GideDii Wlu.istoae 
Valler Mdler 
A 11 Duel 
Uobert Harris 
Ceoige Sherry 
Emanuel l)(jrmit.ior 
Jacol) Glace 
Ralph Nam of 
John 'I'lpiien 
Wm I'lasuvuod 
Hugh Tamany 
Evan Jones 
Isaae JNallrass 
Peter Dodsofi 
A L Bouijimer 
Thomas Mbyer 
John Ffiai. 1 
Nicluilas Iliiibh 
Stepl>ini Harding 
Seliginaii Mnri^anrath 
A-coi lvi;;h;udi50a 

Pia.;.; of Nativity. 

Brcrknockshire S Wales 
Reading lit;rks CO 
Aiiglesea IS Wales 
Giaiiiorgaiis<liire fS Wales 
Cornwall Eng 
Si>nierselshire Eng 
(Jerawall do 

Norwegian tp Schuylkill co 
Glamorganshire S Wales 
Sdiiih Wales 

Wiriembiirg Germany 
G. nnantown Philada co 
SchnylkUl eo 

L> coming co 

Scioondorir Wirtemburg 

Suulh Wales 

Manelsdorll'by Coburg 

S( huylkill CO 


Dutchess CO N Y 


Sussex CO N J 


Lancaster co 



S Wales 
laizerne co 
Iliinlerdon co N J 
Lehigh co 

Ilailord Susquehanna co 
IVlcKU i.^doiH" by Coburg 
Middletuit Durham co Eng 



Residence — 'l';una<|U!:. . 

Thomas Vuiihuvu 
Richard Joliiisuu 
John Fill in it 
John W.ilk^'r 
Robert Uo!gp.h(V:iu 
John Line 
Caleb Fisliur 
Jacob li"ll 

Rev Aiigu.'-uii. Ojtirgii 
James Cuckliii 
Willia,n IJartoa 
Daniel Dra|jrr 
Richard Jenkins 
William Ili>;-,i.. 
Thonius Tii^Lriri 
Robert R;iu hir 
Charles Vaiifijiaa 
Thomas Johnson ^tu 
Richaril Ciuier 
Thomas Morj/an 
Richaril Ili.bha 
Isaac lliiilvl( y 
Samnel MH^ailc 
William Doi.ahison 
John K tSniiili 
IJallzer Keilman 
David iM.'vc; 
John Crtll 
Rev 'i'homas Fosle; 
Thomas Carriifan 
David Hunt, r M D 
David W Nixon 
Wdliam Clark 
Rev D L Palitirson 
Wdliani Uic;hai.lbOii 
William 'riupauy 
Tlioni.ii Ivioiti 
'I'hoinah Wslliania 
J.:sHP. Dod.-'.n 
Abraham A liner 
(.^imrlea Walker 

Place of Nalivitj. 

IS escopeck Luzerne co 


Northampton co 

England ' 


Columbia co 
Berks CO 
IJerks CO 
South Wales 
Lei and 
Carbon co 
Cornwall Eng 
South Wales 

Franklm co Mass 
Columbia co 
Salem N J 
Lehigh CO 

Northumberland co 
Lanoasier co 

Luzenrne co 
Noribampion >z<t 

suBSCHiiii'.HS ;NA^Il:.s. 



John IJiliier 
Thomas Walker 
Tiioinas Johnson jr 
Edward Lowdier 
WiUiam Taylor 
Thomas IJooili jr 
Patrick l\lcN.:Li.s 
Daniel Mit.'oniclgue 
John McQiaU 
James Siuiiluin 
Oeorge Welsh 
Lazarus liice 
Philip Acker' 
Wniiam (iwdyn 
Daniel D.uiul:! 
John Suuali 
Gideon I'riice 
Peter Marks 
John EUinifhain 
Jacob Alherlson 
Nicholas Ikltz 
Andrew Kiv,utr 
lienjaniiu Davis 
Roger Delay 
Lawrence Ruch 
David M hs 
David Love 
Robert Love 
Archibald McDou 
James lilair 
Wm J Davis 
Jonathan Ivershncr 
James Moore 
Abraham Hoiighner 
Nalhanicl Edgar 
Robert ('arler 
Peter 'I1iij»in 
James 'I i miilia 
Rowliid Jones 
John llcodricks 
Js:iu:;M .lines 



Flaco of Nativity. (■ 

Goruiany ■ . .t 
Enjiland ' '/ 

Durham co l^ngland 
(AUi.berland co do 
Wdislure do ,• 

IL;ai;on do 


Do '^- • 

Do - . ^ 

Cornwall Eng . 

Noniiamplon co , 

(Jcru.aiiy ■ ■ ' ' 

Mo.uguniery co 

Soiith Wales ■ 

i''inl)acli France 

Barks CO 

Furliich France 


New Jersey 


l.o ' ■■ ' ■ 

Soiah Wales 

Leiand • ' ,' 

Lehigh CO _ 

Scluiylkill co' 

Scotland '■ ' ' ' 

1>()\\ n CO L-eland 

Mcrthvtidvil S Wales 

Schnyikill (o 

Nu'scoperk ]>uzerne co 

ydiuylkdl CO 

(vuiuniliia CO 

Cornwall co Eng 

Kai,il» Wales 

lU'ifiluoinery co 

l*nil ulclphia CO 

Soudi Wales 

, i 



ReBidenoe— tqiid . 

Heiuy 9 Krpiter 
John Vail V;.lkinl> 
Froderilk Kepuer 

Poil. Carbon. 
Abrahiuu IVitt 
LF Wlniiuiv 
O W Uiouu M D 
Clraries lit'lu-.ef 
John C lievvis K.-<q 
Nich(*la.f ])<:ruii!,t,(n 
Lewis Heiliiei Csq 
G W 
Levi M iit'Oii 
H Giiiterui .11 
James Kearny 
Abraliuin Van Dyko 
John ('lossuu 
Jesse 'i'liriur 
T n Willie s.'f.n 
Jacob Wt'inz 
Jaiued tSimili 
John E.Milj 
Francis Ricliaidson 
John Davie, (lailur) 
Michael Epl.ii.-.i^ 
Howell J('iilu'.i3 
Ross null 
James Cauihy 
Patrick 1) HinieU 
James Lout; 
Alexander Cn.vern 
Jamet; Molir 
Josejjh HmmiicI 
Edward Colahan E^q- 
Charles CulliMji' 
MaUhou' Eu'liiiidsoti 
P D l.uihin' 

'Wm i) Sh.ifii.lot- 

Flace of Nativity. 

Hchiiylkill co 

CJncaiito Olsego co N If 

iSchuylkill CO 

Berks co 
Siuilniry Nort'd co 
tSciaiylkdl co 
Wcxl'ord CO Ireland 
Ih'tks CO 
l'oliiiul)ia CO 
Didaware co 
Mi;melsde)rir Germany 
Loulli CD Ireland 
Albany N Y 

Mo)eisl(nvn Lebanon co 
iMilleraburg Daupiiin co 
Newca^-lie co Del 
GoUunbia co 
Dauphin CO 
LuziMiie CO 
Cuuiberland co Eng 
iSoulh Wales 
(-oluii.bia CO 
Moniuoiithbhire S Wales 
lUaks CO 
Wchiiylkill CO 

Kunlrewshire Scotland, 
Ayrshire do 

Berks CO 
J^(hii\lkill CO 
Gal way CO Ireland 
Londiui Eng 
Do do 

Lancaster co 
SchnylkiU co 
Sunbiuy Nordi'd co 



RemdenM — Port Caibon. 

Joseph Fox 

Chailes Holdeii 

James Baleliler 

A Boiioii 

Frederick Meriz 

Thornas Mulien 

Matihew Siiiiih 

Samuel Seitzi-iger 

Charles Raber 

Wm B Hull 

John Curry 

Wui B Jeuninga 

Miss Hannah Robinson 

Michael Connor 

Jacob S Gordon 

Stephen Ilalley 

Charles Lee 

Rev John A Reiley 

David Jones 

Jesse Jones 

Charles Bogart 

John Lynn 

John Adams 

Isaac Grav 

H Allen 

Philip Steinbach jr 

Silas Shepherd Rungaa 

Andrew Jackson Rmigaa 

George Goodman 

James Niles 

Daniel Ix)okingbill 

Wm Giidroy (Engineer) 

Thomas Brilton 

John Barger 

Philip II Dougherty 

William Stephenson 

Hiram Lex on 

David Levvia 

Henry Lumsden 

Tiiomas Oraliriir, 

Hcur)- ii y-i 

Place c[ Nattvilj. - ' •> 

Daupliia co ' • "^^ 

Berks co • ■ '' '■ c 

Coiunibia co ' ' • 

New Jersey ' i ■ • 

■New Berlin Union co " 
Ireland • . ., ,■ 

Beiks CO Ml 

Now Rochelle NY !t, 

Balleyeasile Ireland 

Do do 

Engkirid , ,•• 

Cheatff CO 
Kingj CO Ireland 
Berk3 -o 

Pl.ilaJclphia .., „ , 

Ccluir.bia co ." ,• ^ . ^ 

Berks CO 

Glamorganshire S Wales 
Cilamoi-gaiishire S VVale* 
Norlh'.iinberland co 
l-N".iccnitrsliiro England. 
Worcestershire do , .■.. 
Norlulkshire do 

Chester co 

Berks CO ■ . .' 

Coluiiibia CO = ,. 


Iv3nc:ii-;ter co . . i 

Sciiuylkill CO 

New-Castle uponTyne Eoff 
Nr.ihaiipool Scotland * 

Noru'i'gian tp Schuylkill co 
Philiulelphia co 
Yorkstiire England 
IisnoaslcrHhire do 
Port Carbon SchuylkiU to 
Fifeiihire Scotland , 

Meath oo Ireland 
Cumbt-rianJ co 



Rcbidcnce — Fori Clarjjgn. 

Thomas Farley 
James Wlietler 
Levi Ililbert 
Richard Richards 

Jeremiah Rtcd (Shcriifi 
(,'harlfts Fiaily (Trolho! 
J n Uowniiiif [\h'ir&. I 
Col John l*unii\!i 

Jolm P Il.'lv.r'. IJ-q 
J W Rosebery Fs(i 
James H CnelV II m; 
Andrew J Bum, M \t 
Frtiil'k l\liil'l(Shi)'/n!:.l 
Jose[)h W Hiid do 
G IJ ZaUik 
-N Wetzel ('ruha.M.-uiv. 
Jacob AUcbach 
Henry Krebs 
lleiu-y (noiuunil! -r 
Clrarles W ilni.ri 1',S4 
James M Rilaiul 
lion I'^dvvanl UlLible; 
Jacob Dfibci-t 
Geort^e I) 1,01 ;•..',-* 
John A. Svbwalm 
Mark Deib-rt 
Cliristian Bi rgnr ilsq 
Philii) VVeiber Fsq 
Bernard Ycager 
John C Rahn 
Georgfe fi Boyer 
Jacob Maui'.tws 
Ilen.y llesb^er 
Samiuil LeiHer 
Gcorye LeiHcr 
John T Sci.litkerjmo) 
Gen John M Briolrel 

Pl^cc of Nfttiyity. 

Mealli CO Ireland 
Carven co do 
Schuylkill CO 
Ikoricley Kng 

Pottsville Schnvlkil! co 
:) ReadinfT 
^■l:) Glicstcr CO 
Montgomery co 
I'ollritinvn do 
Oiwigsbiirg Schuylkill 1 

\)o do 

,.r') Orwigaburg 
Schuylkill co 
Baltimore Md 
; Berks co 
Scluiylkill CO 
Union CO •' . <i 

Montgomery cu 
Schuylkill co 
Schuylkill CO 
Berks CO 
Schuylkill CO 
Do . 

Do 1 

Lancaster co 

Do . . 

or Germany 


ir.KU:) N iAiKs: 


Residence— Union Towutliij. 

Pki..' uf Nativity. '- •• 

.1 Jrl<l«, k 

•riioiiias liiller Esq 

Berks CO 

:. '.* 

. .; ^V: 

^3amuel 8nyiler 

Sohuyii<iIl CO 

' M'J ' 


Samuel ii I\lillf.'r 


i ^^.;.U■ 

Israel 1) FryliL-u 


ii-,;, :l..',i. V 


.Tolm Uupeit 


> . ^^' 

Andrew 8uiuft\;r 


., .uil 

; • ! L>^ 

Daniel L Slauifer 


, i 


Isaac Dewaltl 

Lycoming co 

< ■.'( 

r !,.Mi<i>'^ • 

Waters S Chillscn 

Essex N J 

.! <.a^ 

.loliu IJreisfli 

]}erks .-o 

. ,<i, .1 i 

■ i::h 

Jacob '/iiniiiCiiiiaii E^q 



t V> )\ 

Mark Biller 


J." . ■ * 

.; '* 

James Uiller 



Music Hall. 

Iticliard Manuel 

Ournwall CO England , 


Janied Eredenuick 


tlo ,. 

, . 1 

Mark Tlionias 


do ,(' . 

■ • I 

'J'lionias lUackney 


do : 

f'llisha Manuel 


do .. .\ 

I .■ ::. . 


,:.'.■ -i 

.;■ 'i->i 

Janies I'almer 


■; ■"'■/'^ 

Samuel Mitcliel ' 



!(; .; 

(ieo It J)icy 

l.ohigU CO 

Edward Dreher 

SJniylkill CO 

Jonathan [)rey 

Ilerks CO 

. • .' ' .•} 

(Miarles Horn 

IlLUUridoa CO 

N J ,' ■ 

Jonas Uicliard 

Uerks co 

, ' ' ' ' 

Henry Bezzenber{/er 


: .!-<■■ ' 

Jacob'H Lulz 1* M 

SduiylkiU CO 

f'' ■■' 


..... .-J . 

(4 11. .'•..{. 

V McMahon 



Thomas (Jihson • 

* Ckestur CO. 

. ; i v/ ■ . 

Itobert Jacobs 


. ;; :.'<;'> 

John Colhoni 

Ixyconiing co 

! , . 

Patrick l'\ri.'iuau 




(Glasgow Scotland 

Atatthew (5 Ccunel 

Kilkeiwiy Ireland 

John *'. 'ftily 

8iioo CO do ' , ,,, 

r.hri.'.'t> ;4utr Goveti 




Saoidance — Pelbisow. 

Dudloy Gnnt 
David C Mills M D 
Daniel Ma'ierfvirt 

New PliibdeirlJd.. 
Charles Smiih 
Nathan Brirlotv 
Geo P L:irJer 
Conraii Boh 
Goo Rcciiion 
Edward Huluuv 
R G Bland 
Patrick Oweas 

Isaac Maria 
John Williams 
Thomas Meredilk 
James Mcr.ellan 
Joseph Balliet 
Ludwig Ik'iismgci 
Jacob Keinmel 
Reuben Dfiilior 
William Shaman 
John Mariz 
Asa Balliet 
James Toben 
Daniel Edwards 
John BartieU 
William Raper 
Charles Clevebtid 
Edward BiriningV.'-iu 

Lick Run 
John Kelly 
Henry D.ivies 
Jonathan Wiiiingluv.n 
William [vIcKcan 
John Uicn 

Silver Craek ar.i Vr.lK' 
Thomas Ilacket 
Wm Richards (D!-jcUsii, 
Patrick Whalen 

X'lacfl of Nativjlj, 


Philadelphia city 
Schuylkill co 


Montgomery co 
Norlhampton co 
Montgomery co 
Lanarkshire Scotland 
Iliuneville Bucks co 
Ml Airy Berks co 
Riiscommon Ireland 

New Berlin Union co 
Monmouthshire S Walec 
Brecknockshire do 

Lehigh CO 
Schuylkill co 
Lancaster co 
Schuylkill co 
Columbia co 
Union CO 
Lehigh CO 
Kilkenny Ireland 
Glamorganshire S Wakt^ 
Mauch Chunk 
Shropshire Eng 
Cavea co Iieland 

Kilkenny co Ireland 

Brecknockshire S Wale-.; 

Yorkshire Eng 

Donegal co Ireland 

Cornwall co Eng 
f Furnace. 

iih) Carnarvonshire N W.i,.* 

Kilkenny co Ireland 

iiWBacnnjKna" names. 


Residence — S.Creek &.V. Fun; 

Edward O'Urien 
George Fritz 
John Hutchi;,oii 
John Jani(J3 
Mark Dowiu^y 
ttobert Pelrick 
Michael Qui'jn 
'Rees Joiiea 
LientJolin McN.-Jr 

Charles Beiuielt 
Benjamin 'I'ilua 
Samuel Keller 
John La wry 
[lugh Carlia 
James Gillaspa 
Thomas Harratt 
John Roe 
Joseph IJeacihim 
Kvan Williams 

David Oliver' 
Charles Long 
Wm Clark 
James Weir 

Wm Williams (Brksmiih 
Robert Sterling liiown 
Richard Mison 
Henry King 
Thomas Colahan 
John R Jones 
James I/jrd 
Patrick Candy 
Wm Henderson 
Wm W.^slwuod 

Rubh Towni.hip. 
James Blew 
A Bon^lmer Esq Kinjj 

acc.Iiac. of Nativity. ... y ;vt. , 

K( lk( nny co Ireland 
Fr mce 

Lanarkshire Scotland 
Biorknoek^ihire S Walea 
Kerry co Ireland 
R.inlordshire Scotland 
Aiiiajfh CO Ireland 
Breoknockshiie S Wales '' 
Ranirewshire Scotland 
Ruiiisey Ible of Man , 

Ncir Bellefonte Centre co 
111 rka CO 
Kilrienny co Ireland 

Donegal co Ireland , 

Philadelphia co i . 

Lancastershire England 
Monigomerysliiie N Wales 
Soiiierset co Eiig 
Mtuunoutlibhire S Wales 

Morris co N J 
Lc'ingh CO 

Renfrewshire Scotland 
) (yannarihenbhire S Wales 
Ayrshire Scotland 
Ca.iiliganshire S Wales ' 
Sugar Loaf Luzerne co 
Gal way co Ireland 
Brecknockbhire S Wale8> ;., 
Si'luiylkill CO 
Ri(.'(ommon CO Ireland 
Fifeshire Scotland ,; 

Laniukshire do 

S^iiiersetco N J 
lIiHitanlon co N J 
Net^^oo[)cck Luzerne co 


iUUSCUiBERS' NAlvt^'t,*: 

R*6idenc-e— fl u.sii Tc wnsliip, 

John Kanp 
Henry Drcsii 
Jacob Faust 

"West Tonn. 
Jacob L()nL,^icr2 Fy.,q 
Jacob Merer 
Honry Boacliain 
Mount Ci.rhon. 
L Roiherinel 
Wm W ]iri..nt 
John Palloii' 
(Jeorge Grim 

Yuung'a I.iir.Jiht;. 

George WiKlo 

James IlowRr 

John Ijra(hlbi,rg 
Eagle Hill. - 

Daniel llichanls 

Morgan Tiiomas ■ 

Joy Crean 

Aaron Persai, 

David Lewis 

Daniel Williams 

Patrick Reddiiigtan 

Thomas Ilumiije 

I'^-ederick li'Uler 

Benjamin Wheistone 
David Ricliards 
Tlionias Maclial 

Windy Haiboj'. 
Wm Gass 
Samuel Johnson 
Enoch Evar.s 

Edward Seddoi: 
Wm Hilton 
Isaac P Diiulap 

Beat Kidtji 
•-VVu Haokcr 

Place of Na'tivity. '■ 

Schnvlkill co 

bo ; . ■ 

Do '■■ 


Montgomery co 
Noriliampton co 
Nomersetshire Eng 

Northumberland co 
Herks co 
Montgomery co , 

Yorkshire Eng 
Lancastershire England 
Do do 

Monmouthshire S Wales 
Glamorganshire do 
Slad'ordbhire Eng 
Nalcm i/uzerne co 
(ilamorgaiishire S Wales 
Merthyrlidvil do 
lioscommon Ireland 
Nordnnnberlund co EngLid 
Yorkshire do 

W Penn Ip Schuylkill co 
Hreckiiockshire S Walea 
Do do 

Yorkshire Eng • / 

Staflordshire Enor' 

],:lncaster&hire Eng 

Do do 

Hindis CO 

Wilkshire Eng 




Residence — Bear ICidgf^. 

Win Evans 
John Morcran 
Lafayette (Jralinii 
Thomas MaicJilh 
Griffiths Edwards 
Simpson VVomer 
Wm Zimmerman 
Henry Lloyd 

Piacf of Nativity. ' ' ''' *' F^ngland ' , ',, 
Momiioiillishire S Wales ■, 
Mt)ni(,^omery co \ 

GhuiiorganJhire S Wales ^ 
Brecknockshire do ,- 

Berks co ' , - '^.■ 

Lancaster co ' ' ' " 

Schuylkill co • 

David L Ri.i'.ards 

Glainorganshire S 

Wales •; 

John Davib 


do . 

Win Harlzo^' 

Sclir;ylkill co 

John Thomas 

Carniardieni-hireS Walea 

Thomas John 



I'alrick McGovern 

C;ulow CO Ireland 

Samuel W Graham 

Moiit}/oniery co 

James Bury 

Ciieshire England 

John Boyer 

Schuylkill CO 

, I-; 

David Powell 

Brecknockshire S Wales 

St. Clear. 

Bartin Evans 

llucks CO 

■ , i^ 

Daniel R Slohig 

Sfiu.ylkill CO 

' i ■ ' i 

Geo W Stokes 

Cidiunliia co 

; . . ^•/w,^ ( 

Joshua VViHiams 

S Wales 

= , •, .. » 

Humphrey Lewis 

N \v'alc3 

- ■ * 

John J Thomas 

S Wales 

i ,:.,cA 

John B Cruzier 

Pliiiadelphia city 

,,.1 , 

Michael Jyoa 



John Mitchell 

Lancaster co 


John llealherington 



Jonathan lleatheriagton 

Duriiam co Eng 


Joseph Foster 

Clie-shire do 

Jacoh Metz 

Columbia co 


Benj French 

Lycoming co 


Daniel Fack 

Northampton co 


David Price 

Cjrjuarthcnshire S Wales 

David Jones 



AV II Lawrence 

CnliMnhia co 

John Mason 

Snutii Wales 

Daniel Harlman 

Colli nibia co 

David Mc'.vz 


Jamt;s Spittle 

Wticcslershire Eng 



Rfisidence — St. Clear. 

Wm Cha.indy 
John lIoiljT.^on 
DaviJ Rii/keu 
Ellis Kwken 
Henry Gxviii 
Wm Nnylor 
Philip Lewis 
Thomas UcenQ 
Roborl Hniilies 
Daniel Sh' after 
Mich;ii:l Lniig 
Jeremiah WikKi 
Aaron Hower 
Joel M(!iz 
Joseplj E Davia 

Mill Creek. 

Samuel Ciipewell 
Thomas Manglien 
Robert Willi 
C Goimly 
Pliilip l*rt I'll 
John Moon; 
Josepli Aiki;iM)n 
John Saiiti^c; jr 
Richard II ill 
Geo \V VV.iwgoner 
Ilenry lIolliii;ui 
Hugli McAlli.^lcr 

New Castle. 
Ephraini Plhlips 
John MeHan-.n 
Peter K Sciizinger 
Henry Rhouls 
Abraham Ciiii[) 
Wm Liul,!luilc3 
Geo Riifsnyiljr C.:q 
Levi Reler 
'i'honias Ymiag 
Georj{n .\lleii 
^V>n DickH)Sua 

Place of Nativity. 

Oxford England 
North England 
N Wales , 

Columbia CO 

(ilamorganshire S Wales 
(/u;rmarihensliirc do 
liiuks CO 
Bairen Gtrmany 
Yorkshire Eng 
Columbia co 

Cacrmarlhcnshire S Walct 

Staflordshire England 
Norlhumberlanil co 
Kilkenny cu Lcland 
Londonderry do 
Weckford do 

Durham lO Eng 
Do do 

Dnion tp liUZtrneco 
ytallordshire Eng 
Monigomery co 
Kilkenny co Leland 
Juniata co 

Norlhumberland co 
Fermanagh co Ireland 
Berks CO 
Columbia co 
Northumberland co 
Shropshire Eng 
IMonlgomery co 
Schuylkill CO 

New (Jaslle upon Tyne Enj^ 

Notlinidiambhire '.'lo 

Do d.> 



R«flidetM»-— Nev; Cai'Ue. 

John Roacoe 
Peter Dickenson 

Adams' Colliciy. 
Jaraoa Adams 
B Morris 
Henry Lloyd 
John Kupp 

Tlionias C Condoi 
Robert Wlule 

John Morgan jr 
Rees David 
Daniel Dillman 
Jas Fiizsimnions Esq 
Jefferson Unibehawber 
John B McCord 
Rees Rees 
Thomas Jones 
Thomas Owens 
\Vm Dabenparl 
John Byrne 
Henry Olsey 
David Davis 
Joseph Denning 
George Altin 
Dennis Fielding 
Wm CrisswcU 


Samuel Clifl" 
John Daniel 
Thomas Young 

East Delaware Mines. 
Thomas Ferry 
John C Leibig 
Edvk'ard Moiriscn 
John Rtes 
Peter McDonald 
Wni Lyons 
Edav. :/ui Pounder 

PlacB of Nativity. 

NLLiinghamshire England 

Da do •> 

i , 

Antrim eo Ireland j 

'I'yrone (;o do . . j- 

Lh.nhillctliS Wales ,,' 

tJunaany ,., .:,,,, 

Lo;,(lon Eng ■ ■■ < 

Beth File CO Scodand 

Poly pool S Wales 
Gi.iinorgansbire do 
Sdiuylkill CO 
Selinsgrove Union co 
Lelianon co 

Schuylkillco ' '^ 

Glain(jrg:inshire S Walog 
Caiiiii^aiibhirc (\o 

Br> iknockribire do 

.Si.'ll'ordsliiro Eng • • • 

Wirklow CO Ireland ' CO N J ■■ 1 •■ '■ 

Cajrmarthenshire S Wale* 
Soiiiersctsliire Eng '• 

D'jibybhire do = 

Lii.';aslershire do ■ ' ■ ; 

SlaHbrdsliire da • ■- '■'• 

I :', . ; ' 

Ciicsbire England 
Cornwall co Eng 
Yufkshire Eng ' 

Dill ham CO Eng 

B-Jiki- CO 

Lam as^iershire Eng 

Gl iiiiorganshire S Wales 

MiC: trh in CO Ireland 

Sc.jiiVlkill .;o 

Yoikfchii-e Eng 


UIBERS* tiJisHts'.— E. Dolbwan; Mi' 
John Peahil;;lc 
Daniel Rothenncl 
John Andrey Kirkley 
Jacob John 
Philip Mjnhr.iat 
Scott Steel 
» James Geniiiiu- 
James McLaughlin 
iVnlhony Durkin 
Clu-isti;m Zeiher 
l*atrick Sweny 
Thomas Ferry ji 
Joseph Collim 
Henry James jr 
'i'homas Morgan 
Wm Symmona 
Henjaniin Smith 
John ilosking 

North American ]\liues. 

Daniel Evans 
Thomaa Jones 
Daniel Rees 
'J'liomas Junes jr 
Wm Howell 
Miss Marg:ue( Lewii 
Renna Jones 
John Marlni 
William March 
Lemnel Osborn Laty 
John Mann 

Hay wood'b Colliii) , 

Nicholas Wel-li 
George McNeille 
John IlKJley 
William Harris 
JR?.lph Shaw 
George M lines 
Michael Mangen 
'ri'.onias G May 

. Place of Nativit/. " • ■ 

Yorkshire England' 

Nurthnmberland co 

New Castle Upon TynfrEng 

Columbia co 

Glasgow Scotland 
• Kilkenny co Iieland- 
Gal way co do 

Mayo CO do 

Trear co Prussia 
Mayo CO Ireland 
Durham co Eng 
Kilkenny co Ireland 
Cornwall co Eng 
Monmonlhshire S Wales 
Cornvvall co ]\ng 
Monmouthshire S Wales 
Gludgen Cornwall co Eng 

Carmarthenshire S Wales 
Do do 

Do do 

Do do 

Monmouthshire do 
Do do 

Union co S Carolina 

Glamorganshire S Wales 

Fermanagh co Ireland 

Columbia co 

Alanchester Eng 

liongford CO Ireland' 
South Wales 
Cornwall Eng 


Residence— Laudingville. 

JMiCv; of Nativity. 

F Landerbiaa (Wiiaiupoa 

Piiiiadelphia city 

Patrick McAtce 

J>oii';rord co 1 


James Brady 

('a van co 


Jolui Sheridan 



John Gayiior 



James Gay nor 


fio , . 

Charles JVIosser 

SclMylkiU CO 

John E.'Kj 


■' ' 

Alfred Kolb 


, . ' ' 

I'^ranklii! J S'igfiied 



Paul Du y 


8amiiel Meriz (Mtr(,hanl) 


Henry Maurer 


Schuylkill Haven. 

Rev (Jeorge C Drakt 


J G Kojhler M D 


A W Leyhiirn^ 


■...■; : ' 

Michael Beard 

Bilks CO 

George KaiilVnan Lstj 


John Marlin Es(j 

Ji.'incaster co 

Koberl Junes 

Mnrimuuthshire S Walei) 

J 'I'heui.liihis Itif,';^ 

Bi;iks CO 

Samuel 11 Sliannoii iVI h 


CO ; 

Nathan PaL<grovo 

Burks CO 

W J Haas 


George Heisler 

SrhuylkiU CO 


William J Dohbinr* 

I.cbigh 00 

James B Levan 

K'ltziovvn Berks co 

Daniel D re her 

S.:llliylkill CO 

, |- 

William Weaver 

BlM'ks CO 

William C Guldin 


William Kramer 

S.;huylkill CO 

John Jones 


lievvis G Wunde." 


Philada co 

Henry S S|)<itweU 


John H Gueitbr 

]>:,,slc Su'ilzar 


Philij. Boy HI 

Sciaivlkill CO 

Clhailti (Jooinf;: 


Heiuy ifiU'friiian 


Daniel 1 avenlicrg 


I. ■• b Fuilerton 

CiiL'sier CO 



Residence — Sclujyildll 

James E Murray 
n II Sfjam- 
Edward II Whedci 
FlavL'l JJoaii 
WUHain Rcljer 
JonallMU ileisler 
George Dillniiin 
F VV Sny.icr 
Nalliati fS II:ifdcn«tjiiii 
Robert Bans 
Ch-.ivic,^ Clirist 

DD Lewis (Wa((;rlool'J; 

Thomas Williuiia 
Jaiiies liowe 
Edniiind lUAi 
Henry lirebiur 
Amos Kiejrel 
Frederick Loiigaback 
Win Heel. 
Jacob flime jr 
Saiimcl Kerd 
Jo:ie[)h Cockili 
John K(H:h 
Robert John 
Thomas 15 Ai/hol Esq 
Walk in llcynoii 
James Andrews 
Jon Thomas 
David Thomas 
John RoJf^ers 
Thomas Davis 
James Walker 
Damon Schroj) 
Francis Speneec 
Jacob Schcnnan 

Janies Lovij; 
Abrahaiti Ijiuen 
John Evatie 
.-. Uraii Fo?d 

J. Place of NaliviJy. 

Chester CO 
S.-huylkdl CO 
Phib.'d. Iphia 
Noi hiimberland co 
Sell uy Ik ill CO 



Montgomery co 
Ramsey England ' 

ii.s)nticks CO 

Pembrokeshire S Wale* 

Do do 

Lancasiershire Eng 
Pini grove ip Schuylkill c& 
Lykeiis tp Dauphin co 
C/ov»;ntry tp Chester co 
Wavno tp Seimylkill co 

■ Do do 

Pinegrove tp do 
Philadelphia county 
Maiilieim t|i Schuylkill oo 
Pembrokeshire S Wales 
IJerks CO 

(ilamo ganshire S Wales 
Monmouihshire do 
(^jiMi irih ;ii,-iliirj do 

Do do 

Monmouthshire do 

Do do 

Kilkenny Ireland 
Wayne tp S'diuylkill CO 
Yorkshire Eng 
Bi^rks now Schuylkill co 

Glasgow Scotland 
MonnuMithshire S Walea 

Do do 

UloucesttTshire Eog 

fTJlj3CI*il'J-^K.» NAMES. 


Roeidence — Cosicrv il! tv 

Mrs Emma Brilten 
Abraham Ay res 
John Luzariis 
Solomon George 
Lewis lewis 
Mrs Elizal)e;U Ikiitfiu 
Joscpli Swa.ibon 
GrilVnli Williams 
David Joins 

William Meling 
MorderM j'o^vfli 

Forrealville auJ l 
Salalhiel Harris 

Onviii M(('nlly 

David (iluver 

David C^)Hvvay 

Wm U riiomas 

Goodman Dolbau 

John Davis 

Edward Prossar 

Thomas Hrowu 

TilOinad Eva lid 

Robert l*iirsU)W 

John Jones 

Win Tliumas 
Francis SaiiUey 

Hugh Mc('U)slicy 

Samuel (irecii 
John Dallon 

Rev Daniel Kees 
Morgan Williams 
Wm David 
Howel Jaitpeys 
John Price 
David Wel.her 
Joseph Evaii-i 
Robert liuiVnan. 
John Mason 
Joseph Watia 
Cha:'- ; Uol'man 

Pluv of Nativily. 
Glouc-estershire England 
Devonshire Eng 

Do do 

Norlhampton co 
Monmouthshire S Walea 
Peyta do 

(yi.i.dterland co Eng 
iJre^kuockshire !S Wales 
Glum.irgunshire do 


Moumoiuhshirc S Wales 
own .I'lp. 
0(:[awall CO Eng 
Ay re.shire Scodand 
Do do 

Do do 

Moimiouthshire S Wales 
Dembighshire N Wales 
Glamorganshire S Wales 
Biccknoekshire do 
Shmpshire England 
Do do 

Do do 

Glamorganshire S Wales 
Monmoulhshire do 
Shropshire Eng 
Tyrone co Ireland 
Siairordshire Eng « 
Wi si Meath CO Ireland 

Glamorganshire S Wales 
Do do 

Menmoulhshire do 

Glamorganshire do 

Do do 

Do do 

Eedfordshire Eng 

IJerkrt CO 

Glmn eslershire Eng 

Dnrliam co do 

Ucrhs CO 

i^2S sunbcuiuEus' names. 

RL'Hidcncc-~VVf-it-Ui;Kt. Pliux of Nativity. 

John Gi'.IiIp Scliiiylkill co 

Thomas George; MoMiiioiitlishire S W^le; 

WilliaiTi Wliiiehrad Lancastershire Eng 

Peler Francl, L(.'hioh co 

Johnl^avis 8lul!oi-dshire Eng 

George Slull Ceiiuany 

John Tonkin (Cornwall Eng 

Lawrence Clunl'.vick Lancaster co Eng 

John May Oornwall Eng 

Thomas; Keiiiiy (lalway co Ireland 

Hugh Miirry Ilothergon Scotland 

Peter Murry Antrim co Irehind 

Evan Evans Olajnorgaiisliire S Wale»; 

Wni Joney CVarinarlhenshire S Walt': 

TliOuias Divis (Jlamorganshirc do 

James IJiy kU (llouccbtershire I'^ng 

Timothy Cojilou Mayo co Ireland 

Samuel liiish ( Jloucesitershirc I'!ng 

Henjamin \.u^ Lancasier co do 

Olhniel (ieiger Ik-rks co 

Wm nullM'aa Do 

Solomon llisa Shamokin Norlh'd co 

Jacob Hriii Ml Scluiylkill co 

Solomon Ah Kiiu". y IJerks co 
West Wood, 

John Specie jr Yorkshire Eng 

Thomas Junes Glamorganshire S Wale.: 

Wnv Price Brecknockshire do 

Samuel Giliingli.wr. Pliilaclel[)hia co 

Wm Thomas (■armarlheiisliire 8 Wak- 

Mrs Catharine Pugh Shropshire I'^ng 

John Oagcii Gornwall do 

Mrs Sarah Wilde Yorkshire do 
Miss Sarali llu.dy Wilke Delaware co 

Joseph VViui Yorkshire lOng 

Richard li.>^uh Gloucester co Eng 

Wm (-.ahou Cornwall co Eng 

Nicliol IS Tlioinuri Do i\o 

James Parr Lancaslershire do 

ClKirh'S Surrick Berks co 

Jonathan VViasley Cornwall Eng 



RfiSidence — Wesc-Wooa. 

Sanuiel G Dobbin 
Samuel Siiiuns 
George lh;atu.'ld 
John Cerbey 
John Parry 
Llewelyn Evans 
Richard Dennis 
John Philips 
Philip Detrich 


Jacob F Fieichler M D 
Lewis Dreher 
DewaUl H PolT 
Joshua IJoyer 
Uenneville Medler 

Norwegian Tawni-liip. 

Elias Reed (Engineev) 
Samuel Foulds 
Abraham Horn 
David [Jrown 
William Headle 
Jacob (r ivrieger 
Michael Gaghan 
John L Beadle 
Edmund Kichardson 
Edward Pugh 
John Dixon 
William llooler 
George Sidgwick 
Evan F Lloyd 
Patrick F McAndrcwrf 
Samuel Zimmerman 
John Reed 
Stephen Parnes 
Thomas Lewis (Engine 
Ghas Reed 
I'homas Rees 
Daniel Morgan (Eagir.c 
Mark Hadley 
Johi' Winnlh.C/i'ise 


Place of Nativity. 

Burlit.glon co N J 
Denbiglishire Eng 
Do do 

Scluiylkill CO 
Brecknockshire S Wales 
Glamorganshire do 

Gor.v.vall co Eng 
Do do 

Schiivlkill co 

]}ll', KS CO 

ychuylkill co 
Berks CO 
«( U'lylkill CO 

Seh.iylkill co 

Denbighshire Eng 

Berks CO 

Norihiimberland co Eng 

Dm bam co Eng 

Norduind>erland co 

Kinjjs CO Leland 

Durham co Eng 

Pbiladelphia co 

Gloucestershire Eng 

Lancaslershire do 
Do do 

Diuliam CO do 

Pemlnokeshire S AVales 

Mayo CO Ireland 

Lancaster co 

Sch'.iylkill co 

or) Monmouthshire S Wales 
Schuylkill CO 

Pernbiokeshire S Wales 
:er) Mcnmouthslure do 
BviMol Eng 
SiaflurdsJiire Eng 



No I 


j)avid Puw 


Wm Davi. 

Isaac Wiilii'.ni;^ 
Echviird llopkirz-i 
I^Jvvard Llewellyi 
'i'Iiom;i.s ,]e;:kins 
J'lnianuel Korbert 
William Watkiiirf 
Samuel Tiley 
Joseph Batem; n 

Kolliiii,' fJ*'lieiy 
'I'hornas Wiyr.iii 
Tlioinas Yijuiif/ 
(ieortfe Hvaii^ 

West Ihal 

A A Clailsou 
Alfied D.'i'oreM |; 
Oharles \V II ill 
Henry liocluig 
Oeui^e Diii^^lci 
Kev Cieoi:> ; .ii;i;i.; 
Henj Kaiitu. i 
(^diailes 1{ DtFon 
Geo Payiiu 
Benj M" Low IS 
Gcoige I\i;-!l.lo 
Willis Hill 

City ufl'Lil,..,.! 
Z Prall M D 
A Sternberot-r ^i 1 
Samuel Laird Esq 
W W Cnusler 
Wm A Ba!tH-3 
Thomas Mhvvis E; 
Charles Millor Eet 
Wallr-ir Patterson 
Edw J Clause 
S L ILighe-j 
N Lazariis 
T N Buck Esq 

V .11 

Place of Nativity. 

Brecknockshire S Wales, 
Somersetshire Eng 
Clamorganshire S Wales 




Somersetco Eni>laiid 
Do do 


Columbia eo 

New York 

Schuylkill co 
Berks CO 
New York 
Berks eo 
SrhuyikiU CO 
New York City 

Ntu- Jersey 

Lehigh co 
Glasgow Scotland 
Philadelphia city 
'J'yrone Ireland 
Bucks eo 
Philadelphia co 

Bucks CO 
Bridgetoa N 

■UJiiCiiT fi.EU-;- NAMES. 


Resilience — W. Brunsuiil; T(; 

Gabriel Benlio 
Abraham Mo)'er 
JSamuel Blackburn 
Charles Kramer 
fiernard Tiaiiaon 
Samuel B Mccller 
James Piico Esq 
Daniel Dreher 

East Braiii-wick 'i ov.!r:ii;f, 
Jonathari Yost 
Charles Dreher 
Wm B Kershner 
Jolin Seltzer 
Simon Morberger 
John Raiish 
(Jharles Foeht 
S B Merkcl 
('hrisiian Koch jr 
Israel Stamer 
Ijernartl Koch 
Jonas Bach 
Charles Ivoch 
I'eler Sterner 
Jacob G Stewart 
Peter Jones 
Wm II Hill 
William Back 
(ieo Foclit 

Port ('liuton. 
Jacob Casper 
(ieorge Wiggan 
Gabriel Melz 
John Philipson 
Reuben R Binder 
Iliram Itoyer 
Wm Moyer 
George Hond 
John K Siegfried 
Martin Ilutninei 
Geo lleebiiir 
Jon-,, i^ iMeglVieil 

Fiuce of Nativity. 

Berks CO 

Donegal Ireland 
Srliuylkill CO 
Cf<ven CO Ireland 
Sciuiylkill CO 
Seliuylkill co 

Ivlijiitgomery co 
S.lmylkill co 

I'crks co 
S. huylkill co 


Berks CO 
Schuylkill co 




Berks CO 
(^)acord N H 
lierks CO 
Sciiuylkill CO 

Schuylkill CO 
Durham co Eng 
Montgomery co 
Berks CO 

Waiwickshire En^ 
flerks CO 
Soluiylkill CO 
Ch.citcr CO 
S;.'juiylkill CO 


StJltSCillBiiRS' NAMES. 

Rc6idiM;ce— Port Clit, 

Place of Nativity. 

KeubtMi iSundti Northampton co 

Wni Piovin:i Tyrone co Ireland 

Janiej EUiolt Donegal co do 

Geo W R'jif5n\Hl- i- Schuylkill co 

Peter Mallc-ion Berks co 
Wm Acker |)o 

Thomas Acker r.eiiigh co 

J IMcOoidy (Reading; Herks county 

Milti.n Nice (llamhurn) Lehigh co 
J WeiilmanfSkof-ni'r.svilli;) Berks co 

Schujii.i'i r<A^:- 

John Seiiull i'liq Oley (p Berks co 

Peter Wawi f)i, 

Michael Kr.nniah Do 

John (Jib^aii Maryland 

David Major Chester co 

Sleplien Ringer Esq liefiigh co 

Frederick Dn.'her (IIou8e)Schiiylkill co 
J Seil/inger (Bruui Mount Do 

J Feller (.Sm.mi1i,.i iai>. c..)Borktico 
John i''lick (Mauch (Jhunk)Norlhanipton co T Avanii[). 
John Benilieisel Schuylkill co 

J,evi ArnnKl Luzerne co 

Julin Mauicr Tk-rks co 

Daniel Bartolet Do 

John iStrauc-h Do 

George Kushner SrhiiylkiU co 

Wm Minnich J'ottsville do 

L Bevel (Waterloo lockri) Elsez I'Vance 
Chas Dengl'T ( do Iloiul) Montgomery co 
Benjamin Ili'lliirt iiuckland tp Berks ctv 

John Doatiich Reading Berks co 

Sannud Si.'iiih Coventry Chester co 

AVni llf. finer (Lev/ispori) Schuylkill co 
John Duncan (Lancastci), Lancaster Ohio 
Win Stf j/henson ("i?any tj)) Durham co Eng 
A V' "VVHsou 1^ do ) Coliindda co 
G 1. .jwi', (f?hi;;l-.'^lii.;iiy V-.) Teuipletoa Pemh'k ^L 

SUllSCKf.l,:GK;5 NAMES. 


KesiJence — MaiiJi:-i)ii "i\.. 

\) Schellliaiuiner (Luz coj 
James Kester ( do j 

Pine GrovQ. 
William SpiMiglcr 
Vincent L Conrad 
John Stiimpfler Esq 
David LomisoM 
William II RoiaocLl 
Jacob March 
James Oiuuird- 
Geo W liaiu 
David Greenawall 
John Kitzmiller 1' M 
Jacob Huber 
I'eler Filbert 
Samuel Unss Esq 
Henry Wile 
John A Ik'chtle Esq 
William P Kendall 
^Villiam Bower 
John Snyder 
William Forrey 
liCvi Miller 
Daniel G Kutz 
John F Derby 
(ieorge Lauigan 
(ieorge Scliurtel 
K Kobiason M D 
Jacob Christ M D 
Benjamin Sadder V D I\.( 
John E Fertig- 
Lewis Lalir 
John Werntz 
Henry Werntz 
liCwis Keeser 
William Gorgas 
Frederick Krccker V D IVi 
llenr}' Shaniz 
Raymond Oiigst 
JoyojdrH Weaver 
KeubL'M H Stees 

Plu.e of Nativity. 

T'olumbia co 
l.uzenrne co 

Ruading Berks co 
Piiiegrove Schuylkill co 
I.angansalza Germany , 
CoKimbia co 
lif'Lianon co 
Ch ester co 
JJfirks CO 

Lt !ianon co 
Franklin CO 
I.tLanun co 
Berks CO 





W.tmelsdorf Berks co 
La.ncaster co 
\Vayne tp Schuylkill co 
AlDany co N Y 
Philadelphia city 
Pinegrove tp Schuylkill co 
Lane aster co 
Baltimore Md 
Wayne tp Schuylkill co 

Do do 

Jian caster co 

Burks CO 
Lancaster co 
Lobanon Lebanon co 
Piiibgrove Schuylkill co 
la.'ljanon co 
MidJleburg Union co 



ReeiJence — Pine CiiLVL. 

John llooli 
Jose[ih IToni 
(Jeorge Troslel 
Juhn Guydar 

Mount Pi^ro t''ii'-!un:e. 

James Betz 

"Wni ]<u3rfel Triou 
Wm Posey 
AVni Maybmy 

Swatara Furnai:.," 
George Betz 
Solomon A Philip- 
Philip Uniijtrgei 
George llennaii 
J li Ikower 
Win B Waliou 
Jacob Focht 
John Kline 
Daniel No-lo 

John Bonwiiz 
Mahlon M*>Laanl!l.,id 
Samuel Hippie 
VVm Fouai 

Henry Loniison 
James M Ch.rk 
Joseph BodenstiiK; 

Lorbcrr) Miiie.j, 
Boric Meek 

Win NclliJiV/.Jud 
iVlorgan Lewid 
^Vm Wigham 
Timothy Murphy 
Joseph I'o'vell 
Samuel Warrou 
Edwavti Ne?.l 
Miclicel Di'.fTy 

Place of Nativity, 

Lebanon co 
Berks co 
Lebanon co 
Chester co 

Berks co 
Chester co 

Newmanstown licbanon 
New Jersey 
Montgomery co 

Newmanstown Berks c& 
Lancaster co 
Dauphin co 
Luzerne co 
Berks co 


Spickern Eranee 
York CO 

Woinelsdorf Berks co 
Danville Columbia co 
liandi&burg Perry co 
Montgotnery co 

Columbia co 
Ontario co N Y 
Halifax Dauphin co 

Chester co 

iV^omgoinery co 
Mirtield England 
Monmouthshire S Wale;: 
Northumberland co J'ln^ 
Cork CO Ireland 
Radnorshire 8 Wales 
Northampton co Eug 
Lancaster co 
New York city 



Reriiilenft! — Lorbcn-y hliiic:.-. 

Jacob Wcintz 
Henry James 
Jacob Bickelman 
Oriilin Slack 

Wayi.e T(j\\n::hip 

John llLunini:! 
J L Rilan>l 

Thomas Acka 
Jacob N Fcnig 
Henry l^aiii.'lj 
Jacob F Faust 
Jacob Men nig Esq 
iieoTgii V Shall 
Daniel Fritz 
Joseph 15erger 
Nathan Levy 
Isaac Dengler 
Daniel F lierger 
Wm l' Berger 
WmWagm-r(W liiunsw 

SamI Keech 
Timothy Ilollahan 
John O'Uryen 
John Dalryiiiple 
.\ndre\v Foulds 
Patrick IJreiuiaa 
Hugh Doolay 
Thomas W'riglit 
John Abling 
Jacob Kohler 
Tliomas -Morgan 
John Scou 
Duncan Weir 
Martin Hoyle 

Elias lii\g\YJ 
DaviJ Evans 
tJrari'.i. 'Jeorge 
John G'i/Hih 

Place of Nativity. 

Lancaster co 
Coinwall CO England 
Saarbrack co Prussia 
Derbyshire England 

Schuylkill co 

Near rSorristown Montgom co 
Manheim tp Schuylkill co 
AV.ivne tp do 

Ik^ich tp Schuylkill co 
I-au caster co 
Scliiiylkill CO 
Pif^egrove tp Schuylkill co 
i\I;u\heim do 

Not'hwhitehall Lehigh co 
N Hanover tp Montgom co 
iVIaiiheim tp Schuylkill co 
Do do 


Lancaster co 
Cork CO Ireland 
Queens co do 
r.u;ipsie CO Scotland 
Uenl'rewshire do 
Kihcenny co Ireland 
Qiu'ens CO do 

Kilkenny co do 
Oicy l[) Berks co 

Do do 
iMoiimoulhshire S Wales 
Noilhumberh:nd co F'ng 
Muiikirk Ayrshire Scotland 
Newport R 1 

Al'jimiouthire S Wales 
Ql:.raorgansliire S Wales 
Carmarthenshire do 
IMoaraoulhshire do 


Reeidonco — VVeavcrsiowii. 

James Atkinson 

John Conu'uy 

Jiirnes Liglufoot (Oilo tr 


Win Pugli 
Win Parlriilgo 
Wni Robsoii 
Eihv Roljson 
Joshua Sini|)kins 
L(dah 8 Brock 
Wm Kobins 
West Wood. 

John Ferrill 
Jolin Nicholas 
Richard Trezibe 
John Heachain 
Stephen Canall 

'rhonias Cow aii 
(^liarlus Wcsiicr 
Coal Casl!, . 

Michael Sandojr 
Michael Sando si 


Jolin II Rohrer 

F li Nichols 

Miss Hannah Mavia Kelly 

Isaac T Iludtleu 

Jabez Sparkj 

John Smith 

Isaac C Iloppin 

John Joiiii'-on 

Joseph Allison jr 

Jo^ieph T Davis 

Daniel lIoUcii 

Pottsviile I.ibiary 

Place of Nativity. 

Durham co England 
Ayrshire Scotland 
ictjStaHbrdshue Potteries En; 

Rrickonshire England 







New Jersey 

(Jrangc co N 


Northumberland co 

Cornwall co 1 








Galway co Ire 


Sterlingshire Scotland 
New Jersey 

Devonshire Eng 
C/ornwall co doj 

Mobile Alabama 
Potlstown Montgomery cj 
Womelsdorr Perks co 
Essex CO N J 

Glamorganshire South W.iL 
liarmly Lancnsiershire Eui,' 
Uenduck tp ('olumbia co 
Fileshire Scotland 
Durham co Eng 
(!armarllienshire S \Valeb 
Hamburg Perks co 
I'oundeil about 12 yeart .u.c 

SUBSCKlB'oKi' NAMK3. 537 


Ketiidence — Mduch Chi:iik. i-lure of Nativity. 

Jolin Flick Nuihamplon co 

8ilas Soloman Ilacketstown N Y 

Stephen L Connoi: Duches co N Y 

'I'hoaias li Cullin I.i\ui[)oul Eng 

Jesse Blair AVilksharre 

liobert II liayre Ct liinibia co 

Major J II BisliOj) Jvisiuu 

E A EhgiiK'cr If.Mi^alaer co N Y 

A Lockliarl I.iizenie co 

Jolm Wallou Carbon co 

Ceo \V Dodson Teacher luzuriieco 

J T Dodsoii Esq C'nrhon co 

l?ev W Bishop "W^jrcet^ter co Mtl 

II Wlieeler Esq (iJway N V 

1, 1) Kuovvlcs (; Jlumbia co 

AViu II Hutk;r E^^l IMmiigdnHny co Md 

J li Leiwers Teaciicr St Johns W Indies 

John JNlears Pbihidelphia 

Win II Fisher Cokunbia co 

Samuel B IJutchi.~tu j\oi ihainpton co 

Jonathan Fincher C'Diiunbia co 

Ceorge Weiss Fuzeme co 

A L Foster Hampshire co Mass 

Cornelius Conner Caiskill N Y 

John Fatzinger Esq Allentown Northampton co 

Hon Asa Packer N Loudon co Ct 

Conrad Miller Noriliainpton co 

Geo W Masser M D ymibm-y Northumberland co 

Asa li Vannfirniaii Mi Belliel Northani|>ion co 

Justus (rould Liu'ii-ne co 

Jno I) Tboinp^OM iM D iMi adham Morris co N J 

Koberl Mailer Fsq Culuinbiu co 

Simon Billing Montgomery co 

AVilliain WdUd.r.s Coluud)ia co 

IIu-L:.i ^\'olf Cavhun co 



RcBidence — M uicli. Chunk. 

John P OHLTiuaii 
Alexander Steadinau 
James McC.ill 
Lewis Slieniagle 
Moses Farray 
Mark lleatli 
liichanl Blay 
W W «niit,h 
John lieihge 
Wm Muio 

Jacob S Wallace I':;J4 
William BiKlcr 
Anemon Ivlotz 
Joscj)h liijiln 
Nicholas BalliLl 
'I'homas Sliec-ker 
Benjamin llamiltoii 
Peter Conner 
N M CrooviT 
James McKeen jr INii 
Capl Aluahani II an'.-.. 
Jacob Slraubi 
Israel IJeahni 
Maj Koberl Kl'jtz 
Wm De Frclin 
Hiram Woliiiigcr 
Wm n Jones 
Joseph Collins 
James Lyon 
Joseph Porter 
Wm Moore 
James Moore 
Samuel llymlinan 
Michael Kelly 
Elias Crenior 
Lewis Beer 
Ira Coruiirhi 
Thomas M iJralce M 1) 
Philip Maul: 
Ahrahtun Andn-o 
• •toriie Kiiur^r 

I'lace of Nativity. 

Philadelphia city 
Do do 

Berks co 

llesse Darmstadt Germany 

Donegal co Ireland 

Hunterdon co N J 

'I'hames OxCortlshire Eng 

ilimterdon co N J 

Northampton co 

('hester co 

E as ton 

Columbia co 

(Jarbon co 

('olunibia co 

Cailion CO 

Frankford Philada co 

CatskillN V 

Kutland CO Vt 

Atlantic Ocean 

Chestnut Hill Philada co 
Do i\o 

Northampton co 

Carbon co 

Orwigsburg Schuylkill co 

Monroe co 

New Castle co Del 

Cloucester co N J 

Londonderry co Leland 
Do do 

Do do 

Do ilo 

Do do 

Cavan co do 

Trenton N J 

Northampton co 

Luzerne co 

^Vyoming Valley Luz co 

Northampton co 

lierks CO 

Schuylkill co 



Residence — Muui-h Cliunk. 

Amos Stroll 
Stephen 'J\itile 
John Varner 
John Mcb^ingv;v 
Sanuiel IJogerl jr 
I high Maser 
Charles Roth 
Jacob Sau(l>_>l 
John Paiiiier 
("harles SnyiUir Sh.eiill 
Josiah Horn 
Lewis 1) West 
(i W Sin'psou 
(ieorge Kisiier 
Daniel Olewine 
Abiel Dodson 
Caj)t Ezra Dodson 
J{enjaniiu JMilchell 
James J^iue 
Samuel Alden 
I'atrick Iveily 
Wm Oakey 
Andrew Hrown 
Frederick Shobart 
James Savage 
Levi Miner 
Jolin Urauden 
N D Cortrighi 
Abraham Focht 
Jeremiah Andreas 
Stephen Balliett 
John W Pryer 
John Prytr 
Robert Wallace 
Nehemiah Eul)ody 
(ieorge Shadel 
(Jol John Lcnlz lioyl 
Michael Farrell 
'rimulliy Sulivan 
ME i:i')crt 
Ezeikel Scott 

I'lacc ■>( Nativity. 

Columbia co 
Susquehanna co 
Carbon co 
].uzerne co 
Norihamplon co 

Salifrbury Lehigh co 

Do do 

Sunbury Norihumberland co 
Carlhin co 

Clictilcr CO 
Columbia co 
Carb'Hi CO 
Iiuzerne co 

IM.ih.d.lphia CO 
Lnzi'iiie CO 


Wyoming co 
Pitititon Luz CO 
Luzerne co 

IJerkti CO •• 

Luzerne co 

Schuylkill co 
Carbon CO 

IJeavcr co 
Ikicks CO 

Ber'.\ ick ('olumbia co 
L\.i'/.tinic CO 
Loliii)li CO 
Doni'gal CO Ireland 
Meaih CO do 

Cork do 

Fort Minden ]-russia 
londoaderry Ireland 


-•Li! ■.(..l.;iiF.l{.S NAMES. 

Ki'oideiicL'— Muucli 'J)j>ii,i.. Place of Nativity. 

C;eurge Dink IJairea Germany 

(ieorge KnickGiLcckor 
Josiah 'vVliiio Eiskiiio 11: 
zard George FA. II Hriiik 

(the first >vhit(} niai; b; 
in i\iaucl. Ui,unk) 
iitavcr Meadow. 

Hopkin Thou at 
William Thoaui.^ 
f'apt A II VancLvc 
W B Wilson 
•lolin Vogle 
Abraham Cool 1' M 
AbralKun T iliiiil.M-I. 
George II 1 Jon^lu r;)- ji 
Samuel M Wilson 
li M Stanbuiy iM D 
N K Penrose 
Jacob Horn 
Samuel S Si ulan 
Henry Hoovci 
Jonari lleliz (L'n^niic(i) 
.1 \i Freining 
.lolm Smith sr 
.John .lohnson 
John Martin 
John Eynon 
Thomas 15 Danieks 
Kvan rhiUipd 
Jonah Rees 
Jeidtins Reynolds 
Rees Leyson 
AVm Thorn r.s 
Thorn ad 1 Jo in I 
Stephen Smilli 
Torrance Urady 
Michael llrady 
John licayli.^ 
I'atrick M HuiiL 
(■:.|in Llewellyn 
^\'ni W'alkins 

Dutchess CO N Y 

^ >Maucli Chunk 

^ 1 

Glamorganshire S Wales 



Hunterdon co N J 

Luzerne co 




Northumberland co 

iNonlgomery co 

New York ciiy 

Bucks CO 

Norlhami)ton co 

Columbia co 

iMonlgomery co 

Carbon co 

Bucks CO 

Paris France 


Roscommon co Irel 


Pembrokeshire S Wales 













Near Loudiam Warwicks Lu! 

S Shields Norlh'd ( 

:o Eng 

Cavan co Ireland 

Do do 

Monmouthshire S Wales 

("avail CO Ireland 

Monmouihsiure S Walerj 






Kesidence — Beaver Miiidow. 

Piaco uf Nativity, 

'1' II McCi.rh^y Esc] 

Miliun North'd co 

A Hamburger Esq 

Bavaria (Jermany 

A McCrackeii 

L iMt Bethel Nortl 

lamp ton co 

Geo Brader 

Bcihilaliem ip 


John J Kiiisey 

E as ton 


(iliristiun Hess 

Aloore tp 


Stephen yylicri 

Sal'.'iu tp Luzerne 


Jonas Baltfiibciider 

Nescopcck tp do 

Daniel SmilK 

Suoarloaf tp do 

Thomas (';nvlcy 

Do do 

Charles Iliiny 

Sinking Springs Berks co 

•fas Triesbaucli (EuLiinee 

•) Easi/n 

Wm Reiley 

Cavan co Ireland 

-Michael Boyle 

D;. do 

John Sheiih)n 

Do do 

Patrick Mc'Carty 

Killcayr do 

Edward IMidharend 

l>()iir!ral CO do 

James Evans co do 

James Fitzgerald 

Qucoiis CO do 

Samnel Evans 

jMoiialian co do 

John Keed 

Aiiiiim CO do 

John Kearney 

.Ma\ o vo do 

'I'lioinas Haley 

;Mtt:uheo do 

Wm Cniniskey 

1 -on L' lord CO ilo 

John McCarner 

Monahanco do 

John Reynolds 

filauiorijanshire S 


Thomas lieynolds 



Richard ^Villiams 



Win Edwards 



John Watkins 



David Watkins 



Wm Miiir 

Kilmarnock Ayrsl 

ire Scotlanil 

Robert Preston 

Voikshiro Eng 

Charles Urittain jv 

Sussex CO N J 

Wm Price 

PLuiilield Ip Northampton co 

Simon IjiiIz 

Colaaibia co 

Jolm Lomisou 


Patrick Birmiiigham 

Killdiue CO Ireland 

MatthcN/ Donaho 

Cavin CO do 

'I'homas Kaiaii 

Do do 

Jamc-^ Brady 

Do do 



KcriiJourc— ikavor M.. 

^V'm McCiiriocli 
Alexander Mcaa 
Abraham -Sk'.;l(ou 
Will Skcltdii 
Capt Wni li .McK.: 
John TcjUoa 
J:imc3 Long 
James Vaughim 

i^atiick IJeily 
]'atriL-k lliL^inii::: 
Michael ( 
AV A Slubl;ii V Si 
'I'hoiiias VVaiiilii: 
I.aiuiing lU.H'kwL'h 
John Slueck 
John ^y West 
'I'homas Vogle 
Abraham Joms 
T Evans (iMachiiuM 
James Janu:-. (I^ilmi 
Levi .loncti 
Jabez IMiillijyci 
liCwis Lewis 
-.John Roberts 
Thomas Jou( :- 
Owen Gorman (i\l;u: 
James Patterson 
Samuel CJordon 
James Hunter 
Robert Boston 
Robert Wray 
A Kelchan^ 
AVm Fraeo 
Adam Winiers 
Henry FiM.ioy 
Adam Slave (Engini; 
Peter K Snyder 
Geori>o Ihown 
John W liayior 

Place of Nativity. 

Limerickshire Scotland 
Douglas Renfrews'r do 
Stall ordshire l']ngland 

J)o do 


Quaker Valley Carbon co 
Manch Chunk 
]Monm»uthsljire S Wales 

West Maid co Ireland 
f iundonderry eo do 

Mayo CO 


Huntingdon tp L 

uzerne c.> 

IMyiuuuth tp 




Dauphin co 

Northampton co 

Hunterdon co N 



S Wales